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Edward Alfred Pollard.

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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



If ME




DRAWN AND ENGRAVED EXPRESSLY FOR LEE &. HIS LIEUTENANTS



K. 3. Treat .fc C Publishers, New York






LEE AND HIS LIEUTENANTS;



COMPRISING THE



EARLY LIFE, PUBLIC SERVICES, AND CAMPAIGNS OP



GENERAL ROBERT E. LEE



HIS COMPANIONS IN ARMS,



FITH A RKCORD OF THEIR



CAMPAIGNS AND HEROIC DEEDS.



"Names the world will not willingly let die."



BY EDWAED A. POLLARD,

AUTHOR OF "THE LOST CAUSE," ETC., ETC.



With numerom Steel-plate Engravings.



NEW YORK:
E. B. TREAT & CO., 654 BROADWAY.

BALTIMORE, MD.I J. S. MORROW; LOUISVILLE, KY. : F. I. DIBBLE.

ST. LOUIS, MO. : I. S. BRAINARD } NEW ORLEANS, LA. : J. H. HUMMEL |
CHICAGO, ILL.: C. W. LILLET; SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. : E. E. SHEAR.

1867.



'37






Eutered according to Act of Congress, in the year one thonsand eight hundred and sixty-seven, by

E. B. TREAT & CO.,

In the Clerk's Office of th District Court of the United States for the Southern
District of New York.



THE NEW YORK PRINTING COMPANY,

81, 83, and 85 Centre St.,

NEW YORK.



INTRODUCTION



THE Author proposes in this present work to assemble the
most heroic names of the South in the late war, and to give to
the world biographies of her most illustrious military command-
ers, including memoirs of all the Army divisions of the Confed-
eracy from Virginia to the Trans-Mississippi. The plan of the
work is extensive ; the collection is naturally in the shape of a
galaxy ; but the picture is one, in the common light of the mar-
tial glory of the South in which all the figures are grouped.

Authenticity is more difficult in biography than in history ;
the domain of anecdote is always doubtful ; and the most we
can obtain of the lives of particular men comes to us through
the prejudices and colours of personal narration. Sensible of
the difficulties and uncertainties which beset his task, the author
may yet declare that he has executed it with such care that he
has admitted no statement of fact without ample authority, and
mentioned not even the slightest incident without the support of
credible testimony. He has been greatly assisted from the notes
and memories of surviving actors of the great drama ; he has
drawn something from various publications contemporary with
the war among which he would especially mention the
Southern Illustrated News, one of the most interesting literary
souvenirs of the Confederacy ; and he has explored for evidence
every print and manuscript of the documentary history of the
Bichmond Government. At least, he has not been deficient in
research, however he may have used his discoveries.

It has been arranged that the biographies in this volume
should cover the whole space of the action of the late war.



iv INTRODUCTION.

Including all the great commanders, they contain some name
dear to each part of the former Confederacy, and thus have an
interest distributed through all the States of the South.

The author's design, in short, has been to assemble the most
remarkable characters of the late war, and to perform a work,
in which Southern youth may look for models of true greatness ;
the scholar recognize his fruitful themes ; and those yet living
on the scenes of the great conflict find many subjects of tender
and ennobling interest.

VIRGINIA, 1867.



LIST OF BIOGRAPHIES.



