~ag d iy HIE
ET-TERS ON DAVIS
THE LOST CAUSE;
A FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE LATE
SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY THE CAMPAIGNS, BATTLES, INCIDENTS, AND
ADVKNTURES OF THE MOST GIGANTIC STRUGGLE OF
THE WORLD S HISTORY.
DRAWN FROM OFFICIAL SOURCES, AND APPROVED BY THE MOST
DISTINGUISHED CONFEDERATE LEADERS.
EDWARD A. POLLARD, OF VIRGINIA,
Late Editor of the Richmond Examiner.
.A-IlSriD ZEZJSrL-A-IRGKKJID ZEZDXTIOHST.
INCLUDING THE LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF
BY WM. F. SAMFORD, LL.D., OF ALABAMA.
WITH MEMORIAL SERVICES.
ILLUSTRATED WITH STEEL ENGRAVED PORTRAITS.
SOLD BY SUBSCRI1
E. B. TREAT, PUBLISHER, 5 COOPER UNION,
CHICAGO, 199 CLARK STREET.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by
E. B. TREAT & CO.,
In the Clerk s office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York.
^ J//J -
INTRODUCTION TO THE NEW AND ENLARGED EDITION.
IN presenting a second edition of "The Lost Cause," occasioned by the
extraordinary and increasing demand for the work, the author has much
to acknowledge and remember gratefully of the consideration lie has
obtained, and yet something to say of some companies of unfriendly
He can afford to wait the public judgment on a history which
his publishers assure him has already obtained more than half a million
of readers. He is quite content with the success of his work ; he has
no disposition to expedite interest in it by unnecessary controversy ; but
there has reached him from friendly quarters a certain protest agains
his work, which deserves to be noticed, and makes the occasion for an
explanation which he has sincerely sought. It is that his book is par
ticularly hostile to ex-President Davis, and manifests a general "prejudice"
towards the civil rulers of the Confederacy. This notion, evidently
honest with many who have been imposed upon by garbled extracts
from u The Lost Cause," or downwright misrepresentations of the reviewer,
has really concerned and mortified the author. It is time that the public
was disabused of this notion, which will best be done by a careful and
candid reading of the book, and that a proper line be drawn between
just historical criticism and vile personal denunciation.
While the author has obtained from many parts of the world, arid
from the most enlightened portions of Europe, assurances that his his
tory has done so much to clear and adorn the name of the South in
the late war, and has been of signal advantage to the reputation of his
country, it has pained him to see some peculiar criticisms in Southern
. journals, emanating invariably from a class that thinks it has not pro
perly been distinguished in the record of events. But he wrote this
Listory in allegiance to the truth, and in the interest of the people of
INTRODUCTION TO THE NEW AND ENLAKGED EDITION.
the South, and not in behalf of any, combination of mutual admirers.
The consequence is, that a certain General does not think his figuro
quite large enough in the gallery of "The Lost Cause;" another com
plains that there is omitted from its pages some cross-roads battle in the
trans-Mississippi, which he thinks " the most important battle of the
war ; " and a third declares that, with malice prepense against the dis
tinguished officer who figured on the occasion, the author has taken no
notice of the capture of some tug in the North Carolina swash !
The author admits that there are events of the war, which the actors
thought very important, that he has not detailed ; and he should consider
himself utterly unworthy of the task of the historian, if he had attempted a
record of the war by an enumeration of events, after the fashion of the
modern almanac, having no regard to the proportion of incidents and the
dramatic unity of the narrative.
But in the interest of truth, in the vindication and honour of the people
of the South, in their service, wherein his pen has been enlisted, he does
point with pride to the extraordinary favour with which the history he has
written under the title of " The Lost Cause" has been received by the
first authorities in the critical literature of this country and of Europe. He
is proud to know that leading English journals have declared that his
book has put to rest forever the ghastly stories of Anderson ville, and
relieved the South from the charge of such atrocities. He is proud to
know that it has obtained the honour of a translation into the French
language, and found a sale in all the countries of Europe, and that edu
cated men have given it a prominent place in the historical literature
of the age, and declare it the crowning vindication of the Southern cause.
If the author of " The Lost Cause" had done nothing more than answer
to the attention and satisfaction of the world the charge of " rebel barbari
ties," this alone should entitle him to the consideration and gratitude of the
South. But he intends to make other claims on their regard ; and his pen
has not yet stopped, and is now busy on another theme of Southern glory,
in which the mass of his countrymen will find a new illumination of the
Confederate name, and an arrangement of the ornaments of their arms, no 1
unlikely to obtain the envy of their enemies and the regard of the world.
