Copyright
Edward Augustus Freeman.

Outlines of history online

. (page 1 of 30)
Online LibraryEdward Augustus FreemanOutlines of history → online text (page 1 of 30)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


t&t*45WS'



cmx^^f^^

















.^^' ■^•,..




\ '/> ■' <^ t







^^■^



s '











.#'^^.




s 'J <■ ^ " ■




^0 o



^.




<->,.



.-^^^




<x^^" '^-^.



-'^^> .^^''




^ ..\




, ^^ -^ :> *. "^ ^"^



'^



V.



0^



"00'



A-^^ .^'^'



^0






,0 V <-






V













^^^^



22



FREEMAN'S HISTORICAL COURSE FOR SCHOOLS



OUTLINES



OF



HISTORY



BY



EDWARD A? FREEMAN, D.C.L.

LATE FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, OXFORD.

Edition Adapted for America?i Students.




NEW YORK
HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY

1873



^'!:






THE LIBRARY
or CONGRESS

WASHINGTON



Entered according to Act of Congi-ess, in the year 1S73,

Bv HENRY HOLT,

In tlic Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Wasliinglon,



Poole & Maclauchlan,

printers,

205-213 Kast iitli St.,

NEW VOKK.



PREFACE,

The object of the present series is to put forth clear and
correct views of history in simple language, and in the
smallest space and cheapest form in wliich it could be
done. It is meant in .the first place for schools; but it is
often found that a book for schools proves useful for other
readers as well, and it is hoped that this may be the case
with the little books the first instalment of which is now
given to the world. The present volume is meant to
be introductory to the whole course. It is intended to
give, as its name implies, a general sketch of the history
of the civinzed world, that is, of Europe and of the lands
which have drawn their civilization from Europe. Its
object is to trace out the general relations of different
periods and different countries to one another, without
going minutely into the affairs of any particular country,
least of all into those of England. This is an object of
the first importance, for, without clear notions of general
history, the history of particular countries can never be
rightly understood. This General Sketch will be followed



n PREFACE.



by a series of special histories of particular countries',
which will take for granted the main principles laid
down in the General Sketch. In this series it is hoped
in time to take in short histories of all the chief
countries of Europe and America, giving the results of
J:he latest historical researches in as simple a form as
may be. Those of England and Scotland will shortly
follow the present introductory volume, and other
authors are at work on other parts of the plan. The
several members of the series will all be so far under
the supervision of the Editor as to secure general ac-
curacy of statement, and a general harmony of plan
and sentiment. But each book will be the original work
of its own author, and each author will be responsible
for his own treatment of the smaller details. For his
own share of the work the Editor has, besides the
General Sketch, taken the histories of Rome and Switzer-
land. The others will be put into the hands of various
writers, on whose knowledge and skill he believes that
he can rely.



SOMERLEAZE, WeLLS,

August 23, 1872.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

fAGB

ORKJIN OF THE NATIONS ... I

CHAPTER II.

GREECE AND THE GREEK COLONIES ,19

CHAPTER III.

THE ROMAN COMMONWEALTH 48

CHAPTER IV.

THE HEATHEN EMPIRE 80

CHAPTER V.
THE EARLY CHRISTIAN EMPIRE c . 94

CHAPTER VI.

THE ROMAN EMPIRE IN THE EAST ..... c . HO



viii CONTENTS.



CHAPTER VII.

PAGE

THE FRANKISH EMPIRE 1 23



CHAPTER VIII.
THE SAXON EMPERORS 137

CHAPTER IX.

THE FRANCONIAN EMPERORS . . . .' I46

CHAPTER X.
GENERAL VIEW OF THE MIDDLE AGES 1 59

CHAPTER XI.
THE SWABIAN EMPERORS 1 75

CHAPTER XII.

THE DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE 1 99

CHAPTER XIII.
THE GREATNESS OF SPAIN . . ..•••.. 234



CONTENTS. «



CHAPTER XIV.

PAGE
N

THE GREATNESS OF FRANCE 281



CHAPTER XV.

THE RISE OF RUSSIA 302

CHAPTER XVI.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION 325

CHAPTER XVII.

