Edward Alfred Pollard.

The second year of the war online

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Entered accordiiifr to Act of Congrest?, in ^he year 18GS,

By west a JOHNSTON,

In the Klerk's Office of tbe District Court of the Confederate ^tatts lor tte
Eastern District of Virginia.



In presenting a second volume of a popular History of the
Southern War for Independence, the author gratefully acknow-
ledges the kind reception b}'- the Southern public of his first
volume, the generous notices of the independent Press of the
Confederacy, and the encouragement of friends. He has no
disposition to entreat criticism or importune its charities.
But he would be incapable of gratitude, if he was not sensible
of the marks of public generosity which have been given
to a work which made no pretensions to severe or legiti-
mate history and ventured upon no solicitations of literary

He can afford no better vindication of the character and
objects of his work than by quoting here what was prefixed
to one of the editions of his first volume :

"Every candid mind must be sensible of the futility of
attempting a high order of historical composition in the treat-
ment of recent and incomplete events ; but it docs not follow
that the cotemporary annal, the popular narrative and other
inferiour degrees of history can have no value and interest,
because they cannot compete in accuracy with the future
retrospect of events. The vulgar notion of history is that it
is a record intended for posterity. The author contends that
history has an office to perform in the present, and ■ that one
"of the greatest values of cotemporary annals is to vindi-


catc in good time to the world the fame and reputation of

" With this object constantly in view, the author has com-
posed this work. He will accomplish his object, and be
rewarded with a complete satisfaction, if his unpretending
book shall have the effect of promoting more extensive inqui-
ries ; enlightening the present ; vindicating the principles of a
great contest to the cotemporary world ; and putting before
the living generation in a convenient form of literature, and
a{ an early and opportune time, the name and deeds of our

Eichmond, July, 1863.





The New Orleans Disaster. ..Its Consequences and Effects. ..Dispatches of
the European Commissioners ..Butler "the Beast". ..Public Opinion in Eu-
rope. ..The Atrocities of tlie Massachusetts Tjrant... Execution of Mumford...
Lesson of New Orleans. ..Spirit of Resistance in the South. ..Change in the
Fortunes of the Confederacy. ..Two Leading Causes for it. ..The Richmond
"Examiner". ..The Conscription Law. ..Governor Brown of Georgia. ..Re-or-
ganization of the Army... Abandonment of our Frontier Defences. ..The Policy
of Concentration. ..Governor Rector's Appeal... First Movements of the Sum-
mer Campaign in Virginia. ..The Retreat from Yorktown... Evacuation of Nor-
folk. ..Destruction of the "Virginia". ..Commodore Tatuall's Report. ..Secre-
tary Mallory's Visit to Norfolk. ..The Engagement of Williamsburg. ..The
Affair of Barhamsville...McClellan's Investment of the Lines of the Chicka-
hominy... Alarm in Richmond. ..The Water Avenue of the James. ..The Panic
in Official Circles. ..Consternation in the President's House. ..Correspondence
between President Davis and the Legislature of Virginia. ..Noble Resolutions
of the Legislature. ..Response of the Citizens of Richmond. ..The Bombard-
ment of Drewry's Bluff... The Mass Meeting at the City Hall... Renewal of
Public Confidence. ..The Occasions of This. ..Jackson's C.\mpaiqn in the
Valley. ..The Engagement of McDowell. ..The Surprise at Front Royal...
Banks' Retreat Down the Valley. ..The Engagements of Port Republic. ..Re-
sults of the Campaign. ..Death of Turner Ashby... Sufferings of the People of
the Valley of the Shenandoah... Memoir of Turner Asiiby.

