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Edward Alfred Pollard.

The lost cause; a new southern history of the war of the Confederates. Comprising a full and authentic account of the rise and progress of the late southern confederacy--the campaigns, battles, incidents, and adventures of the most gigantic struggle of the world's history. Drawn from official source online

. (page 1 of 92)
Online LibraryEdward Alfred PollardThe lost cause; a new southern history of the war of the Confederates. Comprising a full and authentic account of the rise and progress of the late southern confederacy--the campaigns, battles, incidents, and adventures of the most gigantic struggle of the world's history. Drawn from official source → online text (page 1 of 92)
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THE LOST CAUSE;



% ^rity SoEt|eni l^istorj) of t|e Satar of t|e Coitfeknttd.



COMPEISINO



A FULL AND AUTBENTIO ACCOUNT OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE LATE SOUTHERN
CONFEDERACY— THE CAMPAIGNS, BATTLES, INCIDENTS, AND ADVEN-
TURES OF THE MOST GIGANTIC STRUGGLE OF THE
WORLD'S HISTORY.



DRAWN FROM OFFICIAL SOURCES, AND APPROVED BY THE MOST DIS-
TINGUISHED CONFEDERATE LEADERS.



BY



EDWARD A. POLLARD, of Yieginia,

NEW AND ENLARG-ED EDITION.^
WITH NUMEROUS SPLENDID STEEL PORTRAITS.



SOLD ONLY BY SUBSCRIPTION.



fcto |orIi : ^

E. B. TREAT & CO., PUBLISHERS.

BALTIMORE, Md. : J. 8. MORRO'W. ST. LOUIS. Mo : I. S. BEAINERD.

NEW ORLEANS, La. : J. H. HUMMEL. LOUISVILLE, Kt. : F. L DIBBLE

CUICAGO, III.: C. W. LILLEY.

1867.

«

Z H ^







^



^



PUBLISHERS' NOTICE.



We take pleasure in presenting the Fifty-third Thousand — a new and enlarged
edition — of the Lost Cause, with the assurance that it is the latest and most
complete History of the War published. The entire work has been written since
the close of the war, and is brought down to the release of President Davis (May,
18G7). The value and importance of this work have also been greatly increased
by the addition of a new and comprehensive map of the military operations during
the war of 1861-5 (arranged expressly to accompany the present edition), giving
all the important battle-fields (in colors), all the railroads, State and county lines,
and making the most complete and reliable map of the kind published.



/■



^ E. B. Treat & Co.

New York, 1867.



' ;t



'/



Entered according to Act of Congress, in tho year 1S6T, by

E. B. TUEAT & CO.,

In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States for tho Southern District of New Tork.



/ ^ 3






INTKODUCTION TO THE NEW AND ENLAEGED EDITION.



In presenting a second edition of "The Lost Cause," occasioned by the
extraordinary and increasing demand for the work, the author has much
to acknowledge and remember gratefully of the consideration he has
obtained, and yet something to say of some companies of unfriendly
critics.

He can afford to wait the public judgment on a history which
his publishers assure him has already obtained more than .half a million
of readers. He is quite content with the success of his work ; he has
DO disposition to expedite interest in it by unnecessary controversy ; but
there has reached him from friendly quarters a certain protest agains
his work, which deserves to be noticed, and makes the occasion for an
explanation which he has sincerely sought. It is that his book is par-
ticularly hostile to ex-President Davis, and manifests a general "prejudice"
towards the civil rulers of the Confederacy. This notion, evidently
honest with many who have been imposed upon by garbled extracts
from " The Lost Cause," or downwright misrepresentations of the reviewer,
has really concerned and mortified the author. It is time that the public
was disabused of this notion, — which will best be done by a careful and
candid reading of the book, — and that a proper line be drawn between
just historical criticism and vile personal denunciation.

While the author has obtained from many parts of the world, and
from the most enlightened portions of Europe, assurances that his his-
tory has done so much to clear and adorn the name of the South in
the late war, and has been of signal advantage to the reputation of his
country, it has pained him to see some peculiar criticisms in Southern
journals, emanating invariably from a class that thinks it has not pro-
perly been distinguished in the record of events. But he wrote this
history iu allegiance to the truth, and in the interest of the feepla of



INTRODUCTION TO THE NEW AND ENLARGED EDITION.

the South, and not in behalf of any combination of mutual admirers.
The consequence is, that a certain General does not think his figure
quite large enough in the gallery of " The Lost Cause ; " another com-
plains that there is omitted from its pages some cross-roads battle in the
trans-Mississippi, which he thinks " the most important battle of the
war ; " and a third declares that, with malice prepense against the dis-
tinguished officer who figured on the occasion, the author has taken no
notice of the capture of some tug in the North Carolina swash !

