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Edward Alfred Pollard.

The lost cause : a new southern history of the war of the Confederates : comprising a full and authentic account of the rise and progress of the late southern Confederacy--the campaigns, battles, incidents, and adventures of the most gigantic struggle of the world's history online

. (page 1 of 90)
Online LibraryEdward Alfred PollardThe lost cause : a new southern history of the war of the Confederates : comprising a full and authentic account of the rise and progress of the late southern Confederacy--the campaigns, battles, incidents, and adventures of the most gigantic struggle of the world's history → online text (page 1 of 90)
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THE LOST CAUSE;



rf @lar of



COMPRISING



.4 FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE ZATE SOUTHERN
CONFEDERACY THE CAMPAIGNS, BATTLES, INCIDENTS, AND ADVEN
TURES OF THE MOST GIGANTIC STRUGGLE OF THE
WORLD S HISTORY.



DRAWN FROM OFFICIAL SOURCES, AND APPROVED BY THE MOST DIS
TINGUISHED CONFEDERATE LEADERS.



BY

EDWAKD A. POLLAKD, OF VIRGINIA,

EDITOH OP THE RICHMOND "EXAMINEE" DUKINO THB TVAB.

WITH NUMEROUS SPLENDID STEEL PORTRAITS.



SOLD ONLY BY SUBSCRIPTION.



pfl |0rk:

E. B. TREAT & CO., PUBLISHERS.

BALTIMORE, MD. : L. T. PALMER & CO. ST. LOUIS, Mo. : I. S. BBAINERD. LOUISVILLE, KT.: GEO. B.

FESSENDEN & CO. AUGUSTA. GA.. and AUBURN, ALA. : GEO. W. LOYD. CHARLESTON, 8. C. :

ROBERT WILSON. MEMPHIS, iWn. : J. B. BUTTON. HOUSTON, TEXAS : J. F. FULLER.

1866.



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1866, by

EDWARD A. POLLARD,
In the Clerk s office of the District Court of the United States for the District of Virginia.



JOHN P. TROW & CO.,

PHIXTERS, STEREOTYPERS, <J- ELECT BOTYPXX8,
SO GREENE STREET, M.T.



GIFT



INTRODUCTION.



THE facts of the War of the Confederates in America have been at the
mercy of many temporary agents ; they have been either confounded with
sensational rumours, or discoloured by violent prejudices : in this condition
they are not only not History, but false schools of present public opinion.
By composing a severely just account of the "War on the basis of cotein-
porary evidence ascertaining and testing its facts, combining them in
compact narrative, and illustrating them by careful analyses of the spirit
of the press, not only in this country, but in Europe, the author aspires to
place the history of the War above political misrepresentations, to draw it
from disguises and concealments, and to make it complete in three depart
ments : the record of facts ; the accounts of public opinion existing with
them ; and the lessons their context should convey or inspire. These
three are the just elements of History. If the author succeeds in what he
proposes, he will have no reason to boast that he has produced any great
literary wonder ; but he will claim that he has made an important contri
bution to Truth, and done something to satisfy curiosity without " sensa
tion," and to form public opinion without violence.

The author desires to add an explanation of the plan of composition he
has pursued in. the work. It is impossible to write history as an intelligi
ble whole, and to secure its ends, without preserving a certain dramatic
unity in the narrative. It is by such unity that the lesson of history is
conveyed, and its impression properly effected ; and to do this it becomes

302



IV INTRODUCTION.

necessary to discard from the narrative many small incidents, either epi-
sodal in their nature, or of no importance in the logical chain of events.
With this view, the author has paid but little attention to small occur
rences of the war which in no way affected its general fortunes, and has
measured his accounts of battles and of other events by the actual extent
of their influence on the grand issues of the contest. Instead of a con
fused chronological collection of events, he has sought to prepare for the
reader a compact and logical narrative that will keep his attention close
to the main movement of the story, and put instruction as to causes hand
in hand with the information of events.



O O 1ST T E 1ST T S .



