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A most Interesting and Valuable Work.
SOUTHERN HISTORY OF THE WAR ;
*^i*. S *^X*S^ ^iSV^.
Late Editor of tlie Rielmiond. Examiner.
ONE VOL., 8vo.; 1258 PAGES.
*o*^ Cloth, $5.00. Half Calf, library binding, $7.50
WITH SPLENDID STEEL PORTRAITS OF
Jefferson Davis, Gen. Braxton Bragg, Gen. John P. Hood,
Alex. H. Stephens, Gen. R. S. Ewell, Gen. E. Kirby Smith,
Gen. Robert E. Lee, Gen. Leonidas Polk, Gen. Sterling Price,
Gen. Joseph S. Johnston, Gen. Wade Hampton, Gen. W. J. Hardee,
Gen. T. J. Jackson, Gen. Samuel Cooper, Gen. John Morgan,
Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard, Gen. James Tjongstreet, and the Author.
Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, Gen. A. P. Hill, ^*^*^*vOi >**
A recent statement of Mr. POLLARD having been so misunderstood as to give rise,
in some quarters, to the extraordinary impression that he (Mr. POLLARD) is not the
author of "THE SOUTHERN HISTORY OF THE WAR," now published by me, or had
not authorized its publication, the inclosed extracts from one of his recent letters to
me are published, as being sufficient to set the matter at rest. The proof-sheets he
refers to are those of the last year of the war his concluding chapters.
The Press everywhere speak in the highest terms of this admirable and interesting
history, and its immense sale in every section of the country attests its universal
popularity. It is for sale by canvassing agents everywhere.
C. B. RICHARDSON, Publisher,
540 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.
SOUTHERN HISTORY OF THE WAR,
C EN. R. E. LEE
E. A. POLLARD,
tDiTOB OF THE "BICHMOXD
TWO VOLUMES IN ONE.
CHAKLES B. HIGH ARDSON,
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 186<J,
BT CHARLES B. BICHAKDSON,
In the Clerk s Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern
oi New York.
IN issuing in the convenient form of two volumes the South
ern History of the War, by Mr. E. A. Pollard, of Kichmond,
the actuating motive is the belief that this work is one of
permanent historical value.
Of the two classes of historical composition namely, that
which is made contemporaneously with the transactions re
corded and that which is made after the interval of years it
must always happen that the former will show errors of fact,
errors in the interpretation of facts, and errors in the correla
tion of facts. These a calm, judicial survey will readily
avoid. Yet public appreciation accounts such faults to be
fully countervailed by the life-like interest of the narrative, by
the revelations of actual motive on the part of the actors and
by a fone and color of reality that only portraiture from the
life can convey.
The work of Mr. Pollard belongs to the former category.
That many things are now known more justly than when the
author poured forth, from the warm feeling of the moment,
his thoughts, impressions, and aspirations, it is easy to believe.
There is also much in the tone, of the book that now, since the
close of the war and the failure of the Secession experiment,
might appropriately be changed.
Yet granting all these drawbacks, which are inseparable from
contemporaneous composition, the work of Mr. Pollard remains
one of marked and peculiar value. Living at the centre of the
Confederate power, Mr. Pollard s opportunities for penetrating
the real springs of action were excellent. Gifted with a re
mark able keen ness of observation and analysis, he has expressed
with pun gent power the judgments of a mind distinguished for
its independence. A Secessionist d Voutrance, believing with
all the strength of his nature in the Confederate cause, he was
yet a caustic critic of the Confederate government and of those
charged with its administration and the conduct of the war ;
and he had the talent to express these views in a style of ner
vous and vigorous eloquence.
Such were the circumstances under which this work was
composed ; and its pre-eminent value arises from the fact that
it photographs the events of the war in the circumstances of
their actual performance ; the motives of action as they real!}
revealed themselves, and the hopes and aspirations of the
South as they beat in the breasts of living men. Doubtless
some things in this history might be corrected ; some made
to conform to accomplished facts. But this would be to take
away from rather than to add to its essential value, which
is that of a memoire pour servir. As such, it must always re
main a valuable contribution to the history of the war ; and
from the side of the South it is the only complete record of the
momentous four years during which Secession was fought for
Deltisive Ideas of the Union. Administration of John Adirns. The " Strict Con-
Btructionists." The "State Rights" Men in the North. The Missouri Restriction.