Page 17


The Situation of Richmond. ..Its Strategic Importance. ..What the Yankees
Had Done to Secure Piichmond...THE Battle of Seven Pines. ..Miscarriage
of Gen. Johnston's Plans. ..The Battles of the Chickahominy... Storming
of the Enemy's Entrenchments... McClellan Driven from his Northern Line of
Defences. ..The Situation on the Other Side of the Chickahominy...Magruder'8
Comment. ..The Affair of Savage Station....The Battle of Frazi£r's Farm.. .A
Terrible Crisis... Battle of Malvern Hill. ..The Enemy in Communication with
his Gunboats....The Failure to Cut him off....Glory and Fruits of Our Victory....
Misrepresentations of the Yankees. ..Safety of Richmond. ..The War in Other
Parts of the Confederacy. ..The Engagement of Seces8ionville...The Campaiga

tI contents.

of the Wc«t...Thc Eyacuation of Corinth. ..More Yankee Falsehoods. ..Capture
of Memphis. ..The Trize of the Mis.'-issippi... Statistics of its Navigation. ..Siege
of Vickeburg... Heroism of "the Queen City "...Morgan's RaiJ into Ken-
tucky. ..The Tennessee and Virginia Frontier. ..Prospects in the West. ..Plan
of Campaign there. Page 57


Effect of McClcllan's Defeat in the North. ..Call for more Troops. ..Why the
Ni.rih was not Easily Dispirited. ..The War as a Money Job....A'o/<f; General
WaHbington'8 Opinion of New England... The Yankee Finances. ..Exasperation
of Ho8tililiea^..Thc Yankee Idea of a ♦' Vigourous Prosecution of the War"...
A>cendnncy of the Radicals. ..War Measures at Washington. ..Anti-Slayery
Af'pccta of the War. ..Brutality of the Yankees. ..The Insensibility of Europe...
Yankee Chaplains in Virginia. ..Seizures of Private Property. ..Pope's Orders
in Virginia. ..Steinwehr's Order Rcs-pecting Hostages. ..The Character and Ser-
Tices of General John Pope. ..The "Arm}' of Virginia". ..Irruption of the
Northern Spoilsmen. ..The Yankee Trade in Counterfeit Confederate Notes...
Pope's "Chasing the Rebel Hordes"'... Movement Against Pope by "Stone-
wall" Jack!50ii...BATTi.K OF Cei>au Mountain. ..McClellan Recalled from the
Peninsula. ..The Third Grand Army of the North. ..Jackson's Surprise of tho
Enemy at Manassas.. .A Rapid and Masterly Movement. ..Change of the Situ-
ation... Attack by the Enemy upon Rristow Station and at Manassas Junc-
tion... Marshalling of the Hosts. ..Longstreet's Passage of Thoroughfare Gap...
The Plans of General Lee. ..Spirit of our Troops. ..Their Painful Marches...
TnK Skcomu Battle of Manassas. ..A Terrible Bayonet Charge — Rout of the
Enemy... A Hideous Battle-Feld... General Lee and the Summer Campaign of
Virginia. ..Jackson's Share in it. ..Extent of the Great Victory of Manassas...
Excitement in Washington. ..The Yankee Army Falls Back Upon Alexandria
and Washington. ..Review of the Situation... Rapid Change in our Military
Fortunes. ..What the South had Accomplished. ..Comparison of Material
Strengtli Between North and South. ..Humiliating Result to the Warlike Rep-
uution of the North. Pagb 83


Rescue of Virginia from the Invader. ..Gen. Loring's Campaign in the
Kanawha Valley... A Novel Theatre of the War. ..Gen. Lee's Passage of the
Potomac... His Plans. ..Disposition of our Forces. ..McClcllan again at tho
Head of the Yankee Army. ..The Battle of Boon8horo'...The Capture of
Haui'eu'b Fkkuv — Its Fruits. ..The Battle of Suaki'siuuc... Great Supe-
riority of the Enemy's Numbers. ..Fury of the Battle. ..Tho Bridge of Antie-
tam...A Drawn Battle. ..Spectacles of Carnage. ..The Unburied Dead. ..General
Lee Retires into Virginia. ..McClellan's Pretence of Victory. ..The Affair of
Sbepherdrttowg... Charges against McClellan...Hi8 Disgrace. ..Review of the
Maryland Campaign — Misrepresentations of Gen. Lee's Objects... His Re-
treat. ..('ommcnt of tho New York "Tribune". ..The Cold Reception of the
Confederates in Maryland. ..Excuses for the Timidity of the Mary landers...
What was Accomplished by the Summer Campaign, of 18C2...The Outburst


of Applause in Europe. ..Tribute from the London "Times" — Public Opinion
in England. ..Distinction between the People and the Government — The Mask
of England. ..Our Foreign Relations in the War.. .A Historical Parallel of
Secession. ..Two Remarks on the "Neutrality" of Europe. ..The Yankee
Blockade and the Treaty of Paris — The Confederate Privateers — Temper of
the South. ..Fruits of the Blockade Page 128