The author admits that there are events of the war, which the actors
thought very important, that he has not detailed ; and he should consider
himself utterly unworthy of the task of the historian, if he had attempted a
record of the war by an enumeration of events, after the fashion of the
modern almanac, having no regard to the proportion of incidents and the
dramatic unity of the narrative. ,

But in the interest of truth, in the vindication and honoiir of the people
of the South, in their service, wherein his pen has been enlisted, he does
point with pride to the extraordinary favour with which the history "he has
written under the title of "The Lost Cause" has been received by the
first authorities in the critical literature of this country and of Europe. He
is proud to know that leading English journals have declared that his
book has put to rest forever the ghastly stories of Andersonville, and
relieved the South from the charge of such atrocities. He is proud to
know that it has obtained the honour of a translation into the Erench
language, and found a sale in all the countries of Europe, and that edu-
cated men have given it a prominent place in the historical literature
of the age, and declare it the crowning vindication of the Southern cause.

If the author of " The Lost Cause" had done nothing more than answer
to the attention and satisfaction of the world the charge of " rebel barbari-
ties," this alone should entitle him to the consideration and gratitude of the
South. But he intends to make other claims on their regard ; and his pen
has not yet stopped, and is now busy on another theme of Southern glory,
in which the mass of his countrymen will find a new illumination of the
Confederate name, and an arrangement of the ornaments of their arms, not
unlikely to obtain the envy of their enemies and the regard of the world.

Edwaed Alfred Pollard.

Virginia, 186T.



INTRODUCTION.



The facts of the "War of the Confederates in America have been at the
mercy of many temporary agents ; they have been either confounded with
sensational rumours, or discoloured by vdolent prejudices : in this condition
they are not only not History, but false schools of present public opinion.
By composing a severely just account of the War on the basis of cotem-
porary evidence — ascertaining and testing its facts, combining tliem in
compact narrative, and illustrating them by careful analyses of the spirit
of the press, not only in this country, but in Europe, the author aspires to
place the history of the War above political misrepresentations, to draw it
from disguises and concealments, and to make it complete in three depart-
ments : the record of facts ; the accounts of public opinion existing with
them ; and the lessons their context should convey or inspire. These
three are the just elements of History. If the author succeeds in what he
proposes, he will have no reason to boast that he has produced any great
literary wonder ; but he will claim that he has made an important contri-
bution to Truth, and done something to satisfy curiosity without " sensa-
tion," and to form public opinion without violence.

The au.thor desires to add an explanation of the plan of composition he
has pursued in the work. It is impossible to write history as an intelligi-
/-4)ie-whole, and to secure its ends, without preserving a certain dramatic
imity in the narrative. It is by such unity that the lesson of history is
conveyed, and its impression properly effected ; and to do this it becomes
necessary to discard from the nurrative many small incidents, either epi-
sodal in their nature, or of no importance in the logical chain of events.
With this view, the author has paid but little attention to small occur-
rences of the Avar which in no way affected its general fortunes, and has
measured his accounts of battles and of other events by the actual extent
of their influence on the grand issues of the contest. Instead of a con-
fused chronological collection of events, he has sought to prepare for the
reader a compact and logical narrative that will keep his attention close
to the main movement of the story, and put instruction as to causes hand
in hand with the information of events.



ILLUSTRATIONS.



PlOB

JEFFERSON DAVIS frontispiecb.

A. H. STEPHENS 176

J. P. BENJAMIN "

HENRY A. WISE "

J. C. BRECKENRIDGE "

WM. L. YANCEY "

J. M. MASON "

JOHN SLIDELL "

ROBERT E. LEE 338

"STONEWALL" JACKSON 490

P. T. BEAUREGARD "

R. S. EWELL "

A. P. HILL "

J. LONGSTREET "

A. S. JOHNSON «

J. E. B. STUART «

J. E. JOHNSTON 661

BRAXTON BRAGG 714

KIRBY SMITH "

W. B. FORREST «

LEONIDAS POLK "

J. B. HOOD «

W. J. HARDEE «

JOHN MORGAN "



CONTENTS.



CHAPTEPw I.

True value ot tl/e federal principle. — Historical examples. — Coleridge's prophecy.— Early
Mission of the American Union. — IIow terminated. — The American system of Gov-
ernment a mixed one. — The Colonial period. — First proposition of a General Con-
gress.— Declaration of Independence.— Articles of Confederation.— Their occasion
and origin.— Nature of the compact.— Peace-treaty of 1783. — Analysis of the nature
and value of the Confederation. — How it was terminated. — The Convention of

1787. — Character of the men who composed it. — Political idolatry in America.