General Jackson and the Nullification Question. The Compromise Measures of 1850.
History of the Anti-Slavery Party. The " Finckney Resolutions." The Twenty-
first Rule. The Abolitionists in the Presidential Canvass of 1852. The Kansas-
Nebraska Bill. The Rise* and Growth of the Republican Party. The Election or
President Buchanan. The Kansas Controversy. "Lecompton" and " Anti-Lecomp-
ton." Results of the Kansas Controversy. The John Brown Raid. " Helper s
Book." Demoralization of the Northern Democratic Party. The Faction of Stephen
A. Douglas. The Alabama Resolutions. The Political Platforms of I860. Election
of Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States. Analysis of the Vote. Politico
Condition of the North. Secession of South Carolina. Events in Charleston Harbor.
Disagreements in Mr. Buchanan s Cabinet. The Secession Movement in Progress.
Peace Measures in Congress. The Crittendcn Resolutions. The Peace Congress.
Policy of the Border Slave States. Organization of the Confederate States Govern
ment. President Buchanan. incoming of the Administration of Abraham Lincoln.
Strength of the Revolution PAGE 17
Mr. Lincoln s Journey to Washington. Ceremonies of the Inauguration. The In
augural Speech of President Lincoln. The Spirit of the New Administration. Its Fi
nancial Condition. Embassy from the Southern Confederacy. Perfidious Treatment
of the Southern Commissioners. Preparations for War. The Military Bills of the
Confederate Congress. General Beauregard. Fortifications of Charleston Harbor.
Naval Preparations of the Federal Government. Attempted Reinforcement of Fort
Sumter. Perfidy of the Federal Government. Excitement in Charleston. Reduction
of Fort Sumter by the Confederate Forces. How the News was received in Wash
ington. Lincoln s Calculation. His Proclamation of WAR. The " Reaction" in the
North. Displays of Rancor towards the South. Northern Democrats. Replies of
Southern Governors to Lincoln s Requisition for Troops. Spirit of the South. Seces
sion of Virginia. Maryland. The Baltimore Riot. Patriotic Example of Missouri.
Lincoln s Proclamation blockading the Southern Ports. General Lee. The Federals
evacuate Harper s Ferry. Burning of the Navy Yard at Norfolk. The Second
Secessionary Movement. Spirit of Patriotic Devotion in the South. Supply of
Arms in the South. The Federal Government and the State of Maryland. The Pros
Confidence )f the North. Characteristic Boasts. " Crushing out the Rebellion."-
Volunteering in the Northern Cities. The New York "Invincibles." Misrepresenta
tions of the Government at Washington. Mr. Seward s Letter to the French Govern
ment. Another Call for Federal Volunteers. Opening Movements of the Campaign*
The Federal Occupation of Alexandria. Death of Col. Ellsworth. Fortress MCT>-
roe. The BATTLE OF BETHEL. Eesults of this Battle. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston.
The Upper Potomac. Evacuation and Destruction of Harper s Ferry. The Move
ments in the Upper Portion of the Valley of Virginia. Northwestern Virginia. The
BATTLE OF KICH MOUNTAIN. Carrock s Ford. The Ketreat of the Confederates.
General McClellan. Meeting of the Federal Congress. Mr. Lincoln s Message.
Kentucky.-*- Western Virginia. Large Eequisitions for Men and Money by the Fed
eral Government. Its Financial Condition. Financial Measures of the Southern
Confederacy. Contrast between the Ideas of the Eival Governments. Conserva
tism of the Southern Revolution.-^-Despotic Excesses of the Government at Wash
ington , PAGE 76
The "Grand Army" of the North. General McDowell. The Affair of Bull Rim.
An Artillery Duel. THE BATTLE OF MANASSAS. " On to Richmond." Scenery of the
Battle-field. Crises in the Battle. Devoted Courage of the Confederates. THE ROUT
How the News was received in Washington. How it was received in the South.