THE REUNION OF GERMANY AND ITALY 347



OUTLINES



OF



HISTORY

CHAPTER I.

ORIGIN OF THE NATIONS.

Different nations of the world (i) — diffei'ence between East and
West (2) — the Aryan nations (3) — connexion among their Ian-
guages {3) — amount of progress made by thejn before their disper-
sidn (4) — their advances in religion and government {^)—the
Semitic nations (6) — their religious influence on the world {6) —
the Turanian and other Non-Aryan nations (7) — their extent in
Asia (7) — traces of them in Europe (7) — movements of the Aryans
in Europe and Asia (8) — geographical shape of Europe (9) — the
three great peninsulas (10) — advance of the successive Aryan
swarms (ll) — the Greeks and Italians (ll, 12) — the Celts (12) — •
the Teutons (13) — the Slaves and Lithuanians (14) — later Tura-
nian settlements in Europe ; Hungarians and Turks (14) — dif
ferent degrees of importaiue among the Aryans of Etirope (15) —
Rome the central point of all European History {15) — Division
of periods before and after the Roman Dominion (16).

I. Different Aspects of History. — The history of the
various nations, of mankind may be looked at in many
and very different ways ; and the importance of different
parts ot history varies widely according to the way in

B



2 ORIGIN OF THE NATIONS. [chap.

which they are looked at. One who wishes to trace out the
history of religion, or of language, or of manners and
customs, will often find as much that is useful for his
purpose among savage nations, who have played no im-
portant part in the world, as among the most famous and
civilized people. But researches of this sort cannot be put
together into a continuous tale ; they are not history strictly
so called. By history in the highest sense we understand
the history of those nations which have really influenced one
another, so that their whole story, from the beginning to our
own time, forms one tale, of which, if we wholly leave out
any part, we cannot rightly undei stand what follows it.
Such a history as this is found only in the history of the
chief nations of Europe, and of those nations of Asia and
Africa which have had most to do with them.

2. Difference between East and West.— But between the

history of the East, as we may vaguely call it, that is chiefly

the history of Asia and Africa, and the history of our own

Western world in Europe and America, the gap is in many

ways wide. To take one point of difference among many,

the history of the East does not give the same poKtical

teaching as that of the West. It is in a much greater degree

the history of a mere succession of empires and dynasties,

and in a much less degree the history of the people. We

shall therefore do right if we ' deal with the history of the

West as our main subject, and treat of the history of the

East only so far as it bears on the history of the West. For

history in the highest sense, for the history of man in his

highest poKtical character, for the highest developements of

art, literature, and political freedom, we must look to that

family of mankind to which we ourselves belong, and to that

division of the world in which we ourselves dwell. The

branch of history which is history in the highest and truest

sense is the history of the Aryan nations of Europe, and of



Sj EAST AND WEST. 3

those who have in later times gone forth from among them
to carry the arts and languages of Europe into other con-
tinents. The history of these nations forms Western or
European history, the history of Europe and of Europeaji
Colo7iies. But here too we shall find some periods and
countries of higher interest and importance than others.
Still the whole, from the earliest times to which we can trace
it back, forms one connected story. No part is altogether
void of interest in itself, none is altogether cut off from con-
nexion with the general thread of continuous history. And
with regard to particular times and places, this part of history
reaches the highest degree of interest and importance that
history can reach. It takes in the history of those times and
places which most directly concern ourselves, and it takes in
the history of those times and places which have had the
deepest and most lasting influence on the world in general.
It is then to the history of Europe, and of the Aryan nations
in Europe and in European colonies elsewhere, that the
present sketch, and the more detailed histories which are
to follow it, will mainly be devoted. The history of other
parts of the world, and of other families of the human race,
will be dealt with only so far as those other nations and
countries are brought into connexion with the long unbroken
tale of European history.