EDWARD ALFRED POLLARD.
THE facts of the War of the Confederates in America have been at the
mercy of many temporary agents ; they have been either confounded with
sensational rumours, or discoloured by violent prejudices : in this condition
they are not only not History, but false schools of present public opinion.
By composing a severely just account of the War on the basis of cotern-
porary evidence ascertaining and testing its facts, combining them in
compact narrative, and illustrating them by careful analyses of the spirit
of the press, not only in this country, but in Europe, the author aspires to
place the history of the "War above political misrepresentations, to draw it
from disguises and concealments, and to make it complete in three depart
ments : the record of facts ; the accounts of public opinion existing with
them ; and the lessons their context should convey or inspire. These
three are the just elements of History. If the author succeeds in what he
proposes, he will have no reason to boast that he has produced any great
literary wonder ; but he will claim that he has made an important contri
bution to Truth, and done something to satisfy curiosity without " sensa
tion," and to form public opinion without violence.
The author desires to add an explanation of the plan of composition he
has pursued in the work. It is impossible to write history as an intelligi
ble whole, and to secure its ends, without preserving a certain dramatic
unity in the narrative. It is by such unity that the lesson of history is
conveyed, and its impression properly effected ; and to do this it becomes
necessary to discard from the n-arrative many small incidents, either epi-
sodal in their nature, or of no importance in the logical chain of events.
With this view, the author has paid but little attention to small occur
rences of the war which in no way affected its general fortunes, and has
measured his accounts of battles and of other events by the actual extent
of their influence on the grand issues of the contest. Instead of a con
fused chronological collection of events, he has sought to prepare for the
reader a compact and logical narrative that will keep his attention close
to the main movement of the story, and put instruction as to causes hand
in hand with the information of events.
JEFFERSON DAVIS FRONTISPIECE.
A. H. STEPHENS 176
J. P. BENJAMIN "
HENRY A. WISE "
J. C. BRECKENRIDGE "
WM. L. YANCEY "
J. M. MASON "
JOHN SLIDELL "
ROBERT E. LEE 338
"STONEWALL" JACKSON 490
P. T. BEAUREGARI)
R. S. EWELL. . . , "
A. P. HILL "
A. S. JOHNSON , "
J. E. B. STUART. "
J. E. JOHNSTON 661
BRAXTON BRAGG 714
W. B. FORREST
LEONID AS POLK
J. B. HOOD
W. J. HARDEE *
JOHN MORGAN "
thought of "King Cotton." Absurd theories about European recognition. Lost
Opportunities of the Confederate Government. Blindness and littleness of rnind
North and South. Reflection on public men in America. Comparison of the re
sources of the Northern and Southern States. The Census of 1800. Material ad
vantages of the North in the war. The question of subsistence. Poverty of tha
South in the material and means of war. How the Confederacy was supplied with
small arms. Peculiar advantages of the South in the war. The military value
of space. Lessons of history. The success of the Southern Confederacy, a question
only of resolution and endurance. Only two possible causes of failure 120
Mr. Lincoln s remark about the wolf. His designs upon Virginia. -^Federal occupation
of Alexandria. Tragedy at the Marshall House. Jackson, the martyr. The affair
of Great -Bethel. Easy victory of the Confederates. Exaggerations of Southern
newspapers. Apparent lull of hostilities. New demonstrations of public opinion
in the North. Financial difficulties at Washington.*^ropular clamour against
President Lincoln and Gen. Scott.-*^Early indications of the real objects of the war.
The rights of humanity. Virginia the great theatre of the war. The Grand
Army of the North. Consultation of President Davis and Beauregard and Lee.
Beauregard s line of defence in Northern Virginia. Sketch of General Beauregard.
His person and manners. His opinion of the Yankee. The Army of the Potomao
and the Army of the Shenandoah. Gen. Johnson s evacuation of Harper s Ferry.
"Stonewall" Jackson s first affair with the enemy. Johnston amusing the
enemy. Affair of Rich Mountain. McClellan s march into Northwestern Virginia.
Rosecrans capture of the Confederate force on Rich Mountain. Retreat of the
Confederates from Laurel Hill. Death of Gen. Garnett. Extent of the disaster to
the Confederates. The "Grand Army" advancing on Manassas. Johnston s move
ment to Beauregard s line. The Battle of Manassas. The affair of 18th July.
Longstreet s gallant defence. Theatre of the great battle. Beauregard s change
of purpose, and his plan of battle. The Stone Bridge. The " Big Forest." The
Confederates flanked. The day apparently lost for them. The scene at the
Henry House. Timely arrival of Jackson. Gen. Beauregard disconcerted. Ride
from the Hill to the Henry House. The battle restored. The bloody plateau.