General Bee. Colonel Bartow. The Great Error. General Johnston s Excuses for
not advancing on Washington. INCIDENTS OF THE MANASSAS BATTLE PAGE 101
Results of the Manassas Battle in the North. General Scott. McClellan, " the
Young Napoleon." Energy of the Federal Government. The Bank Loan. Events
in the West. The MISSOURI CAMPAIGN. Governor Jackson s Proclamation. Sterling
Price. The Affair of Booneville. Organization of the Missouri forces. The BATTLE
OF CAKTHAGE. General McCulloch. The BATTLE OF OAK HILL. Death* of General
Lyon. The Confederate Troops leave Missouri. Operations in Northern Missouri.
General Harris. General Price s march towards the Missouri. The Affair at Dry-
wood Creek.. The BATTLE OF LEXINGTON. The Jayhawkers. The Victory of " the
Five Hundred." General Price s Achievements. His Retreat, and the necessity for
it. Operations of General Jeff. Thompson in Southeastern Missouri. The Affair of
Fredericktown. General Price s passage of the Osage River. Secession of Missouri
from the Federal Union. Fremont superseded. The Federal forces in Missouri de
moralized. General Price at Springfield. Review of his Campaign. SKETCH o*
GENERAL PRICE. Coldness of the Government towards him PACK 130
The Campaign in Western Virginia. General Wise s Command. Political Influ
nces in Western Virginia. The Affair of Scary Creek. General Wise s Retreat to
Lewisburg. General Floyd s Brig ade. The Affair at Cross Lanes. Movements oa
ihe Gauley. The Affair of Carnifax Ferry. Disagreement between Generals Floy
and Wise. The Tyrees. - A Patriotic Woman. Movement*, in Northwestern Vir
ginia. General Lee. The Enemy intrenched on Cheat Mountain. General Rose-
crans. Failure of General Lee s Plan of Attack. He removes to the Kanawha Re
gion. The Opportunity of a Decisive Battle lost. Retreat of Rosecrans. General
H. R. Jackson s Affair on the Greenbrier. The Approach of Winter. The Campaign
in Western Virginia abandoned. The Affair on the Alleghany. General Floyd a
Cotton Hill. His masterly Retreat. Review of the Campaign in Western Virginia.
Some of its Incidents. Its Failure and unfortunate Results. Other Movements i
Virginia. The Potomac Line. The BATTLE OF LEESBUKO. Overweening Confidence
of the South. . . PAGE 165
The Position and Policy of Kentucky in the War. Kentucky Chivalry. Reminis
cences of the " Dark and Bloody Ground." Protection of the Northwest by Ken
tucky. How the Debt of Gratitude has been repaid. A Glance at the Hartford
Convention. The Gubernatorial Canvass of 1859 in Kentucky. Division of Parties.
Other Causes for the Disloyalty of Kentucky. The "Pro-Slavery and Union" Resolu
tions. The " State Guard." General Buckner. The Pretext of " Neutrality," and
what it meant. The Kentucky Refugees. A Reign of Terror. Judge Monroe ia
Nashville. General Breckinridge. Occupation of Columbus by General Polk. The
Neutrality of Kentucky first broken by the North. General Buckner at Bowling
Green. Camp " Dick Robinson." The " Home Guard." The Occupation of Colum
bus by the Confederates explained. Cumberland Gap. General Zollicoffer s Procla
mation. The Affair of Barboursville. " The Wild-Cat Stampede." The Virginia
and Kentucky Border. The Affair of Piketon. Suffering of our Troops at Pound
Gap. The "Union Party" in East Tennessee. Keelan, the Hero of Strawberry
Plains. The Situation on the Waters of the Ohio and Tennessee. THE BATTLE OB-
BELMONT. Weakness of our Forces in Kentucky. General Albert Sidney Johnston.