3. The Aryan Nations.— Some readers may perhaps by
this time have asked what is to be understood by a word
which has been already used more than once, namely, the
Aryan nations. That is the name which is now generally
received to express that division of the human race to which
we ourselves belong, and which, takes in nearly all the
present nations of Europe and several of the chief nations
of Asia. The evidence of language shows that there
was a time, a time of course long before the beginning of
recorded history, when the forefathers of all these nations*

B 2



4 ORIGIN OF THE NATIONS. [chap.

were one people, speaking one language. Sanscrit^ the
ancient language of India, Persian^ Greek^ Latin, English,
and other tongues, many of which we shall soon have
occasion to speak of, are really only dialects of one common
speech. They show their common origin alike by their
grammatical forms, such as the endings of nouns and verbs
and the like, and by what is more easily understood by people
in general, by their still having many of the commonest and
most necessary words, those words without which no language
can get on, essentially the same. Now many of the nations
which now speak these languages have for ages been so
far parted from one another, that it is quite impossible that
they can have borrowed these words, and still less these
grammatical forms, from one another. We can thus see that
all these nations are really kinsfolk, that they once were only
one nation, the different branches of which parted off from
one another at a time long before written history begins.

4. Early State of the Aryan Nations. — But what we
know of the languages of the various Aryan nations tells us
something more than this. By the nature of the words
which are common to all or most of the kindred tongues we
can see what steps the forefathers of these various nations
had already taken in the way of social life and regular govern-
ment in the days before they parted asunder. And we can
see that those steps were no small steps. Before there were
such nations as Hindoos and Greeks and Germans, while the
common forefathers of all were still only one people, they had
risen very far indeed above the state of mere savages. They
had already learned to build houses, to plough the ground,
and to grind their corn in a mill. This is shown by the
words for ploughing, building, and grinding being still nearly
the same in all the kindred languages. It is easy for any-
one to see that our word mill is the same as the Latin molay
and that our old word to ear — that is, to J>lough-^th.Q ground,



I.] THE EARLY ARYANS. 5

which is sometimes used in the Old Testament, is the same
as the Latin arare, which has the same meaning. But no
one ought to fancy that the EngUsh word is derived from the
Latin, or that we learned the use of the thing from any
people who spoke Latin, because the same words are found
also in many other of the kindred languages, even those which
are spoken in countries which are furthest removed from
one another. We see then that words of this kind — and I
have only chosen two out of many — are really fragments
remaining from the old common language which was spoken
by our common forefathers before they branched off and
became different nations. It is therefore quite plain that
the things themselves, the names of which have thus been
kept in so many different languages for thousands of years,
were already known to the Aryan people before they parted
into different nations. And I need not say that people who
build houses, plough the ground, and grind their corn,
though they may still have very much to learn, are in a
much higher state than the people in some parts of the
world are in even now.

5. Early Aryan Religion and Government. — But lan-
guage again tells us something more of the early Aryan
people than the progress which they had made in the
merely mechanical arts. We find that the names for various
family relations, for the different degrees of kindred and
affinity, father^ mother, brother, sister, and the like, are the
same in all or most of the kindred tongues. We see then
that, before the separation, the family life, the groundwork
of all society and government, was already well understood
and fully established. And we see too that regular govern-
ment itself had already begun ; for words meaning king or
ruler are the same in languages so far distant from one another
as Sanscrit, Latin, and English. The Latin words rex, regere,
regtmnij are the same as the Old-English rica, rixian, 7'ice^



6 ORIGIN OF THE NA TIONS. [CHAP.

words which have dropped out of the language, but which
still remain in the ending of such words as bishoprick,
where the last syllable means government or possession.
And we can also see that the Aryans before their dispersion
had already something of a religion. For there is a common
stock of words and tales common to most of the Aryan
nations, many of which they cannot have borrowed from one
another, and which point to an early reverence for the great
powers of the natural world. Thus the same name for the
sky, or for the great God of the sky, appears in very different
languages, as Dymis in Sanscrit, Zetis in Greek, and the Old-
English God Thu, from whom we still call the third day of
the week Tiwesdceg or Tuesday. And there are a number of
stories about various Gods and heroes found among different
Aryan nations, all of which seem to come from one common
source. And we may go on and see that the first glimpses
which we can get of the forms of government in the early days
of the kindred nations show them to have been wonderfully
like one another. Alike among the old Greeks, the old
Italians, and the old Germans, there was 2. King or chief with
limited power, there was a smaller Council of nobles or of old
men, and a general Assembly of the whole people. Such
was the old constitution of England, out of which its
present constitution has grown step by step. But there is
no reason to think that this was at all peculiar to England,
or even peculiar to those nations who are most nearly akin
to the English. Thei'e is every reason to believe that this
form of government, in which every m.an had a place,
though some had a greater place than others, was really
one of the possessions which we have in common with
the whole Aryan family. We see then that our common
Aryan forefathers, in the times when they were still one
people, times so long ago that we cannot hope to give
them any certain date, had already made advances in civiliza-