Parties in the Conventioo. — The question of Representation. — The novelty of the
American Constitution the result of an accident. — State Rights. — Amendments to
the Constitution. — Nature of the American Union. — Not a Consolidated nation-
ality. — The Right of Secession. — The Union not the proclamation of a new civil
polity. — Not a political revolution. — A convenience of the States, with no mission
apart from the States. — The two political schools of America. — Consolidation and
State Rights. — How the Slavery question was involved. — A sharp antithesis. —
The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions. — "Webster and Calhoun, the anti-types of
Northern and Southern statesmanship. — Mr. Calhoun's doctrines. — " Nullification "
a Union-saving measure. — Its ingenuity and conservatism. — Calhoun's j.rofound
statesmanship. — Injustice to his memory. — How the South has been injured by
false party names 33

CHAPTER II,

The Federal principle ultimately fatal to the Union. — Other causes of disunion. — The
sectional animosity. — The geograpliical line in the Union. — How the differences
between North and South produced two distinct communities instead of rival parties
within one body politic.^^he theory of a Political North and a Pohtical South. —
Its early recognition in the Convention of 1787.— Declaration of Madison. — Mr,
Pinckney's remarks. — How the same theory was involved in the Constitution. —
fThe " Treaty" clause between North and South^The Union not the bond of diverse
States, but the rough companionship of two peoples. — Gen. Sullivan's complaint to
Washington. — The Slavery question, an incident of the sectional animosity. —
Not an independent controversy, or a moral dispute. — Political history of Negro
Slavery in the South. — How it become the subject of dispute. — The Hartfurd Con-
vention. — The Missouri Line, the preliminary trace of disunion. — Declaration of
Thomas JeiFerson.- Why the North defamed " the peculiar institution" of the South.
— Great benefits of this institution, and its contributions to the world. — " Slavery,"



n CONTENTS.

not the proper term for the institutions of labour in the ^uth. — The Slavery ques-
tion significant only of a contest for political power.-^pifferences between the
Northern and Southern populations. — Tlie anti-revolutionary period. — Traces of
tlje modern " Yankee." — How Slavery established a peculiar civilization in the South.
— Its bad and good effects summed up.-^Coarseness of Northern civilization. — No
landed gentry in the North. — Scanty appearance of the Southern country. — The
sentiments and manners of its people. — " American exaggeration," a peculiarity of
the Northern mind. — Sobriety of the South. — How these qualities were disidayed in
the Northern and Southern estimations of the Union. — " State Eights" the founda-
tion of the moral dignity of the Union. — Calhoun's picture of the Union. — A noble
vision never realized 45

CHAPTER III.

Material decline of the South in the Union. — Shifting of the numbers and enterprise of
the country from the Southern to the Northern States. — Virginia's rank among the
States at the time of the Revolution. — Commercial distress of the States after the
Revolution. — How New England suffered. — The South then reckoned the seat of
future empire. — The people and strength of America bearing Southwardly. —
Emigration to the South. — Kentucky and the vales of Frankland. — Virginia's pros-
perity, — Her early land system. — The Chesapeake. — Alexandria. — George Wash-
ington's great commercial project. — Two pictures of Virginia: 1789 and 1829. —

> An example of the decline of the South in material prosperity. — This decline not
to be attributed to Slavery. — Its true causes.— Effect of the Louisiana purchase on
the tides of emigration. — Unequal Federal legislation, as a cause of the sectional
lapse of the South in the Union. — The key to the political history of America. — A
great defect of the American Constitution.-^Population as an element of pros-
perity and power. — How this was thrown into the Northern scale. — Two sectional
measures. — Comparisons of Southern representation in Congress at the date of the
Constitution and in the year 1860. — Sectional domination of the North. — A pro-
tective Tariff. — " The Bill of abominations." — Senator Benton on the Tariff of 1828.
-r^His retrospect of the prosperity of the South. — History of the American Tariffs.
— Tariff of 1833, a deceitful Compromise. — Other measures of Northern aggrandize-
ment.^^Ijigenuity of Northern avarice. — Why the South could not use her Demo-
cratic alliance in the South to protect her interests. — This alliance one only for
party purposes. — Its value. — Analysis of the Democratic Party in the North. — The
South under the rule of a numerical majority. — Array of that majority on a sec-
tional line necessarily fatal to the Union. — When and why the South should
attempt disunion 54

CHAPTER IV.