Three stages in the battle* The last effort of the enemy. The strange flag.
Arrival of Kirby Smith. The grand and final Charge. Rout and panic of the
enemy. The fearful race to the Potomac. Scenes of the retreat. Failure of the
Confederates to pursue, or to advance upon Washington. A lost opportunity. . .134
The victory of Manassas, a misfortune for the Confederates. Relaxation in Rich
mond. Plotting among Confederate leaders for the Presidential succession.
Beauregard s political letter. Active and elastic spirit of the North. ^Resolution
of the Federal Congress. Energy of the Washington Administration.^Its immense
preparations for the prosecution of the war.^ The Missouri campaign. The politics
of Missouri. Sterling Price and his party. Imprudence and violence of the Federal
authorities in Missouri. Correspondence between Gens. Prico and Harney. Gov.
Jackson s proclamation. Military condition of Missouri. Her heroic choice.
Affair at Booneville. Composition of the patriot army of Missouri. Engagement
at Carthage. Confederate reinforcements under McCulloch. Disagreement be
tween Price and McCulloch. Noble conduct of Price. The Battle of Oak Hill.
McCullooh surprised. A fierce fight. Death of Gen. Lyo-n. The Federals de-
feated- Withdrawal of McCulloch s forces into Arkansas. Operations m Northern
Missouri.-Fremont in commandpf the Federal forces in Misspuri.-His proclama-
tion emancipating the slaves.*^ novelty and brutality. ^Kepudiated at Washing,
ton J*The siege of Lexington. -Its surrender to Price.-Gallantry of Col. Mulligan,
-Critical position of Price.-Bis disappointment of Confederate succour.-Hi*
adroit retreat-Missouri s ordinance of secession. -Fremont superseded.-!^
military messengers in pursuit of hhn.-Excitement in his camp. Price at Spring,
field -Close of the first campaign in Missouri. The campaign, a chapter oi
wonders. Missouri manhood. The Western Virginia campaign.-Resources am
wealth of the Western section of Virginia. Wise s command. The enemy in th<
Kanawha Valley. Wise s retreat to Lewisburg.-The Floyd brigade. Advance o
the joint forces towards the Gauley. The uffair at Cross Lanes. Movement o
Rosecrans. Affair of Carnifax Ferry. Floyd and Wise fall back towards Sewel
Mountain. An unfortunate Quarrel of Commanders. Operations of Gen. Lee ii
Northwestern Virginia. His failure at Cheat Mountain. Col. Rust s part in th
affair. Movement of Lee to the line of Lewisburg. How Rosecrans escaped fror
him Engagement of the Greenbrier River. Gen. H. R. Jackson s success.-
Failure of the Western Virginia campaign. Gen. Lee s new command 15!
The Congress in Washington.-^ew development of Northern policy. Lincoln s pc
litical discovery.^fris remarkable measures of War.<kn era of despotisrn.-
Violent acts of Congress.^The seed of Abolition.-^Suspension of the habes
corpus.-^6urious apology for it.^iilitary arrests. A "Confidential" documer
from MoOlellan. Curious disposition of the Northern people to surrender the;
liberties. Conservatism of the Confederate cause. Lincoln s- view of Stal
"Neutrality" in the war.-^ppli cation of it to Kentucky. The elections in Kei
tucky. The Confederates anticipate the Federal occupation of Kentucky. Zoll
coffer s command. Folk s command. Justification of the Confederate occupatioi
Claims and designs of the Federals in Kentucky. Folk s occupation of Columbu
His proffer of withdrawal. -Arrests in Kentucky. Despotic and brutal legisl;
tion. Distinguished refugees. Breckinridge s address. -Early military movemen
in Kentucky. Zollicoffer s operations. Buckner s occupation of Bowling Green.-
The Battle of Belmont. Movement of U. S. Grant. Gen. Pillow s command ei
gaeed at disadvantage. The Confederates driven back. Timely reinforcements.-
Sudden conversion of a defeat into a victory. Retreat of Grant. His offici
misrepresentation of the day. Prospect of the war in the West 1
The fickle public of the North. Gen. Scott. The clamour for McClellan. His exalt
tion in the newspapers. The theatrical and sensational mind of the North.-
Advance of the Confederates towards the Potomac. McClellan s designs. T
Confederates fall back to Centreville. The Battle of Leesburg. McClellan s mov
ment on the Confederate left. Evans brigade. Fortunate capture of a Fedei
courier. The Federals cross the Potomac and occupy Ball s Bluff. Splenr]
charge of the Confederates. Death of Col. Baker. The enemy driven into t
River. An appalling spectacle of death. Misrepresentations in Washington.