L] THE SEMITIC NATIONS. 7

tion which placed them far above mere savages. They
already had the family life ; they already had the beginnings
of religion and government ; and they already knew most
of those simple arts which are most needed for the comfort
of human life.

6. The Semitic Nations.— Such then were the original
Aryans — that one among the great families of mankind to
which we ourselves belong, and that which has played the
greatest part in the history of the world. Still the Aryan
nations are only a small part among the nations of the earth.
It is not needful for our purpose to speak at any length ot
the nations which are not Aryan ; but a few words must be
given to the two great families which have always pretty
well divided Europe and Asia with the Aryans, and with
whom the history of the Aryans is constantly coming in
contact. Next in importance to the Aryans w^e must place
those which are called the Semitic nations, among whom
those with whom we have most concern are the Hebrews,
the PhcB?iicians, and the Arabs. And in one point we must
set them even above the Aryans ; for the three religions
which have taught men that there is but one God — the
Jewish, the Christian, and the Mahometan — have all come
from among them. But those among the Semitic nations to
whom this great truth was not known seem often to have
fallen into lower forms of idolatry than the Ar^'^aiis. Now the
Semitic nations have, so to speak, kept much closer together
than the Aryans have. They have always occupied a much
smaller portion of the world than the Aryans, and they
have kept much more in the same part of the world. Their
chief seats have aiways been in south-western Asia ; and
though they have spread themselves thence into distant
parts of the world, in Asia, Africa, and even Europe, yet
this has mainly been by settlements in comparatively late
times, about whose history we know something. Their



8 ORIGIN OF THE NATIONS. [chai.

languages also have parted off much less from one another
than the Aryan languages have ; the Semitic nations have
thus always kept up more of the character of one family than
the Aryans.

7. The Turanian Nations. — The rest of Asia, which is not
occupied either by Aryan or by Semitic people, is occupied
by various nations whose tongues differ far more widely
from one another than the Aryan tongues do. Still there
is reason to believe that many of them at least were
originally one people, and at all events it is convenient for
our purposes to class together all those nations of Europe
and Asia which are neither Aryan nor Semitic. ' The people
of the greater part of Asia are commonly known as the
Turaniafi nations. In the old Persian stories Tiiran, the
land of darkness, is opposed to /r^;z or Aria, the land of
light ; and it is from this h'an^ the old name of Persia, that
it has been thought convenient to give the whole family the
name of A ryans. And besides that large part of Asia which
is still occupied by the Turanians, it is plain that in earlier
times they occupied a large part of Europe also. But the
Aryans have driven them out of nearly all Europe, except a
few remnants in out-of-the-way corners, such as the Fi?is and
Laps in the north. The Basques also on the borders of
Spain and Gaul, whether akin to the Turanians or not, are
at least neither Aryan nor Semitic, so that for our purposes
they may all go together. Except these few remnants of the
old races, all Europe has been Aryan since the beginning
of written history, except when Semitic or Turanian invaders
have come in later times. But in Asia the nations which
are neither Aryan nor Semitic, the Chinese^ Mongols^ Turks,
and others, still far outnumber the Aryan and Semitic nations
put together.