PAGE

^ General Robert Edward Lee 33

* Lieu tenant-General " Stonewall " Jackson, 177

General Peter G. T. Beauregard 231

General Albert Sidney Johnston 271

"Lieutenant-General Braxton Bragg 284

* Major-General Sterling Price 309

* General Joseph Eggleston Johnston 337

Lieutenant-General James Longstreet 411

Lieutenant-General J. E. B. Stuart 421

, Lieutenant-General Ambrose P. Hill 440

Lieutenant-General Daniel H. Hill 448

Lieutenant-General Richard S. Ewell 457

Lieutenant-General Jubal A Early 463

Major-General Gustavus W. Smith 482

Major-General Lafayette McLawa 487

Major-General Cadmus Wilcox 496

* Major-General George E. Pickett 509

Major-General Charles W. Field 520

Major-General Robert E. Rodes 524

Major-General Arnold Elzey 527

Major-General Sam. Jones 530

Major-General John B. Gordon. 535

Major-General Fitzhugh Lee 549

Brigadier-General Henry A. Wise 559

Brigadier-General Turner Ashby 573

Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk 587

Major-General John C. Breckinridge 601

Major-General Mansfield LovelL 621

Major-General Earl Van Dorn 627

Brigadier-General Benjamin McCulloch 637

'Major-General John H. Morgan 645

' Lieutenant-General John B. Hood 663

Lieutenant-General Stephen D. Lee 674

Major-General Patrick Cleburne 688

Lieutenant-General Joseph Wheeler 695

Brigadier-General Felix K. Zollicoffer 705






Vi LIST OF BIOGRAPHIES.

PAOK

Lieutenant-General Alexander P. Stewart 711

Major-General Benjamin F. Cheatham 718

Major-General William B. Bate 722

Lieutenant-General "Wade Hampton 738

Lieutenant-General Nathaniel B. Forrest 748

Lieutenant-General E. Kirby Smith 760

Lieutenant-General Simon B. Buckner 773

Major-General John B. Floyd 783

Lieutenant-General William J. flardee 808

Lieutenant-General Richard Taylor 830

Major-General Dabney H. Maury 837

Major-General John B. Magruder 840



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



PAGE

Gen. Robert E. Lee Frontispiece.

The Conflagration of Richmond Vignette Title.

Lieutenant-General "Stonewall" Jackson 177

General P. G. T. Beauregard. 177

Lieutenant-General R. S. EwelL 177

Lieutenant-General A. P. Hill 177

Lieutenant-General J. Longstreet 177

General A. S. Johnston. 177

Lieutenant-General J. E. B. Stuart 177

Major-General Sterling Price 309

Major-General Fitzhugh Lee 309

Major-General Earl Van Dora 309

Lieutenant-General " Dick " Taylor 309

Lieutenant-General Joseph "Wheeler. 309

Major-General B. F. Cheatham 309

Lieutenant-General A. P. Stuart 309

General Joe E. Johnston 337

Lieutenant-General Braxton Bragg 663

Lieutenant-General Kirby Smith. 663

Lieutenant-General K B. Forrest 663

Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk 663

Lieutenant-General J. B. Hood 663

Lieutenant-General W. J. Hardee 663

Major-General John Morgan 663

Lieutenant-General Jubal A. Early 463

Major-General J. C. Breckinridge 463

Brigadier-General Henry A. Wise 463

Lieutenant-General "Wade Hampton 463

Brigadier-General Turner Ashby 463

Major-General J. B. Gordon 463

Major-General J. B. Magruder. 463



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

GENERAL ROBERT EDWARD LEE.

Standards of human greatness. Three classes of great men. Nature and pecu-
liarity of genius. A second order of greatness. General Lee, as in the third
class of great men. Key to his character, 33

CHAPTER II.

The Lee family in Virginia. " Light-Horse Harry." Early life of Robert E.
Lee. His cadetship at West Point. His home at Arlington Heights. Ser-
vices in the Mexican war. Commended by G-en. Scott. Appointed Colonel
in the First Cavalry. The John Brown raid. Colonel Lee and the outlaws.
The first act of " rebellion " at Harper's Ferry. Governor Wise arms Vir-
ginia, 38

CHAPTER III

Abraham Lincoln elected President of the United States. Anxiety and hesi-
tation of Lee at the commencement of hostilities. His sense of duty. He
debates the question of his allegiance to Virginia. His peculiar school of
politics. A reply to a Northern newspaper. Attitude of Virginia. A sub-
lime struggle in Lee's mind. He goes to Richmond. Appointed Comman-
der-in-Chief of the Virginia forces. His reception by the State Conven-
tion. Appearance and carriage of the man. Military preparations in Vir-
ginia. She joins the Southern Confederacy, 48

CHAPTER IV.

Gen. Lee sent to Northwestern Virginia. Description of the theatre of the
war. Unfortunate military councils in Richmond. Proclamation of Gov.
Letcher. A caricature of secession. Disaster of Rich Mountain. Gen. Lee's
plans thereafter. He is foiled at Cheat Mountain. Marches to the Kanawha
Valley. Escape of Rosecrans. Failure of Lee's Campaign. He is abused
and twitted in Richmond. Scoffs of the Richmond " Examiner." He is
assigned to " the coast service." Recalled to Richmond, and made " Com-
manding General." This post unimportant, and scarcely honourable, 58

CHAPTER V.