Morale of M Clellan s army. The affair at Dranesville. Defeat of Stuart.
44 Stonewall " Jackson s new command. His expedition from Winchester. T(
rible sufferings of his command. His demonstration at Eath. His movement
Romney, and return to Winchester. Clo?* of the First Year s Campaign in V
ginia. Naval operations in 1861. The enemy s immense advantage in his navy.
Staiistics of the Federal navy. Improvidence of the Confederates in coast and
river defences. Secretary Mallory. The Confederacy to lose all her sea-ports.
Two naval expeditions down the Carolina coastEngagement at Hatter as Inlet.
An unequal combat. The Port Royal expedition. Capture of Port RoyaJ. Value
of this Federal success. The " Trent " affair. Capture of Commissioners Mason JL
and Slidell. An English commander s protest. Great indignation in England.
Preparations there for war. Conceit and exultation of the North. Tributes and
attentions to Capt. Wilkes. Concern among the Confederates. WhatRichmond
orators said. Seward s correspondence with the British Government/ His col
lapse. The last resort of demagogueistn. Disappointment of the Confederates in
the termination of the u Trent " affair. t^Earl Russell s declaration in Parliament.-^-
Mr. Gregory s reply. The Treaty of Paris and the Federal blockade 185
General character of the military events of the year 1862. The Confederate situation
in Kentucky. Gen. A. S. Johnston s command and position. Battle of Fishing
Creek. The Confederate right in Kentucky. Gen. Crittenden s command in ex
treme straits. Difficulty in subsisting it. The decision to give battle to the
enemy. Zollicoffer 8 brigade. The contested hill. Death of Zollicoffer. Defeat
of the Confederates. Crittenden crosses the Cumberland. His losses. Import
ance of the disaster. Designs of the enemy in Western Kentucky. Popular de
lusion as to Johnston s strength. Hopelessness of his defence. Official apathy in
Richmond. Beauregard s conference with Johnston. The Tennessee and Cumber
land rivers. The avenue to Nashville. Grant s ascent of the Tennessee. Cap
ture of Fort Henry. Noble and gallant conduct of Gen. Tilghman. Battle of Fort
Donelson. Johnston s reasons for making a battle there. Commands of Buckner,
Pillow, and Floyd. Site and strength of the fort. Battle of the trenches. En
gagement of the gunboats. Two days success of the Confederates. Suffering of
the troops from cold. Exposure of the wounded. Federal reinforcements. The
Confederate council of war. Plan of attack, to extricate the garrison. A fierce
and terrible conflict. The Federals forced back towards the Wynn s Ferry Road.
The opportunity of exit lost. Gen. Buckner s explanation. A commentary
on military hesitation. How the day was lost. Nine hours of combat Scenes
on the battle-field. Council of Confederate generals. Gen. Pillow s proposition.
Literal report of the conversation of Gens. Floyd, Pillow, and Buckner. A sur
render determined. Escape of Floyd and Pillow. Buckner s letter to Grant.
Johnston s movement to Nashville. Excitement there. Retreat of Johnston s
command to Murfreesboro . Panic in Nashville. Capture of Roanoke Island by the
enemy. Burnside s expedition. Gen. Wise s estimate of the importance of Roan
oke Island. His correspondence and interviews with Secretary Benjamin. De
fences of the Island. Naval engagement. Commodore Lynch s squadron. Land
ing of the enemy on the Island. Defective reconnoissance of the Confederates.
Their works flanked. The surrender. Pursuit of the Confederate gunboats.
Extent of the disaster. Censure of the Richmond authorities. Benjamin accused
by the Confederate Congress 198*
True causes of the Confederate disasters in the second year of the war. The enemy s
" Anaconda plan." Rebukes to the vanity of the Confederates. The sum of their
disasters. Inauguration of tlie Permanent Government of the Confederate States.-
Gloomy scene in Capitol Square. President Davis speech. Commentary of a
Richmond journal. Causes of popular animation in the Confederacy. Develop
ment of the enemy s design upon slavery. History of the Anti-slavery measures
of Lincoln s administration.-^^is early declaration of non-interference with sla
very. Mr. Seward in 1860.-^Lincoln s statement, March 4th, 1861. -Diplomatic
declaration, April, 1861,-^Early affectations of Lincoln s Administration on the
subject of slavery.-*<M Clellan s address? M Dowell s order. Revocation of the
emancipation measures of Fremont and Hunter. First act of Anti-slavery legisla
tion at Washington. Lovejoy s resolution. The Anti-slavery clause in the Confis
cation Act. Three notable measures of anti-slavery legislation. Commencement
of the Emancipation policy in the District of Columbia. Explanation of the ascen
dancy of the Abolition party during the war. The new Confederate Congress.