Movements in the West. ..The Splendid Programme of the Yankees. ..Ken-
tucky the Critical Point. ..Gen. Kirby Smith's Advance into Kentucky. ..The
Battle of Richmond. ..Reception of the Confederates in Lexington. ..Expec-
tation of an Attack on Cincinnati. ..Gen. Bragg's Plans. ..Smith's Movement
to Bragg's Lines. ..Escape of the Yankee Forces from Cumberland Gap. ..Af-
fair of JIunfordsville...Gen. Bragg between the Enemy and the Ohio. ..An
Opportunity for a Decisive Blow...Bueirs Escape to Louisville.. .The Inaugu-
ration of Governor at Frankfort... An Idle Ceremony. ..Probable Surprise of
Gen. Bragg. ..The Battle of PERRYviLLE...Its Immediate Results in our
Favour. ..Bragg's Failure to Concentrate his Forces... His Resolution of Re-
treat. ..Scenes of the Retreat from Kentucky. ..Errours of the Campaign. ..A
Lame Excuse. ..Public Sentiment in Kentucky — The Demoralization of that
State. ..The Lessons of Submission Page 149


Our Lines in the Southwest. ..General Breckenridge's Attack on Baton
Rouge. ..Destruction of the Ram Arkansas. ..Gen. Price's Reverse at luka...
Desperate Fighting. ..The Battle of Corinth. ..Van Dorn's Hasty Exulta-
tions. ..The Massacre of College Hill. ..Wild and Terrible Courage of the Con-
federates. ..Our Forces Beaten Back. ..Our Lines of Retreat Secured. ..The
Military Prospects of the South Overshadowed. ..The Department of the
Trans-Mississippi... Romance of the War in Missouri... Schofield's Order
Calling Out the Militia. ..Atrocities of the Yankee Rule in Missouri. ..Robbei'y
Without "Red Tape "...The Guerilla Campaign. ..The Affair of Kirksville...
Execution of Col. McCullough...The Affair of Lone Jack. ..Timely Reinforce-
ment of Lexington by the Yankees. ..The Palmyra Massacre. ..The Question
of Retaliation with the South. ..The Military and Political Situation...
Survey of the Military Situation. ..Capture of Galveston by the Yankees. ..The
Enemy's Naval Power... His Iron Clads... Importance of Founderies in the
South. ..Prospect in the Southwest. ..Prospect in Tennessee. ..Prospect in Vir-
ginia. ..Stuart's Raid into Pennsylvania. ..Souvenirs of Southern Chivalry...
The "Soft-mannered Rebels "...Political Complexion of the War in the
North. ..Lincoln's "Emancipation Proclamation "...History of Yankee Legis-
lation in the War. ..Political Errour of the Emancipation Proclamation — Ita
Effect on the South. ..The Decay of European Sympathy with the Abolition-
i8t3...What the War Accomplished for Negro Slavery in the South. ..Yankee
Falsehoods and Bravados in Europe. ..Delusion of Conquering the South by
Starvation.. Caricatures in the New York Pictorials. ..The Noble Eloquence
of Hunger and Rags... Manners ip^c South. ..Yankee Warfare. ..The Desola-


tion of Virginia. ..The Lessons of Harsh Necessity. ..Improvement of the Civil
Administration of the Confederacy. ..Ordnance, Manufacturing Resources,
QuartcrDia.stcra' Supplies, &c Paqb 167