CHAPTER I.

True value of the Federal principle. Historical examples. Coleridge s prophecy. Early
Mission of the American Union. How terminated. The American system of Gov
ernment a mixed one. The Colonial period. First proposition of a General Con
gress. Declaration of Independence. Articles of Confederation. Their occasion
and origin. Nature of the compact. Peace-treaty of 1783. Analysis of the nature
and value of the Confederation. How it was terminated. The Convention of
1787. Character of the men who composed it. Political idolatry in America^
Parties in the Convention. The question of Representation. The novelty of the
American Constitution the result of an accident. State Rights. Amendments to
the Constitution. Nature of the American Union. Not a Consolidated nation
ality. The Right of Secession. The Union not the proclamation of a new civil
polity. Not a political revolution. A convenience of the States, with no mission
apart from the States. The two political schools of America. Consolidation and
State Rights. How the Slavery question was involved. A sharp antithesis*
The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions. "Webster and Calhoun, the anti-types of
Northern and Southern statesmanship. Mr. Calhoun s doctrines. "Nullification "
a Union-saving measure. Its ingenuity and conservatism. Calhoun s profound
statesmanship. Injustice to his memory. How the South has been injured by
false party names : 33

CHAPTER II.

The Federal principle ultimately fatal to the Union. Other causes of disunion. The
sectional animosity. The geographical line in the Union. How the differences
between North and South produced two distinct communities instead of rival parties
within one body politic. The theory of a Political North and a Political South,
Its early recognition in the Convention of 1787. Declaration of Madison. Mr.
Pinckney s remarks. How the same theory was involved in the Constitution*
The " Treaty" clause between North and South. The Union not the bond of diverse
States, but the rough companionship of two peoples. Gen. Sullivan s complaint to
"Washington. The Slavery question, an incident of the sectional animosity*
Not an independent controversy, or a moral dispute. Political history of Negro
Slavery in the South. How it become the subject of dispute. The Hartford Con
vention. The Missouri Line, the preliminary trace of disunion. Declaration of
Thomas Jefferson. Why the North defamed " the peculiar institution" of the South.
Great benefits of this institution, and its contributions to the world. " Slavery/



VI CONTENTS.

not the proper term for the institutions of labour in the South. The Slavery ques
tion significant only of a contest for political power. Differences between the
Northern and Southern populations. The anti-revolutionary period. Traces of
the modern " Yankee." How Slavery established a peculiar civilization in the South.
Its bad and good effects summed up. Coarseness of Northern civilization. No
landed gentry in the North. Scanty appearance of the Southern country. The
sentiments and manners of its people. " American exaggeration," a peculiarity of
the Northern mind. Sobriety of the South. How these qualities were displayed in
the Northern and Southern estimations of the Union. " State Eights" the founda
tion of the moral dignity of the Union. Calhoun s picture of the Union. A noble
vision never realized 45

CHAPTER III.

Material decline of the South in the Union. Shifting of the numbers and enterprise of
the country from the Southern to the Northern States. Virginia s rank among the
States at the time of the Eevolution. Commercial distress of the States after the
Revolution. How New England suffered. The South then reckoned the seat of
future empire. The people and strength of America bearing Southwardly.
Emigration to the South. Kentucky and the vales of Frankland. Virginia s pros
perity. Her early land system. The Chesapeake. Alexandria. George "Wash
ington s great commercial project. Two pictures of Virginia: 1789 and 1829.
An example of the decline of the. South in material prosperity. This decline not
to be attributed to Slavery. Its true causes. Effect of the Louisiana purchase on
the tides of emigration. Unequal Federal legislation, as a cause of the sectional
lapse of the South in the Union. The key to the political history of America. A
great defect of the American . Constitution. Population as an element of pros
perity and power. How this was thrown into the Northern scale. Two sectional
measures. Comparisons of Southern representation in Congress at the date of the
Constitution and in the year 1860. Sectional domination of the North. A pro
tective Tariff." The Bill of abominations." Senator Benton on the Tariff of 1828.
His retrospect of the prosperity of the South. History of the American Tariffs.
Tariff of 1833, a deceitful Compromise. Other measures of Northern aggrandize
ment. Ingenuity of Northern avarice. Why the South could not use her Demo
cratic alliance in the South to protect her interests. This alliance one only for
party purposes. Its value. Analysis of the Democratic Party in the North. The
South under the rule of a numerical majority. Array of that majority on a sec
tional line necessarily fatal to the Uiiion. When and why the South should
attempt disunion 54

CHAPTER IV.