McClellan's march up the Peninsula. Recollections of the "White House."
Battle of Seven Pines. Review of condition of the Confederacy. An act
" to disband the armies of the Confederacy." Carnival of misrule. Gen. Lee
in command of the forces around Richmond. Nearly two-thirds of his army
raw conscripts. His adoption of Gen. Johnston's idea of concentration.
Manners of Lee as a commander. The great battle joined. Beaver-Dam



10 CONTENTS.

Creek. Gen. Lee resting at a farm-house. The glory of Gaines' Mills.
Brilliant audacity of Gen. Lee in delivering this battle. Retreat of McClel-
lan. Frazier's Farm. Malvern HilL The circuit of Lee's victories broken.
His official summary of " the Seven Days' battles," ... 67

CHAPTER VI.

General Lee the favourite of the populace. He moves out to the line of the
Rappahannock. Cedar Run. Bold and daring enterprise of General Lee,
in detaching Jackson to the enemy's rear. A peculiarity of his campaigns.
How he disregarded the maxims of military science. The battles of Second
Manassas. Gen. Lee marches for the fords of the Potomac. His address at
Frederick, Maryland. Jackson detached again. McClellan finds an im-
portant paper. The Thermopylae of " South Mountain Pass." Battle of
Sharpsburg. Gen. Lee obtains a victory, but is unable to press it. He
retires to Virginia. An authentic statement of Gen. Lee's reasons for the
Maryland campaign. His constant and characteristic idea of defending
Richmond by operations at a distance from it. Congratulations to his
troops. Moral results of the campaign of 1862. Testimonies to South
heroism, ..*...

CHAPTER VII.

General Lee's perilous situation in North Virginia. His alarming letter to the
War Office. The happy fortune of McClellan's removal. The Battle of
Fredericksburg. Gen. Lee's great mistake in not renewing the attack.
His own confession of errour. He detaches nearly a third of his army to
cover the south side of Richmond. He writes a severe letter to the Govern-
ment. The enemy's fifth grand attempt on Richmond. Gen. Lee in a des-
perate extremity. The Battles of Chancellorsville. Three victories for the
Confederates. The masterpiece of Gen. Lee's military life, . . 93

CHAPTER VIII.

Controversy between Gen. Lee and the War Department. The Secretary
winces. Gen. Lee's new campaign of invasion. How it differed from that
of 1862. Reorganization of the Army of Northern Virginia. Some remarks
on its artillery service. Gen. Lee across the Potomac. His orders at Cham-
bersburg, Pa. His errours with respect to the policy of " retaliation." His
conversation with a mill-owner. A letter from President Davis. Gen. Lee
misunderstood and disappointed by the Richmond authorities. Orders to
Stuart's cavalry. The Confederate army blinded in Pennsylvania for want
of cavalry. The battle of Gettysburg has the moral effect of a surprise to
Gen. Lee. The lost opportunity of the 1st July. Why Gen. Lee fought
the next day. Temper of his army. He assaults the enemy's centre .on the
3d July. Recoil of the Confederates. Gen. Lee cheering and comforting
his men. His fearful retreat, and his wonderful success in extricating his
army, 101

CHAPTER IX.

Decline of the fortunes of the Confederacy. Operations in the autumn of
1863. Gen. Lee's patriotic exhortation to his troops. His great care for
them. Meeting of the chaplains in his army. Relations between General
Lee and his troops. His habits on the battle-field. Intercourse with his
men. Simplicity of his manners. His feelings towards the public enemy.
How he rebuked a Yankee-phobist. Sufferings of the Confederate troops.
Commissary Northrop. Gen. Lee demands food for his troops. Touching



CONTENTS. 11

address to his half-starved men. Anecdote of G-en. Lee and liis cook. Per-
sonal recollections of the great commander. An English officer's description
of his person and habits, 116