The Heroism of Virginia. ..Her Battle-Field3...BurnsiJe'3 Plan of Cam-
raign... Calculations of his Movement upon Fredericksburg. ..Failure to Sur-
prise Gen. Lee. ..The Battle of FnEDERiCKSBDRC.Thc Enemy Crossing the
River. ..Their Bombardment of the Town. ..Scenes of Distress. ..The Battle on
the Right >Ying...Thc Story of Marye's Heights. ..Repulse of the Enemy...
The Old Lesson of Barren Victory. ..Death of Gen. Cobb. ..Death of Gcnerjit"
Gregg. -Romance of the Story of Fredericksburg... Her Noble Women. ..Yan-
kee Sacking of the Town. ..A Specimen of Yankee Warfare in North Caro-
lina. ..Designs of the Enemy in this State:.. The Engagements of Kinston...
Glance at other Theatres of the War. ..Gen. Hindman's Victory at Prairie
Grove... Achievements of our Cavalry in the West. ..The Affair of Hartsville...
Col. Clarkson's Expedition. ..Condition of Events at the Close of the Year
18G2 Page 192


The Eastern Portion of Tennessee. ..Its Military Importance. ..Composition
of Bragg's Army — The Battle of MuKFREESBORo'...The Right Wing of the
Enemy Routed — Bragg's Exultations. ..The Assault of the 2d January,..'' The
Bloody Crossing of Stone River "...The Confederates Fall Back to TuUa-
homa... Review of the Battle Field of Murfreesboro'... Repulse of the Enemy
at Vicksburg....TiiE Re-capture of Galveston. ...The Midnight March...
Capture of "the Harriet Lane "...Arkansas Post Taken by the Yankees. ..Its
Advantages. ..The Affair of the Rams in Charleston Harbour. ..Naval Structure
of the Confederacy. ..Capture of the Yankee Gunboat " Queen of tiie West "...
Heroism of George Wood. ..Capture of "the Indianola"...The War on the
Water. ..The Confederate Cruisers. ..Prowess of "the Alabama."

Page 211


An Extraordinary Lull in the War... An Affair with the Enemy on the
Blackwater... Raids in the West. ..Van Dorn's Captures. ..The Meeting of
Congress. ..Character of This Body. ..Its Dullness and Servility... Mr. Foote
and the Cabinet. ..Two Popular Themes of Confidence. ..Party Contention in
the North. ..Successes of the Democrats There. ..Analysis of the Party Politics
cf the North... The Interest of New England in the War. ..How the War
Affected the Northwestern Portions of the United States.. .Mr. Foote's Reso-
lutions Respecting the Northwestern States... How They Were Received by
the Southern Public. ..New War Measures at Washington. ..Lincoln a Dic-
tator. ..Prospect of Foreign Interference. ..Action of the Emperor Napoleon...
Suffering of the Working Classes in England. ..The Delusions of an Early
Peace. ..The Tasks Before Congress. ..Prostrate Condition of the Confederate


Finances. ..Preaident Davis' Blunder. ..The Errours of Our Financial System...
The Wealth of the South. ..The Impressment Law of Congress. ..Scarcity of
Supplies. ..Inflated Prices. ..Speculation and Extortion in the Confederacy...
Three Fteniarks About These. ..The Verdict of History. . . Page 235


Character of Military Events of the Spring sf 1SG3... Repulse of the Enemy
at Fort McAllister. ..Tub Siege of ViCKSBUKG...Thc Yazoo Pass Expedition...
Confederate Success at Fort Pemberton...The Enemy's Canals or "Cut OffsV...
Their Failure. ..Bombardment of Port Hudson. ..Destruction of "The Mis-
sissippi". ..A Funeral Pyre... Happy Effects of our Victory.. .A Review of the
Line of Inland Hostilities. ..Hooker's Hesitation on the Rappahannock. ..The
Assignment of Confederate Commands West of the Mississippi. ..The Affair of
Kelly's Ford. ..Death of Major Pelham... Naval Attack on Charleston...
Destruction of "The Keokuk". ..Scenery of the Bombardment. ..Extent of the
Confederate Success. ..Events in Tennessee and Kentucky. ..Pegram's Re-
verse. ..The Situation of Hostilities at the close of April 1862.