The sectional equilibrium. How disturbed in 1820. Contest on the admission of
Texas. Compromise measures of 1850. Declaration of a " Finality." President
Pierce s administration. The Kansas-Nebraska bill. Repeal of " The Missouri
Compromise." Origin of the Republican party in the North. Composition and
character of this Party. Amazing progress of the Anti-slavery sentiment in the
North. New interpretation of the Kansas-Nebraska bill by Senator Douglas.
Intended to court the Anti-slavery sentiment. Doctrine of " Non-Intervention "
in the Territories. The "Dred Scott decision." " The Kansas controversy." The
Lecompton Convention. The Topeka Constitution. President Buchanan s position
and arguments. Opposition of Senator Douglas. His insincerity. The Northern
Democratic Party demoralized on the Slavery question. Douglas doctrine of



CONTENTS. vil

" Popular Sovereignty." u A short cut to all the ends of Black Republicanism."
Douglas as a demagogue. The true issues in the Kansas controversy. Import
ant passages in the Congressional debate. Settlement of the Kansas question.
Douglas foundation of a new party. His demagogueical appeals. The true situa
tion. Loss of the sectional equilibrium. Serious temper of the South. " The
John Brown raid." Identity of John Brown s provisional constitution and or
dinances with the subsequent policy of the Republican Party. Curious fore
shadow of Southern subjugation. The descent on Harper s Ferry. Capture and
execution of Brown. His declaration. Northern sympathy with him. Alarming
tendency of the Republican Party to the Ultra- Abolition school. "The Helper
Book." Sentiments of Sixty-eight Northern congressmen. The conceit and in
solence of the North. Affectation of Republicans that the Union was a concession
to the South. Hypocrisy of this party. Indications of the coming catastrophe of
disunion. The presidential canvass of 1860. Declarations of the Democratic
Party. The Charleston Convention. Secession of the Southern delegates. The
different presidential tickets. Election of Abraham Lincoln. Analysis of the
vote. How his election was a " sectional " triumph. Ominous importance of it
in that view. Arguments for sustaining Lincoln s election. Seward s argument
in the Senate. Lincoln s election a geographical one. How there was no longer
protection for the South in the Union. The Anti-slavery power compact and in
vincible. Another apology for Lincoln s election. Fallacy of regarding it as a
transfer of the Administration in equal circumstances from the South to the North.
How the South had used its lease of political power. Senator Hammond s tri
bute. Power in the hands of the North equivalent to sectional despotism. The
North " acting in mass." The logical necessity of disunion 64

CHAPTER V.

Preparations of South Carolina to withdraw from the Union. Passage of her Ordinance
of Secession. The Federal force in Charleston Harbour evacuates Fort Moultrie,
and occupies Sumter. Description of Fort Sumter. How the Secession of South
Carolina was entertained in the North. The levity and inconsistency of the North
with respect to this event. Doctrine of Secession, and Northern precedents,
Record of Massachusetts. Mr. Quincy s declaration in Congress. A double justifi
cation of the withdrawal of the Southern States from the Union. The right of Self-
government. Opinion of Mr. Lincoln. Opinion of the New York " Tribune."
Opinion of Mr. Seward. The Secession question in the Cotton States. Hesitation
of Georgia. Project of Alexander H. Stephens. Secession of all the Cotton States.
Seizure of Federal forts and arsenals. Fort Pickens. Senator Yulee s letter.
The scenes of Secession transferred to "Washington. Resignation of Southern Sena
tors. Jefferson Davis farewell speech to the Federal Senate. Senator Clay s bill
of indictment against the Republican party. The Convention at Montgomery.
Constitution of the Confederate States. Jefferson Davis chosen President. His per
sonal history. His character. Why the public opinion about him was so divided
and contradictory. Measures looking to pacification. Three avenues through
which it was expected. Early prospects of pacification in Congress. The Republi
can " ultimatum." u The Crittenden compromise." Measures of compromise and
peace in Congress exclusively proposed by the South, and deliberately defeated by
the North. The Peace Conference. Its failure. Disposition of the Border Slave
States. How mistaken by the North. The Virginia Convention. How the Secession
party gained in it. The record of Virginia on the subject of State Rights. Presi
dent Buchanan on the Secession question. His weak character and undecided