Inadequacy of his Forces at Bowling Green. Neglect and Indifference of the Con
federate Authorities. A Crisis imminent. Admission of Kentucky into the Southern
Confederacy PAGE 189
Prospects of European Interference. The selfish Calculations of England. Effects
of the Blockade on the South. Arrest by Capt. Wilkes of the Southern Commission
ers. The Indignation of England. Surrender of the Commissioners by the Lincoln
Government. Mr. Seward s Letter. REVIEW OF AFFAIRS AT THE CLOSE OF THE YEAR
1861. Apathy and Improvidence of the Southern Government. Superiority of the
North on the Water. The Hatteras Expedition. The Port Royal Expedition. The
Southern Privateers. Their Failure. Errors of Southern Statesmanship. "King
Cotton." Episodes of the War. The Affair of Santa Rosa Island. The Affair of
Dranesville. Political Measures of the South. A weak and halting Policy. The
Spirit of the War in the North. Administration of the Civil Polity of the Southern
Army. The Quarter-master s Department. Hygiene of the Camps. Ravages of the
Southern Army by Disease. The Devotion of the Women of the South PAGE 212
Prospects of the Year 1862. The Lines of the Potomac. General Jackson s Expe
dition to Winchester. The BATTLE OF MILL Srnnras IN KENTUCKY. General Grit
tenden. Death of General Zollicoffer. Sufferings of Crittenden s Army en th
Eetreat. Comparative Unimportance of the Disaster. The BATTLE OF RGANOK*
ISLAND. Importance of the Island to the South. Death of Captain Wise. Causes of
the Disaster to the South. Investigation in Congress. Censure of the Government.
Interviews of General Wise with Mr. Benjamin, the Secretary of War. Mr. Benjamin
censured by Congress, but retained in the Cabinet. His Promotion by President
Davis. Condition of the Popular Sentiment PAGE 226
The Situation in Tennessee and Kentucky. The affair at Woodsonville. Death of
Colonel Terry. The Strength and Material of the Federal Force in Kentucky. Con
dition of the Defences on the Tennessee and Cumberland Elvers. The Confederate
Congress and the Secretary of the Navy. The Fall of Fort Henry. Fort Donelson
threatened. The Army of General A. S. Johnston. His Interview with General
Beauregard. Insensibility of the Confederate Government to the Exigency. General
Johnston s Plan of Action. BATTLE OF FOET DONELSON. Carnage and Scenery of the
Battle-field. The Council of the Southern Commanders. Agreement to surrender.
Escape of Generals Floyd and Pillow. The Fall of Fort Donelson develops the
Crisis in the West. The Evacuation of Nashville. The Panic. Extraordinary
Scenes. Experience of the Enemy in Nashville. The Adventures of Captain John
Morgan. General Johnston at Murfreesboro. Organization of a New Line of Defence
South of Nashville. The Defence of Memphis and the Mississippi. Island No. 10.
Serious Character of the Disaster at Donelson. Generals Floyd and Pillow " re
lieved from Command." General Johnston s Testimony in favor of these Officers.
President Davis s Punctilio. A sharp Contrast. Negotiation for the Exchange of
Prisoners. A Lesson of Yankee Perfidy. Mr. Benjamin s Kelease of Yankee
Hostages PAGE 241
Organization of the permanent Government of the South. The Policy of England.
Declaration of Earl Russell. Onset of the Northern Forces. President Davis s
Message to Congress. The Addition of New States and Territories to the Southern
Confederacy. Our Indian Allies. The Financial Condition, North and South. De
ceitful Prospects of Peace. Effect of the Disasters to the South. Action of Congress.
The Conscript Bill. Provisions vs. Cotton. Barbarous Warfare of the North. The
Anti-slavery Sentiment. How it was unmasked in the War. Emancipation Measures
in the Federal Congress. Spirit of the Southern People. The Administration of Jef
ferson Davis. His Cabinet. The Defensive Policy. The NAVAL ENGAGEMENT IN
HAMPTON ROADS. Iron-clad Vessels. What the Southern Government might have
done. The Narrative of General Price s Campaign resumed. His Retreat into Ar
kansas. The BATTLE OF ELK HORN. Criticism of the Result. Death of General Mc-
Culloch. Th<3 BATTLE OF VALVERDE. The Foothold of the Confederates in New
Mexico. Change of the Plan of Campaign in Virginia. Abandonment of the Potoma
Line by the Confederates. The BATTLE OF KERNSTOWN. Colonel Turner Ashby.
Appearance of McClellan s Army on the Peninsula. Firmness of General Magruder
The New Situation of the War in Virginia. Recurrence of Disasters to the South
on the Water. The Capture of Newbern. Fall of Fort Pulaski and Fort Macon.