Page 250


Close of the Second Year of the War. ..Propriety of an Outline of Some
Succeeding Events... Cavalry Enterprises of the Enemy. ..The Raids in Mis-
sissippi and Virginia. ..Sketch of the Battles of the Rappahannock. ..The
Enemy's Plan of Attack. ..The Fight at Chancellorsville...The Splendid Charge
of "Stonewall" Jackson. ..The Fight at Fredericksburg. ..The Fight at Salem
Church. ..Summary of our Victory. ..Death of "Stonewall" Jackson. ..Ilis
Character and Services Page 268


A Period of Disasters. ..Department of the Mississippi. ..Grant's March
Upon Vicksburg...Its Steps and Incidents... The Engagement of Port Gibson...
The Evacuation of Jackson. ..The Battle of Baker's Creek. ..Pemberton's
Declarations as to the Defence of Vicksburg...A Grand Assault upon "the
Heroic City "...Its "Repuhe... The Final Surrender of Vicksburff...'iloyi the Pub-
lic Mind of the South was Shocked. ..Consequences of the Disaster. ..How it
Involved Affairs on the Lower Mississippi. ..Other Theatres of the War. ..The
Campaign in Pennsylvania and Maryland... Hooker Manoeuvred out of Vir-
ginia. ..The Recapture of Winchester. ..The Second Invasion of the Northern
Territory. ..The Alarm of the North. ..General Lee's Object in the Invasion of
Maryland and Pennsylvania. ..His Essays at Conciliation... The Errour of Such
Policy. ..The Advance of his Lines into Pennsylvania. ..The Battle of Gettys-
burg. ..The Three Days' Engagements. ..Death of Barksdale... Pickett's Splen-
did Charge on the Batteries. ..Repulse of the Confederates... Anxiety and
Alarm in Richmond. ..Lee's Safe Retreat into Virginia. ..Mystery of his
Movement... Recovery of the Confidence of the South ***** Review
of the Present Aspects of the War. ..Comparison Between the Disasters of


1862 and those of ]?r,n...Tlie Vitals of the Confederacy yet Untouched...
ReTicw of the C'lTil Administration. ..President Davis, his Cabinet and his
FaTOtirites...nis I'rivate Quarrels... His Deference to European Opinion...
Deolioe of the Finances of the Confederacy. ..Reasons of this Decline— The
Confederate Brokers. ..The Blockade-Kunners...The Disaffections of Property-
Holders. ..The Spirit of the Army. ..The Moral Resolution of the Confede-
racy... Ilow the Enemy has Strengthened it. ..The Prospects of the Future.

Page 283



The Dogma of Numerical Majorities. ..Its Date in the Yankee Mind...
Demoralization of the Idea of the Sovereignty of Numbers. ..Experience of
Minorities in American Politics. ..Source of the Doctrine of "Consolida-
tion "...The Slavery Question the Logical Result of Consolidation... Another
Aspect of Consolidation in the Tariff.. .Summary of the Legislation on the
Tariff... A Yankee Picture of the Poverty of tlie South. ..John C. Calhoun...
President Davis' Opinion of his School of Politics..." Nullification," as a
Uniou Measure... Mr. Webster's "Four Exhaustive Propositions "...The True
Interpretation of the Present Struggle of the South. ..The Northern Idea of
the Sovereignty of Numbers. ..Its Results in this War. ..President Lincoln's
Office... The Revenge of the Yankee Congress Upon the People. ..The Easy
Surrender of their Liberties bj' the Yankees. ..Lincoln and Cromwell. ..Expla-
nation of the Political Subserviency in the North. ..Superficial Political Edu-
cation of the Yankee. ..His " Civilization "...The Moral Nature of the Yankee
Unmasked by the War. ..His New Political System. ..Burnside's "Death
Order "...A Bid for Confederate Scalps. ...\ Now Interpretation of the War...
The North as a Parasite.. .The Foundations of the National Independence of
the South. ..Present Aspects of the War. ..Its External Condition and Morals...
The Spirit of the South and the Promises of the Future. . . Page 309