CHAPTER X. _/_ ^

Opening of the great campaign of 1864. Precise account of Gen. Lee's plans.
He acts with his accustomed boldness and takes the offensive. Actions
of the 5th and 6th May. General Lee determines to lead a critical assault.
Protest of the soldiers. Grant resorts to manoeuvre. Spottsylvania Court-
House. General Lee again in the extreme front of his men. A thrilling
spectacle. Heroic action of Gordon. " Gen. Lee to the rear I " Account of
the strategy from Spottsylvania Court-House to the vicinity of Richmond.
Grant on the old battle-field of McClellan. His army defeated in ten minutes
at Cold Harbour. His losses in one month exceed Lee's whole army.
Precise statement of the odds against Gen. Lee. Reflections on the nature
and degrees of generalship. Comparison of the two rival commandersuifL
the North and South, %&>

CHAPTER XL

Gen. Lee's private opinion of the defences of Richmond. A serious communi-
cation to the Government, and how it was treated. Vagaries of President
Davis. Gen. Lee decides that the safety of Richmond lies in raising the
siege. Expedition of Early across the Potomac. Anxiety of Gen.. Lee.
He meditates taking command of the force in Maryland. Retreat of Early.
Gen. Lee next proposes a diversion in the Valley of Virginia. Failure of
this operation. Constant extension of Grant's left around Richmond.
Period of despondency in the South. A letter of Gen. Lee on the question
of supplies. He proposes bringing in two or three years' supplies from Eu-
rope. Desertion the great evil in the Confederate armies. Difficulties of
dealing with it. Various letters and protests from Gen. Lee on the subject
of discipline. An angry comment of President Davis. Gen. Lee a severe
disciplinarian, and yet loved by his men. Anecdote of the General and a
one-armed soldier. Skeleton returns of the army. The popular clamour
against President Davis. Gen. Lee's quasi acceptance of the position of
Commander-in-chief. Nature and peculiar history of this rank in the Con-
federate armies. Hopeful views of Gen. Lee. Project of arming the
negroes. Growth of new hopes for the Confederacy, . . . 135

CHAPTER XII.

Extraordinary cheerfulness of Gen. Lee. A psychological reflection. The
Army of Northern Virginia at a third stage in its history. Military prepa-
rations for the evacuation of Richmond. Protests of the Government.
Gen. Lee's last and desperate resolution. Battle of Five Forks. Theory
and results of the action. Grant 3 s assault in front of Petersburg. How
Gen. Lee received it. His remark to a staff-officer, . . . 149

CHAPTER XIII.

The last retreat of Gen. Lee's army. Two notable pictures. Gen. Lee con-
ceives a new prospect of action. A fatal miscarriage at Amelia Court-
House. No food for the army. Terrible sufferings of the retreat. General
despair and misery. Action at Sailor's Creek. Condition of the army at
Appomattox Court-House. Apparition of the white flag. Correspondence
between Generals Lee and Grant. Authentic and detailed account of their
interview at McLean's House. Contradiction of various popular reports



12 CONTENTS.

of tills event. General Lee announcing the terms of surrender to hia
officers. Scenes in the encampments. Gen. Lee's last address to his troops.
His return to Richmond. Last tokens of affection and respect for the
Confederacy, 155

CHAPTER XIV.

An interesting interview with Gen. Lee after the surrender. Remarks upon
the Federal rule. Indicted for " treason." Proceedings stayed on the pro-
test of Gen. Grant. Explanation of Gen. Lee's course with reference to
amnesty, etc. Elected President of Washington College. The true spirit
of his advice of " submission." His hopes for the repose and welfare of
the South, 172

CHAPTER XV.

LIEUT.-GEN. STONEWALL JACKSON.

Boyhood of Thomas Jonathan Jackson. His experience at West Point. His
studies and habits. A novel analysis of awkward manners. Jackson's pro-
motions in the Mexican war. His love of fight. Recollections of " Fool
Tom Jackson " at Lexington. A study of his face and character. His
prayers for " the Union." A reflection on Christian influences in America.
Jackson appointed a colonel in the Virginia forces. In command at Harper's
Ferry. Constitution of the " Stonewall Brigade." Jackson promoted to
Brigadier. His action on the field of Manassas. He turns the enemy's
flank and breaks his centre. How much of the victory was due to him.
His expedition towards the head waters of the Potomac, . . 177

CHAPTER XVI.