>Common Sense vs. " West Point." PA 2&*
The Campaign in the Mississippi Valley. Bombardment of Island No. 10. Fruits
of the Northern Victory. Movements of the Federals on the Tennessee River. THE
BATTLE OF SHILOH. Death of General Johnston. The Federal Expeditions into
North Alabama. Withdrawal of the Confederate Forces from the Trans-Mississippi
District. THE FALL OF NEW ORLEANS. The Flag. Major-General Butler.. PAGE 297
The Extremity of the South. The Campaign in Virginia. Jackson s Campaign in
the Valley. Sketch of the Battles around Richmond. Effect of McClellan s Defeat
upon the North President Davis s congratulatory Order. General Pope s Military
Orders. Summary of the War Legislation of the Northern Congress. Retaliation
on the part of the Confederacy. The Cartel. Prospects of European Interference.
Progress of the War in the West. The Defence of Vicksburg. Morgan s great
Raid. The Tennessee- Virginia Frontier. The Confederate Congress. The Cam
paign in Virginia again. The signal Victory of the Thirtieth of August on the Plains
of Manassas.A. Review of its Military Results PAGE 328
The New Orleans Disaster. Its Consequences and Effects. Public Opinion in
Europe. Execution of Mumford. Change in the Fortunes of the Confederacy.
The Conscription Law. Governor Brown of Georgia. Reorganization of the Army.
Abandonment of Frontier Defences. Concentration. First Movements of the
Summer Campaign in Virginia. Retreat from Yorktown. Evacuation of Norfolk.
Destruction of the "Virginia." Commodore Tatuall s Report. The Engagement
of Williamsburg. The Affair of Barhamsville. McClellan s Investment of the Lines
of the Chickahominy. Alarm in Richmond. The Water Avenue of the James.
Consternation in the President s House. President Davis and the Legislature of
Virginia. Noble Resolutions of the Legislature. Response of Richmond. The
Bombardment of Drewry s Bluff. Renewal of Public Confidence. JACKSON S CAM
PAIGN IN THE VALLEY. The Engagement of McDowell. The Surprise at Front
Royal. Banks Retreat. Port Republic. Results. Sufferings in the Valley of the
Shenandoah. MEMOIR OF TURNER ASHBY. . . , . .PAGE 367
Strategic Importance of Richmond. THE BATTLE OF SEVEN PINES. Miscarriage
of General Johnston s Plans. THE BATTLES OF THE CHICKAHOMINY. Storming o
the Enemy s Intrench ments. McClellan driven from his Northern Line of Defences.
The Affair of Savage Station. The Battle of Frazier s Farm. Battle of Malvern
Hill. The Enemy in Communication with his Gunboats. The Failure to cut him off.
Glory and Fruits of our Victory. Safety of Richmond. Other Parts of the Con
federacy. Engagement of Secessionville. The Campaign of the West. The Evac
uation of Corinth. Capture of Memphis. Siege of Vicksburg. Morgan s Raid into
Kentucky. The Tennessee and Virginia Frontier PAGE 409
Effect of McClollan s Defeat in the North. Call for more Troops. Why tLa Ncrth
was not easily dispirited. The War as a Money Job. Note: Gen. Washington
Opinion of New England. The Yankee Finances. Exasperation of Hostilities. The
Yankee Idea of a "Vigorous Prosecution of the War." Ascendancy of the Radicals.
War Measures at Washington. Anti-Slavery Aspects of the War. Brutality of the
Yankees. The .rfeensibility of Europe. Yankee Chaplains in Virginia. Seizures of
Private Property. Pope s Orders in Virginia. Steinwehr s Order respecting Host
ages. The Character and Services of Gen. John Pope. The u Army of Virginia."