The sectional equilibrium. — How disturbed in 1820. — Contest on the admission of
Texas. — Compromise measures of 1850. — Declaration of a " Finality." — President
Pierce's administration. — The Kansas-Nebraska bill. — Repeal of " The Missouri ^
Compromise." — Origin of the Republican party in the North. — Composition andr
character of this Party.— Amazing progress of the Anti-slavery sentiment in the
N to Washington. — Seward's pledge to
Judge Campbell. — The Commissioners deceived. — Military and Naval expeditions
from New York. — Consultation of the Cabinet on the Sumter question. — Capt.
Fox's visit to Charleston. — His project. — Objections of Gen. Scott. — Singular article
in a New York journal. — Lincoln's, hesitation. — His final device. — Seward's game
with the Commissioners. — The reduction of Fort Sumter. — Description of the Con-
federate works for the reduction of Sumter. —Beauregard demands the surrender
of the Fort. — The bombardment.— The fort on fire. — The Federal fleet takes no
part in the fight. — The surrender. — Great excitement in the North. — Its true
meaning. — The crusade against the South. — Dr. Tyng's exhortation. — Conduct of
Northern Democrats. — Dickinson, Everett, and Cochrane. — President Lincoln's
Proclamation. — His pacific protests to the Virginia Commissioners. — Secession of
Virginia. — Discontent in the Western counties. — Second secessionary movement of
the Southern States. — Violent acts of the Washington Administration. — Prepara-
tions of the Confederate Government for War. — Rush of volunteers to arras. — Pre-
sident Davis' estimate of the military necessity. — Removal of the seat of govern-
ment to Richmond. — Activity of Virginia. — Robert E. Lee. — His attachment to the
Union. — Why he joined the Confederate cause.— His speech in the State House at
Richmond. — His organization of the military force of Virginia. — Military council
in Richmond. — The early reputation of Lee 100

CHAPTER VII.

fn what sense Virginia seceded from the Union. — A new intei-pretation of the war of
the Confederates. — Influence of Virginia on the other Border States. — Replies of
these States to Lincoln's requisition for troops. — Secession of Tennessee, Arkansas,
and North Carolina. — Seizure of Federal forts in North Carolina. — Movements in
Virginia to secure the Gosport navy-yard and Harper's Ferry. — Their success. —
Burning of Federal ships. — Attitude of Maryland. — The Baltimore riot. — Chase of
Massachusetts soldiers. — Excitement in Baltimore. — Timid action of the Maryland
Legislature. — Military despotism in Maryland. — Arrests in Baltimore.— A Reign of
Terrour. — Light estimation of the war in the North. — Why the Federal Government
sought to belittle the contest. — Lincoln's view of the war as a riot. — Seward'a
Letter to the European Governments. — ^Early action of England and Franco with
respect to the war. — Mr. Gregory's letter to the London Times. — Northern conceit
about the war. — Prophecies of Northern journals. — A " Three months' war." — Ells-
worth and Billy Wilson. — Martial rage in the North. — Imperfect appreciation of the
Crisis in the South. — Early ideas of the war at Montgomery. — Secret history of the
Confederate Constitution. — Southern opinion of Yankee soldiers. — What was



CONTENTS. ]X

thoaglit of "King Cotton." — Absurd theories about European recognition. — Lost
Opportunities of the Confederate Government. — lilindness and littleness of mind
North and South. — Reflection on public men in America. — Comparison of the re-
sources of the Nortliern and Southern States. — Tlie Census of 1860, — Material ad-
vantages of the North in the war. — Tlie question of subsistence. — Poverty of the
South in the material and means of war. — How the Confederacy was supplied with
small arms. — Peculiar advantages of tlie South in the war. — The military value
of space. — Lessons of iiistory. — The success of the Southern Confedeiacy, a question
only of resolution and endurance. — Only two possible causes of failure 120

CHAPTER VIII.