Vlll CONTENTS.

policy. How over- censured by the North. Gen. Scott s intermeddling. His im
practicable advice. President Buchanan s perfidy in the Moultrie-Sumter affair.
His interview with the South Carolina delegation. A second deception. The " Star
of the West " affair. The situation at the close of Buchanan s administration.
The country waiting for the Signal of Combat 82

CHAPTER VI.

Character of Abraham Lincoln in history. Absurd panegyric. The personal and
political life of the new President. His journey to "Washington. His speech at
Philadelphia. The flight from Harrisburg. Alarm in "Washington. Military dis
play in the capital. Ceremony of inauguration. Criticism of Lincoln s address.
"What the Republican party thought of it. Serious pause at "Washington. State
ment of Horace Greeley. How the Inaugural Address was received in the Seceded
States. Visit of Confederate Commissioners to Washington. Seward s pledge to
Judge Campbell. The Commissioners deceived. Military and Naval expeditions
from New York. Consultation of the Cabinet on the Sumter question. Capt.
Fox s visit to Charleston. His project. Objections of Gen. Scott. Singular article
in a New York journal. Lincoln s hesitation. His final device. Seward s game
with the Commissioners. The reduction of Fort Sumter. Description of the Con
federate works for the reduction of Sumter. Beauregard demands the surrender
of the Fort. The bombardment. The fort on fire. The Federal fleet takes no
part in the fight. The surrender. Great excitement in the North. Its true
meaning. The crusade against the South. Dr. Tyng s exhortation. Conduct of
Northern Democrats. Dickinson, Everett, and Cochrane. President Lincoln s
Proclamation. His pacific protests to the Virginia Commissioners. Secession of
Virginia. Discontent in the Western counties. Second secessionary movement of
the Southern States. Violent acts of the Washington Administration. Prepara
tions of the Confederate Government for War. Rush of volunteers to arms. Pre
sident Davis estimate of the military necessity. Removal of the seat of govern
ment to Richmond. Activity of Virginia. Robert E. Lee. His attachment to the
Union. Why he joined the Confederate cause. His speech in the State House at
Richmond. His organization of the military force of Virginia. Military council
in Richmond. The early reputation of Lee 100

CHAPTER VII.

[n what sense Virginia seceded from the Union. A new interpretation of the war of
the Confederates. Influence of Virginia on the other Border States. Replies of
these States to Lincoln s requisition for troops. Secession of Tennessee, Arkansas,
and North Carolina. Seizure of Federal forts in North Carolina. Movements in
Virginia to secure the Gosport navy-yard and Harper s Ferry. Their success.
Burning of Federal ships. Attitude of Maryland. The Baltimore riot. Chase of
Massachusetts soldiers. Excitement in Baltimore. Timid action of the Maryland
Legislature. Military despotism in Maryland. Arrests in Baltimore. A Reign of
Terrour. Light estimation of the war in the North. Why the Federal Government
sought to belittle the contest. Lincoln s view of the war as a riot. Seward s
Letter to the European Governments. Early action of England and France with
respect to the war. Mr. Gregory s letter to the London Times. Northern conceit
about the war. Prophecies of Northern journals. A " Three months war." Ells
worth and Billy Wilson. Martial rage in the North. Imperfect appreciation of the
Crisis in the South. Early ideas of the war at Montgomery. Secret history of the
Confederate Constitution. Southern opinion of Yankee soldiers. What was