Description of the Shenandoah Valley. Its importance as an avenue to
Washington. Gen. Jackson retreats from Winchester, and returns and
fights the battle of Kernstown. His first and last defeat. Analysis of the
enemy's " On-to-Richmond." Four armies to converge on the Confederate
capital. Situation of Gen. Jackson. Reinforced by Ewell's division. His
rapid movement to McDowell, and its designs. He falls upon the enemy
at Front Royal. He chases Banks' army through Winchester and across
the Potomac. President Lincoln " sets a trap " for him. Gen. McDowell's
remonstrance. Battles of Cross Keys and Port Republic. Summary of
the Valley campaign, 190

CHAPTER XVII.

Gen. Jackson's share in the " Seven Days' battles " around Richmond. Shift-
ing of the scenes of war from the James River to the Rappahannock.
Battle of Cedar Run. Gen. Jackson moves a column between the enemy's
rear and Washington. Scenes of the march. Battle of Groveton. The
two days' conflict on Manassas Plains. Gen. Jackson strikes the enemy at
Ox Hill. Results of the campaign so far. Extraordinary achievement of
Jackson's command. He moves against, and captures Harper's Ferry.
His part in the battle of Sharpsburg, 199

CHAPTER XVIII.

Battle of Fredericksburg. Gen. Jackson conceives the desperate enterprise
of driving the enemy into the river. But he recalls the attack. Battle of
Chancellorsville. A night council under the pines. The flank-march.
How Gen. Hooker was deceived. Gen. Jackson's last dispatch. Fury of



CONTENTS.



13



his attack in the Wilderness. He is shot from his horse by his own men.
Particulars of his wound and sufferings. His dying moments. Funeral
ceremonies in Richmond, 208

CHAPTER XIX.

Review of G-en. Jackson's services and character. True nature of his ambi-
tion. The value of glory. Religious element in Gen. Jackson's character.
Peculiarity of his religious habits. Anecdotes. Want of natural amiability.
Harshness of manner towards his officers. His severe idea of war.
Destructiveness. His readiness to forgive. A touching personal incident.
His self-possession as a mark of " genius." His military faculty not a
partial one. European estimates of his career. A lesson to Northern inso-
lence and rancour, , 220

CHAPTER XX.

GEN. PETER Q. T. BEAUREGARD.

Early life of P. G-. T. Beauregard. His gallantry and promotions in the Mexican
War. Life in Louisiana. Appointment in the Confederate Army. Defences
of Charleston. Battle of Port Sumter. Gen. Beauregard takes command in
Virginia. His contempt of " the Yankees." A grotesque letter. Popular
sentiment concerning the war. Explanation of the sudden disappearance of
the Union party in the South. Gen. Beauregard's declaration of the pur-
poses of the war. " Beauty and Booty." A Northern journal on Butler vs.
Beauregard. Battle of Manassas. Complimentary letter from President
Davis. The popularity of Gen. Beauregard alarms the vanity of the Presi-
dent. A scandalous quarrel. Gen. Beauregard's political " card " in the
Richmond newspapers, 231

CHAPTER XXL

Gen. Beauregard transferred to command in West Tennessee. His order
about " the bells." He concentrates the Confederate forces at Corinth.
Battle of Shiloh. A " lost opportunity." Retreat to Tupelo. He obtains
a sick furlough. President Davis deprives him of his command. Official
persecution of Gen. Beauregard. Violent declarations of the President.
Gen. Beauregard in retirement. A private letter on the war, . 249

CHAPTER XXII.

Gen. Beauregard in command at Charleston. Military importance of " the
City of Secession." Gen. Beauregard's appeal to the patriotism of the
Carolinians. Naval attack on Charleston, 1863. Gen. Beauregard's depart-
ment stripped of troops. Unavailing remonstrance to President Davis.
G-en. Gillmore's attempt on Charleston. Its impotent conclusion. Fame
of Gen. Beauregard as an engineer. He receives the thanks of Congress.
Returns to Virginia in 1864. "Battle of the Falchion and the Buzzard."
Gen. Beauregard's plan of campaign before the battle of Drewry's Bluff.
Remarkable interview with President Davis. Connection of Gen. Beau-
regard with Hood's campaign. He advises the evacuation of Richmond.
Merits of G-en. Beauregard's military career. Description of his person
and habits, 257

CHAPTER XXIII.