Mr. Lincoln's remark about the wolf — His designs upon Virginia. — Federal occupation
of Alexandria. — Tragedy at the Marshall House. — Jackson, the martyr. — The affair
of Great Bethel. — P^asy victory of the Confederates. — Exaggerations of Southern
newspapers. — Apparent lull of hostilities. — New demonstrations of public opinion
in the North. — Financial difficulties at Washington. — Popular clamour against
President Lincoln and Gen. Scott. — Early indications of the real objects of the war.
— The rights of humanity. — Virginia the great theatre of the war. — The Grand
Army of the North. — Consultation of President Davis and Beauregard and Lee. —
Beauregard's line of defence in Northern Virginia. — Sketch of General Beauregard.
— His person and manners. — His opinion of the Yankee. — The Army of the Pctoinac
and the Army of the Shenandoah. — Gen. Johnson's evacuation of Harper's Ferry. —
"Stonewall" Jackson's first affair with the enemy. — Johnston amusing the
enemy. — Affair of Rich Mountain. — McClellau's march into Northwestern Virginia.
— Rosecrans' capture of the Confederate force on Rich Mountain. — Retreat of the
Confederates from Laurel Hill. — Death of Gen. Garnett. — Extent of the disaster to
the Confederates. — The "Grand Army" advancing on Manassas. — Johnston's move-
ment to Beauregard's line. — The Battle of Manassas. — The affair of 18th July. —
Longstreet's gallant defence. — Theatre of the great battle. — Beauregard's change
of purpose, and his plan of battle. — The Stone Bridge. — The " Big Forest." — The
Confederates flanked. — The day apparently lost for them. — The ecene at the
-Senry House. — Timely arrival of Jackson. — Gen. Beauregard disconcerted. — Ride
from the Hill to the Henry House. — The battle restored. — The bloody plateau. —
Three stages in the battle. — The last effort of the enemy. — The strange flag. —
Arrival of Kirby Smith. — The grand and final Charge. — Rout and panic of the
enemy. — The fearful race to the Potomac. — Scenes of the retreat. — Failure of the
Confederates to pursue, or to advance upon Washington, — A lost opportunity. . .134

CHAPTER IX.

The victory of Manassas, a misfortune for the Confederates. — Relaxation in Rich-
mond. — Plotting among Confederate leaders for the Presidential succession. —
Beauregard's political letter. — Active and elastic spirit of the North. — Resolution
of the Federal Congress. — Energy of the Washington Administration. — Its immense
preparations for the prosecution of the war. — The Missouri campaign. — The politics
of Missouri. — Sterling Price and his party. — Imprudence and violence of the Federal
authorities in Missouri. — Correspondence between Gens. Price and Harney. — Gov.
Jackson's proclamation. — Military condition of Missouri. — Her heroic clioice. —
Affair at Booneville. — Composition of the patriot army of Missouri. — Engagement
at Carthage. — Confederate reinforcements under McCuUoch. — Disagreement be-
tween Price and McCulloch. — Noble conduct of Price. — The Battle of Oak Hill. —
MeCullooh surprised. — A fierce fight. — Death of Gen. Lyon. — The Federals de-



X CONTENTS.

feated.— -"Withflrawal of McCullocli's forces into Arkansas. — Operations in ITorthern
Missouri. — Fremont in command of the Federal forces in Missouri. — His proclama-
tion emancipating the slaves. — Its novelty and brutality. — Eepudiated at Washing-
ton. — The siege of Lexington. — Its surrender to Price. — Gallantry of Col. Mulligan.
— Critical position of Price. — Bis disappointment of Confederate succour. — His
adroit retreat. — Missouri's ordinance of secession. — Fremont superseded. — Three
military messengers in pursuit of him. — Excitement in his camp. — Price at Spring-
field. — Close of the first campaign in Missouri. — The campaign, a chapter of
wonders. — Missouri manhood. — The "Western Vu'ginia campaign. — Eesources and
wealth of the Western section of Virginia. — Wise's command. — The enemy in the
Kanawha Valley. — Wise's retreat to Lewisburg. — The Floyd brigade. — Advance of
the joint forces towards the Gauley. — The atFair at Cross Lanes. — Movement of
Eosecrans. — Affair of Cavnifax Ferry. — Floyd and Wise fall back towards Sewell
Mountain. — An unfortunate Quarrel of Commanders. — Operations of Gen. Lee in
Northwestern Virginia. — His failure at Cheat Mountain. — Col. Eust's part in the
affiair. — Movement of Lee to the line of Lewisburg. — How Eosecrans escaped from
him. — Engagement of the Greenbrier Eiver. — Gen. H. E. Jackson's success. —
Failure of the Western Virginia campaign. — Gen. Lee's new command 152

OHAPTEEX.

The Congress in Washington. — Xew development of Northern policy. — Lincoln's po-
litical discovery. — His remarkable measures of War. — An era of despotism. —
Violent acts of Congress. — The seed of Abolition. — Suspension of the habeas
corpus. — Curious apology for it. — Military arrests. — A "Confidential" document



Online LibraryEdward Alfred PollardThe lost cause; a new southern history of the war of the Confederates. Comprising a full and authentic account of the rise and progress of the late southern confederacy--the campaigns, battles, incidents, and adventures of the most gigantic struggle of the world's history. Drawn from official source → online text (page 1 of 92)