Its vigour. The old Provisional Congress. Its measures. Its echoes to Federal
legislation. The sequestration law. Silly and demagogical military legislation.
The " Sixty Days furlough " law. Alarm of Gen. Johnston. Indisposition of
Confederate volunteers to re-enlist. The Conscription law qf the Confederate
States. Its timely passage. Its provisions and effect. Other military acts of the
Confederate Congress. Re-organization of the army. Destruction of Southern
cotton and tobacco. Authorization, of partisan service. Alternations of Confede
rate victory and defeat. The Trans -Mississippi. Battle of Elk Horn. Van Dorn s
command. An obstinate fight. Death of M Culloch. The Confederate success
indecisive and imperfect. Reasons for Van Dorn s retreat. Confederate designs
upon Missouri abandoned for the present. Transfer of Yan Dorn s and Price s
forces. Naval fight in Hampton Roads. The Virginia and the Monitor Lack of
naval enterprise in the Confederacy. The privateer service. Construction of the
Virginia. Confederate squadron in the James River. Federal fleet off Fortress
Monroe. Fearful enterprise of the Virginia. Sinking of the Cumberland. Gal
lantry of her crew. A thrilling ccene of heroic devotion. Surrender of the Con
gress. Frightful scenes of carnage. Perfidious conduct of the enemy. The
Virginia engages the Minnesota. Wonderful results of the first day s fight
Second day s fight. Apparition of the Monitor. A singular scene of naval com
bat A drawn battle. Excitement about iron vessels. Discussion in the news
papers. Addition of Ironclads to the Federal navy. What M Clellan thought of
the Virginia. Capture of Newbern, &c. Objects of Burnside s expedition.
Branch s command at Newbern. The Confederate works on the Neuse River.
Retreat of Branch. Federal occupation of Newbern. Capture of Fort Macon.
The entire coast of North Carolina in possession of the enemy. The sea-coast
an unimportant part of the Confederate defences 214
e new line of Confederate defence south of Nashville. Its objects. Co-operation
of Johnston and Beauregard. Capture of Island No. 10 by the enemy. Gen.
Polk s evacuation of Columbus. M Cown s occupation of Island No. 10 and
New Madrid. Condition of the defences at these places. Pope moving on
New Madrid. Smallness of M Cown s force. Pope s strength in artillery.
His occupation of Point Pleasant. A terrific bombardment Evacuation of Ne\v
Madrid. Effect of this movement. Bombardment of Island No. 10. Gallant
defence of Rucker s battery. Transfer of a portion of M Cown s forces to Fort
Pillow. His preparations for retreat. Gen. Mackall assigned to the defence of
CONTENTS. Xl iJ
the Island. Canal cut by the enemy across the Peninsula. Two gunboats pas^
the Island. Mackall s surrender. Wretched management of the evacuation of
the Island. Great loss of Confederate artillery. The Battle of Shiloh. Concen
tration of Confederate forces at Corinth. Grant s lines at Pittsburg. Bue l
advancing from Nashville. Design of the Confederates to attack before the
junction of these forces. Unfortunate loss of a day in the march. The Confed
erate plan of battle. The enemy driven from his encampments. Splendid and
irresistible charge of the Confederates. Tragical death of Gen. Johnston. The
Confederates press on in their career of victory. Grant in the last extremity of
defeat. He retreats to the banks of the Tennessee. Beauregard s order for u
cessation of the conflict. A fatal halt. Explanation of it. Beauregard s great
mistake. Demoralization of his troops by plunder. Buell s forces across the
Tennessee. The second day s action. The Confederates fall back. Overwhelm
ing force of the enemy. Odds of the second day s battle. The enemy does not
attempt a pursuit. A frightful sum of carnage. BeauregaitTs claim of success.
Federal interpretation of the battle. Exultation at Washington. Death of
Johnston, a serious loss to the Confederacy. Sketch of his military life.
President Davis tribute to the fallen hero. His obsequies in New Orleans 232
The military situation of the lower Mississippi. The fall of New Orleans. A long
train of secret history of the Confederate Administration. Sense of security in
New Orleans. Strange errour of the Richmond authorities. Gen. Lovell s corres
pondence with the War Department. Startling disclosures. Naval structures for
the defence of New Orleans. Secretary Mallory s statement to the Confedernie
. Congress. Testimony of Gov. Moore, of Louisiana. His interposition with the ship