GEN. ALBERT SIDNEY JOHNSTON.

Remarkable career of Albert Sidney Johnston. He eludes the Federal



14 CONTENTS.

authorities in California. Declares for the Southern Confederacy, and " an-
nexes " Arizona. In command of the Western armies. Picture of a hero.
Proclamation on the occupation of Kentucky. Foolish exaltation of
Southern hopes. True situation of Gen. Johnston. His noble silence in
the face of clamour. Letter on the fall of Fort Donelson. A glance at the
"Western map of the war. The Confederate line broken and the campaign
transferred to the southern bank of the Tennessee river. Battle of Shiloh.
Gen. Johnston riding on to victory. His death-wound. Lamentations
in the South. Tributes to his memory. A classic inscription, . 271

CHAPTER XXIV.

GEN. BRAXTON BRAGG.

Equivocal reputation of Gen. Bragg in the war. His services in Mexico.
Offers his sword to Louisiana. His command at Pensacola. Gallant par-
ticipation in the battle of Shiloh. His reflections upon Gen. Beauregard.
In command of the Western forces. His Kentucky campaign, as corre-
spondent to the Virginia campaign of 1862. Battle of Perrysville. Gen.
Bragg's retreat through Cumberland Gap. Criticisms and recriminations
touching the campaign, 284

CHAPTER XXV.

Battle of Murfreesboro. Interval of repose. Retreat to Chattanooga. Gen.
Bragg refuses to fight at the instance of the War Department. Reinforced
from the Army of Northern Virginia. Battle of Chickamauga. A com-
mentary in the Richmond Whig. Violent quarrel between Gens. Bragg
and Longstreet. The disaster of Missionary Ridge. Gen. Bragg relieved
from command and appointed " military adviser " of President Davis.
Explanations in a Richmond journal. Gen. Bragg's last service in the field.
Fall of Wilmington. Gen. Bragg's military career criticised. His ardent
Southern patriotism, 295

CHAPTER XXVI.

MAJ.-GEN. STERLING PRICE.

Anomaly of the Missouri Campaign. Early life of Sterling Price. Governor
of Missouri. His Politics. Formation of " The Missouri State Guard."
Personal appearance of the Commander. His correspondence with Gen.
Harney. Affair at Booneville. Gen. Price reinforced by Gens. MoCulloch
and Pearce. Battle of Oak Hill or Wilson's Creek. Gen. Price's move-
ment upon Lexington. His success. Designs against St. Louis. Why
they were abandoned. Retreat of the Patriot Army of Missouri. The
State joins the Southern Confederacy. Gen. Price's Proclamation at
Neosho, 309

CHAPTER XXVII.

Gen. Price at the head of ten thousand men. McCuUoch refuses to cooperate.
Admirable retreat of Price's army to Boston Mountains. Hardihood of
his troops. A message from Gen. Halleck. Gen. Van Dorn appointed Con-
federate Commander of the Trans-Mississippi. Battle of Elk Horn. Its
importance. Heroism of Gen. Price on the field. The Missouri troops
cross the Mississippi River. Gen. Price's eloquent address to " the State
Guard," 321



CONTENTS. 15

CHAPTER XXVIII.

Career of G-en. Price as a subordinate. Mortality record of the Missouri Guard.
Their participation in the battle of Corinth. Battle of Helena. Gen.
Price's cherished idea of liberating Missouri. His agreement with G-en. Fre-
mont for the humanities of the war. How the enemy violated it. Gen.
Price's last attempt to save Missouri. His final retreat from the State. Sum-
mary of the character of Gen. Price. A defect in his military career. G-en.
Price as an exile, 328

CHAPTER XXIX.

GEN. JOSEPH EGGLESTON JOHNSTON.

Some account of " the first families " of Virginia. Ancestry of Joseph Eggles-
ton. Peter Johnston in the Revolutionary War, and in the State councils of
Virginia. Early life of Joseph E. Johnston. Military tastes of the boy.
Services of Lieut. Johnston in the Florida War. An incident of desperate



Online LibraryEdward Alfred PollardThe early life, campaigns, and public services of Robert E. Lee; with a record of the campaigns and heroic deeds of his companions in arms .. → online text (page 1 of 80)