Irruption of the Northern Spoilsmen. The Yankee Trade in Counterfeit Confederate
Notes. Pope s " Chasing the Rebel Hordes." Movement against Pope by " Stone
wall" Jackson. BATTLE OF CEDAR MOUNTAIN. McClellan recalled from the Penin
sula. The Third Grand Army of the North. Jackson s Surprise of the Enemy at
Manassas. A Rapid and Masterly Movement. Change of the Situation. Attack by
the Enemy upon Bristow Station and at Manassas Junction. Marshalling of the
Hosts. Longstreet s Passage of Thoroughfare Gap. The Plans of Gen. Lee. Spirit
of our Troops. Their Painful Marches. THK SKOOND BATTLE OF MANASSAS. A ter
rible Bayonet Charge. Rout of the Enemy. A hideous Battle-field. Gen. Lee and
the Summer Campaign of Virginia, Jackson s Share in it. Extent of the Great
Victory of Manassas. Excitement in Washington. The Yankee Army falls back
upon Alexandria and Washington. Review of the Situation. Rapid Change in our
Military Fortunes. What the South had accomplished. Comparison of Material
Strength between North and South. Humiliating Result to the Warlike Reputation
of the North. . . . . .PAGE 432
Rescue of Virginia from the Invader. Gen. Loring s Campaign in the Kanawha
Valley. A Novel Theatre of the War. Gen. Lee s Passage of the Potomac. Ilia
Plans. Disposition of ou^ Forces. McClellan again at the Head of the Yankee
Army. THE BATTLE OF BOONSBORO . THE CAPTURE OF HARPER S FERRY. Its Fruits
THE BATTLE OF SHARPSBURG. Great Superiority of the Enemy s Numbers. Fury
of the Battle. The Bridge of Antietam. A Drawn Battle. Spectacles of Carnage.
The Unburied Dead. Gen. Lee retires into Virginia. McClellan s Pretence oi
Victory. The Affair of Shepherdstown. Charges against McClellan. His Disgrace.
Review of the Maryland Campaign. Misrepresentations of Gen. Lee s Objects.
His Retreat. Comment of the New York " Tribune." The Cold Reception of the
Confederates in Maryland. Excuses for the Timidity of the Marylanders. Wlu.t
was accomplished by the Summer Campaign of 1862. The Outburst of Applause in
Europe. Tribute from the London " Times." Public Opinion in England. Dis
tinction between the People and the Government. The Mask of England. OUR Fou-
KION RELATIONS IN THE WAR. An Historical Parallel of Secession. Two Remarks on
the "Neutrality" of Europe. The Yankee Blockade and the Treaty of Paris. The
Confederate Privateers. Temper of the South. Fruits of the Blockade PAGE 473
Movements in the West. The splendid Programme of the Yankees. Kentucky
the critical Point. Gen. Kirby Smith s Advance into Kentucky. THK BATTLE 0*
RICHMOND. Re option of the Confederates in Lexington. Expectation of an Attnofe
on Cincinnati. Gen. Bragg s Plans. Smith s Movement to Bmgg s Lines. Escape
of the Yankee Forces from Cumberland Gap. Afi air of Munfordsville. Gen. Bragg
between the Enemy and the Ohio. An Opportunity for a decisive Blow. Buell a
Escape to Louisville. The Inauguration of Governor at Frankfort. An idle Cere
mony. Probable Surprise of Gen. Bragg. THE BATTLE OF PERRYVILLB. Its Im
mediate Results in our Favor. Bragg s failure to concentrate his Forces. His Reso
lution of Retreat. Scenes of the Retreat from Kentucky. Errors of the Campaign.
A lame Excuse. Public Sentiment in Kentucky. The Demoralization of that
State. The Lessons of Submission PAGE 498
Our Lines in the Southwest. Gen. Breckenridge s Attack on Baton Souge. De
struction of the Ram Arkansas. Gen. Price s Reverse at luka. Desperate Fighting.
THE BATTLE OF CORINTH. Van Dorn s hasty Exultations. The Massacre of College
Hill. Wild and terrible Courage of the Confederates. Our Forces beaten Back.
Our Lines of Retreat secured. The Military Prosyects of the South overshadowed.
THE DEPARTMENT OF THE TRANS-MISSISSIPPI. Romance of the War in Missouri.
Schofield s Order calling out the Militia. Atrocities of the Yankee Rule in Missouri.
Robbery without " Red Tape." The Guerrilla Campaign. The Affair of Kirks-
ville. Execution of Col. McCullough. The Affair of Lone Jack. Timely Reinforce