CONTENTS. ] X

thought of "King Cotton." Absurd theories about European recognition. Lost
Opportunities of the Confederate Government. Blindness and littleness of mind
North and South. Reflection on public men in America. Comparison of the re
sources of the Northern and Southern States. The Census of 1860. Material ad
vantages of the North in the war. The question of subsistence. Poverty of the
South in the material and means of war. How the Confederacy was supplied with
small arms. Peculiar advantages of the South in the war. The military value
of space. Lessons of history. The success of the Southern Confederacy, a question
only of resolution and endurance. Only two possible causes of failure 120

CHAPTER VIII.

Mr. Lincoln s remark about the wolf. His designs upon Virginia. Federal occupation
of Alexandria. Tragedy at the Marshall House. Jackson, the martyr. The affair
of Great Bethel. Easy victory of the Confederates. Exaggerations of Southern
newspapers. Apparent lull of hostilities. New demonstrations of public opinion
in the North. Financial difficulties at Washington. Popular clamour against
President Lincoln and Gen. Scott. Early indications of the real objects of the war.
The rights of humanity. Virginia the great theatre of the war. The Grand
Army of the North. Consultation of President Davis and Beauregard and Lee*
Beauregard s line of defence in Northern Virginia. Sketch of General Beauregard.
His person and manners. His opinion of the Yankee. The Army of the Potomac
and the Army of the Shenandoah. Gen. Johnson s evacuation of Harper s Ferry.
" Stonewall " Jackson s first affair with the enemy. Johnston amusing tha
enemy. Affair of Rich Mountain. McClellan s march into Northwestern Virginia.
Rosecrans capture of the Confederate force on Rich Mountain. Retreat of the
Confederates from Laurel Hill. Death of Gen. Garnett. Extent of the disaster to
the Confederates. The "Grand Army" advancing on Manassas. Johnston s move
ment to Beauregard s line. The Battle of Manassas. The affair of 18th July.
Longstreet s gallant defence. Theatre of the great battle. Beauregard s change
of purpose, and his plan of battle. The Stone Bridge. The "Big Forest." The
Confederates flanked. The day apparently lost for them. The scene at the
Henry House. Timely arrival of Jackson. Gen. Beauregard disconcerted. Rida
from, the Hill to the Henry House. The battle restored. The bloody plateau.
Three stages in the battle. The last effort of the enemy. The strange flag.
Arrival of Kirby Smith. The grand and final Charge. Rout and panic of the
enemy. The fearful race to the Potomac. Scenes of the retreat. Failure of the
Confederates to pursue, or to advance upon Washington. A lost opportunity. . .134

CHAPTER IX.

The victory of Manassas, a misfortune for the Confederates. Relaxation in Rich
mond. Plotting among Confederate leaders for the Presidential succession.
Beauregard s political letter. Active and elastic spirit of the North. Resolution
of the Federal Congress. Energy of the Washington Administration. Its immense
preparations for the prosecution of the war. The Missouri campaign. The politics
of Missouri. Sterling Price and his party. Imprudence and violence of the Federal
authorities in Missouri. Correspondence between Gens. Price and Harney. Gov.
Jackson s proclamation. Military condition of Missouri. Her heroic choice.
Affair at Booneville. Composition of the patriot army of Missouri. Engagement
at Carthage. Confederate reinforcements under McCulloch. Disagreement be
tween Price and McCulloch. Noble conduct of Price. The Battle of Oak Hill.
McCulloch surprised. A fierce fight. Death of Gen. Lyon. The Federals, de-



X CONTENTS.