8. The Aryan Dispersion. — We have seen that there was
a time, long before the beginnmg of recorded history, when



I.] THE ARYAN DISPERSION. g

the forefathers of the various Aryans dwelled together as one
people, speaking one language. And the advances which
they had made towards civilization show that they must
have dwelled together for a long time, but a time whose
length we cannot undertake to measure. Nor can we
undertake to fix a date for the time of the great separation,
when the families which had hitherto dwelled together
parted off in different directions and became different
nations speaking tongues which are easily seen to be
near akin to each other, but which gradually parted from one
another so that different nations could no longer understand
each other's speech. All that we can say is that these are
facts which happened long before the beginnings of written
history, but which are none the less certain because we learn
them from another kind of proof. The various wandering
bands must have parted off at long intervals, one by one,
and it often happened that a band split off into two or more
bands in the course of its wanderings. And in most cases
they did not enter upon uninhabited lands, but upon lands
in which men of other races were already dwelling, among
whom they appeared as conquerors, and whom, for the most
part, they drove out of the best parts of the land into out-
of-the-way corners. First of all, there are the two great
divisions of the Eastern and the Weste?"n, the Asiatic and
the European^ Aryans, divisions which became altogether
cut off from one another in geographical position and in
habits and feelings. From the old mother-land one great
troop pressed to the south-east and became the forefathers
of the Persians and Hindoos, driving the older inhabi-
tants of India down to the south, into the land which is
properly distinguished from Hindostan by the name of the
Deccan. The other great troop pressed westward, and,
sending off one swarm after another, formed the various
Aryan nations of Europe. The order in which they



lo ORIGIN OF THE NA IIONS. [chap.



came can be known only by their geographical posi-
tion. The first waves of the migration must be those
whom we find furthest to the West and furthest to the
South. But, in order fully to take in the force of the
evidence furnished by the geographical position of the
various Aryan nations in Europe, it is needful to say a
few words as to the geographical aspect of the continent
of Europe itself.

9. Geographical Shape of Europe, — A glance at the map
will show that, of the three continents which form the Old
World, Eicrope, Asia, and Africa, the first two are far more
closely connected with one another than either of them is
with the third. Africa is a vast peninsula — in our own day
indeed it may be said to have become an island — united to
the other two by a very narrow isthmus. But Europe and
Asia form one continuous mass, and in some parts the
boundary between the two is purely artificial. Some maps,
for instance, make the Don the boundary ; others make it
the Volga. The most northern and the most central parts of
Europe and Asia form continuous geographical wholes ; it is
only the southern parts of the two continents which are quite
cut off from one another. And it is in these southern parts
of each that the earliest recorded history, at all events the
earliest recorded history of the Aryan nations, begins. Cen-
tral Europe and central Asia form one great solid mass of
nearly unbroken territory. The southern parts of each con-
tinent, the lands below these central masses, consist of a
series of peninsulas, running, in the case of Europe, into the
great inland sea called the Mediterranean — the sea which
brings all three continents into connexion — in the case of
Asia into the Ocean itself. Europe thus consists of a great
central plain, cut off by a nearly unbroken mountain range
from a system of islands and peninsulas to the south, which
is again balanced to the north by a sort of secondary system



I.] . GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE, II

of islands and peninsulas, the Baltic being a sort of northern
Mediterranean. We might almost say the same of Asia, as
the mouths of the great rivers which run to the north form
several peninsulas and inland seas. But then this part of the
world has always been, so to speak, frozen up, and it never
has played, nor can play, any part in history.

10. The three great European Peninsulas. — We thus
see that the southern part of Europe consists mainly of three
great peninsulas, those of Spain, Italy, and what we may
roughly call Greece. Of these, the two eastern peninsulas
are purely Mediterranean, while Spain, from its position at one
end of the Old World, could not help having one side to the
Ocean. So Northern Europe may be said to consist of the
two Scandinaviaii peninsulas and of our own British islands,
which in a certain way balance Spain, and which, in a
general glance, seem peninsular rather than insular. Now
of the three southern peninsulas, it will be seen at once that
the eastern one has a character of its own. Though the
nearest to Asia, it is in its geographical character the most
thoroughly European. As Europe is, more than either of
the other continents, a land of islands and peninsulas, so
Greece and the countries near to it are, more than any other
part of Europe, a land of islands and peninsulas. It is
therefore hardly more than we should expect when we fmd
that the recorded history of Europe begins in this eastern



Online LibraryEdward Augustus FreemanOutlines of history → online text (page 1 of 30)