The New Orleans Disaster. ..Its Consequences and Effects. ..Dispatcl^ea of
tbe European Commissioners ..Butler " tbe Beast". ..Public Opinion in Eu-
rope. ..The Atrocities of tlie IMassa'^liusetts Tjrant... Execution of Mutnforcl...
Lesion of New Orleans. ..Spirit of ResistaJice in the South. ..Change in tlie
Fortftnes of tbe Confederal}'. .".Two Lending Causes for it. ..The Richmond
'* Examiner". ..The Conscription Law. ..Governor Brown of Georgia... He-or-
ganization of the Army... Abandonment of our Frontier Defences... The Polio/
of Concentration. ..Givernor Rectors Appeal... First Movements of the Sum-
mer Campaign in Virginia... The Retreat from Yorktown... Evacuation of Nor-
folk... Destruction of the " Virginia". ..Oommodore Tatnall's Report. ..Secro»
tary Mallory'e Visit to Norfolk. ..'Hie Engagement of Wil]iam.sburg...Tlio
AfF:iir of Barh(imsville...McClellan's Investment of the Lines of the Cliicka-
hominy... Alarm in Richmond. ..The Water Avenue of the James. ..The Panio
■in Official Circles. ..Consternation in the President's House... Correspondence
between President Davis and, the Legislature. of Virginia... Noble Resolutions
•f the Legislature... Response of the Citizens of. Richmond. ..The Bombard-
ment of Drewry's Bluff.. .The Mass Meeting at the City JHall... Renewal of
Public Confidence... The Occasions of This ..Jackson's Campaign in thh
Valley. ..The Engagement of McDowell. ..'•. he Surprise at Front Royal...
Banks' Retreat Down the Valley. ..The Engagements of Port Republic... Re-
sults of the Campaign. ..Death of Turner Ashby... Sufferings of the People of
the Valley of the Shenandoah. ..Memoiti of Tobner Ashby.

The fall of New Orleans was one of tlic most extraordinary
triumphs which the enemy had obtained. It was the crown-
ing stroke of that extraordinary campaign of the winter and
Bpring of the year 1862, in which, by the improvidence of the
Southern 'authorities and a false military policy which divided
their armies and weakened them by. undue dispersion, they
had lost much of their territory, most of tlie prestige of their
arms, and had fallen upon a train of disasters well calculated


•to afloct the general pul)lic, both at home and abroatl. The
clofc of this campaign, so ill-starred to the ConfcJeracj, found
it with Bcarcelj more than three entire States — Texas, Ala-
^ bama and Georgia. Large portions of the territories of Vir-
rinia, the Carolinas and Florida were occupied by the enemy;
he had broken our line of defences in Tennessee, and hehl im-
portant positions on the Upper Mississippi ; and now, by the
capture of New Orleans, he had secured the great Southern
depot of the trade of the immense central valley of* the con-
tinent, obtained command of an extent of territory accessible
by his gunboats greater than the entire country before lost to
the Confederacy, and had good reason to hope, by the junction
of his fleets on the Mississippi, to open its navigation, and
give to the West an outlet to iJie ocean. ' . •

The conquest^ of the Federal arms made in the winter and
fpring of 18G2, were rot without their elTect in Europe, and
presented to the nations in "that part of the world a sotnbre
picture of the Confederacy. ^ The dispatches of our ministers
at the courts of -England and Prance declared that the pros-
pect of recognition, of which they had formerly given such
•warm and sanguine assurances, had been overclouded by the
disaster at New Orleans. Mr. Slidell. wrote from Paris that
the French government declared.that "if New Orleans had
not fallen, our' recognition could not have been much longer
delayed." He added, however, that he had been assured that
**even after that disaster, if we obtained <lccidcd successes in
Virginia and Tennessee, or couhl hold the enemy at bay a
month or two, the same result would fuUow" — a promise, to
the breach of which and to the unhappy expectations which it
excited, we shall hereafter have occasion to refer. Mr. Mason,
our minister at London, also referred to the opinio^i that at
the time of the eneujy's capture of New Orleans, our recogni-
tion was on the eve of accomplishment.

The immfdiate sufl'orerjj of the disaster at New Orleans were
the people of that city. It was aptly rewarded for its easy
BubmisBJon by the scourge of a tyrant. The corrupt and mer-


cilcss master of this great emporium, General Butler of ^las-
sachusetts, was a man who found no merit in submission, unless
6ucli as grovelled in the dust and paid personal court and pecu-
niary^ tribute to himself. The rule of this vulgar and drunken
man e.xcited the horrour and disgust of the civilized world, and
secured for liim in the South the popular soubriquet of " the
Beast." His order which stigmatized as prostitutes the ladies

Online LibraryEdward Alfred PollardThe second year of the war → online text (page 1 of 29)