feated. Withdrawal of McCulloch s forces into Arkansas. Operations in Northern
Missouri. Fremont in command of the Federal forces in Missouri. His proclama
tion emancipating the slaves. Its novelty and brutality. Repudiated at "Washing
ton. The siege of Lexington. Its surrender to Price. Gallantry of Col. Mulligan.
Critical position of Price. His disappointment of Confederate succour. His
adroit retreat. Missouri s ordinance of secession. Fremont superseded. Three
military messengers in pursuit of him. Excitement in his camp. Price at Spring
field. Close of the first campaign in Missouri. The campaign, a chapter of
wonders. Missouri manhood. The "Western Virginia campaign. Eesources and
wealth of the Western section of Virginia. Wise s command. The enemy in the
Kanawha Valley. Wise s retreat to Lewisburg. The Floyd brigade. Advance of
the joint forces towards the Gauley. The affair at Cross Lanes. Movement of
Rosecrans. Affair of Carnifax Ferry. Floyd and Wise fall back towards Sewell
Mountain. An unfortunate Quarrel of Commanders. Operations of Gen. Lee in
Northwestern Virginia. His failure at Cheat Mountain. Col. Rust s part in the
affair. Movement of Lee to the line of Lewisburg. How Rosecrans escaped from
him. Engagement of the Greenbrier River. Gen. H. R. Jackson s success.
Failure of the Western Virginia campaign. Gen. Lee s new command 152

CHAPTER X.

The Congress in Washington. New development of Northern policy. Lincoln s po
litical discovery. His remarkable measures of War. An era of despotism.
Violent acts of Congress. The seed of Abolition. Suspension of the habeas
corpus. Curious apology for it. Military arrests. A "Confidential" document
from McClellan. Curious disposition of the Northern people to surrender their
liberties. Conservatism of the Confederate cause. Lincoln s view of State
" Neutrality " in the war. Application of it to Kentucky. The elections in Ken
tucky. The Confederates anticipate the Federal occupation of Kentucky. Zolli-
coffer s command. Polk s command. Justification of the Confederate occupation.
Claims and designs of the Federals in Kentucky. Polk s occupation of Columbus.
His proffer of withdrawal. Arrests in Kentucky. Despotic and brutal legisla
tion. Distinguished refugees. Breckinridge s address. Early military movements
in Kentucky. Zollicoffer s operations. Buckner s occupation of Bowling Green.
The Battle of Belmont. Movement of U. S. Grant. Gen. Pillow s command en
gaged at disadvantage. The Confederates driven back. Timely reinforcements.
Sudden conversion of a defeat into a victory. Retreat of Grant. His official
misrepresentation of the day. Prospect of the war in the West 175

CHAPTER XI.

The fickle public of the North. Gen. Scott. The clamour for McClellan. His exalta
tion in the newspapers. The theatrical and sensational mind of the North.
Advance of the Confederates towards the Potomac. McClellan s designs. The
Confederates fall back to Centreville. The Battle of Leesburg. McClellan s move
ment on the Confederate left. Evans brigade. Fortunate capture of a Federal
courier. The Federals cross the Potomac and occupy Ball s Bluff. Splendid
charge of the Confederates. Death of Col. Baker. The enemy driven into the
River. An appalling spectacle of death. Misrepresentations in Washington.
Morale of M Clellan s army. The affair at Dranesville. Defeat of Stuart,
" Stonewall " Jackson s new command. His expedition from Winchester. Ter
rible sufferings of his command. His demonstration at Bath. His movement to
Roniney, and return to Winchester. Close if the First Year s Campaign in Vir-



CONTENTS. XI

ginia. Naval operations in 1861. The enemy s immense advantage in his navy.
Statistics of the Federal navy. Improvidence of the Confederates in coast and
river defences. Secretary Mallory. The Confederacy to lose all her sea-ports.
Two naval expeditions down the Carolina coast. Engagement at Hatteras Inlet.



Online LibraryEdward Alfred PollardThe lost cause : a new southern history of the war of the Confederates : comprising a full and authentic account of the rise and progress of the late southern Confederacy--the campaigns, battles, incidents, and adventures of the most gigantic struggle of the world's history → online text (page 1 of 90)