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THE STORY OF THE NATIONS



SICILY

PHOENICIAN, GREEK, AND ROMAN



BY
EDWARD A. FREEMAN

REGIUS PROFESSOR OF MODERN HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD



NEW YORK
G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

LONDOft,:^ FISHER UNttJlN
1992



Copyright, 1892
By G. P. Putnam's Sons

Entered at Stationers' Hall, Londoi.

By T. Fisher UNwin



1"U V 6 «-



•S'fbe ttnicfc$i#ogfe£/s|re$0
flew ]t>orft



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PREFACE.



In undertaking "to contribute a short History of
Sicily to the series called The Story of the Nations,"
Mr. Freeman says, in the Preface to his greater work
on the same subject, that he did so " on the express
ground that Sicily never was the home of any nation,
but rather the meeting-place of many." The original
suggestion had been that he should write a volume
on Norman Sicily. But in view of the necessity of
first introducing his readers to the earlier stages of
Sicilian history, this suggestion finally ripened into
the proposal to write the whole story of Sicily, from
the earliest days of the Greek colonisation to the
time of Frederick the Second.

The idea grew. It had for many years been a
favourite saying of Mr. Freeman that " in order to
write a small history you must first write a large one."

222360



Vlll PREFACE.

In this way the " Little History of Sicily " gave
birth to the larger one, of which three volumes, reach-
ing down to the time of the Athenian siege and the
tyranny of Dionysios, have already been issued by
the Clarendon Press. Besides this, there exist
materials for a continuation of the larger history
down to the period of the Roman Conquest and for
a later volume on Norman Sicily. But, unhappily
for his readers, he has not been spared to bring the
work, either in its greater or lesser form, to comr
pletion.

With the exception of the headings from p. 297
onwards and the Index, which has been drawn up as
far as possible on the lines of those made by the
author himself for his greater work, the" whole of the
sheets had been passed for press by Mr. Freeman
before he left England on his last journey — a journey
to Spain, undertaken with a special view to the better
understanding of the later parts of his great .work.
The present volume goes down to the end of the
Roman dominion, and the last part of the book,
which deals with Sicily as a Roman Province, covers
a period which, in contradistinction to his usual
practice, he had not yet written in the larger form.
It had been his intention to add to the present a
second volume, beginning with the coming of the
Saracens, and which should, according to the hopes



PREFACE. IX

expressed in his greater work, have been at any rate

carried on " till the Wonder of the World is laid in

his tomb at Palermo," or, it may be, carried on yet

further to the time when the " island story " should

be merged in that of the new Italian Kingdom.

But it was not so to be. The " life and strength "

that he had hoped for failed him before their time,

and, in the language of the Psalmist, whose words

were ever on his lips and in his writings, his

strength was brought down in his journey, his days

were shortened. He died at Alicante on March 16,

1892.

A. J. E. and M. E.




CONTENTS.



Preface



PAGE

vii



Characteristics of Sicilian History

Geographical position of Sicily — Strife of East and West —
Summary of the History.



i-7



II.

Sicily and its Inhabitants



8-28



Colonies in Sicily— Nature of Colon'.es— The older inhabitants
— Phoenician and Greek Settlers — Shape of Sicily — Nature
of the land — The Hill-towns — The Phoenicians — Phoenician
Colonies in Sicily — Panormos, Motya, and Eryx.



III.

The Legends 29-38

Herakles — The Nether Gods — The Palici and the Goddesses



-Arethousa.



IV.



The Greek Settlements in Sicily



39-56



Foundation of Naxos — Foundation of Syracuse— Foundation
of Leontinoi and Katane — Foundation of Megai a— Foundation
of Zankle and Gela — Kamarina, Himera, and Selinous —
Foundation of Akragas — Foundation of Lipara.



Xlli CONTENTS.



The First Age of the Greek Cities . . 57-75

The Syracuse Gamoroi — Tyranny — Phalaris of Akragas —
Expedition of Dorieus — The Samians at Zankle — Wars of
Hippokrates — Gelon at Syracuse — War in Western Sicily.

VI.
The First Wars with Carthage and Etruria 76-86

Persia and Carthage — Invasions of Sicily and Old Greece —
Battle of Ilimera — Death of Gelon — Reign of Hieron.

VII.

The Greeks of Sicily Free and Independent 87-103

Fall of tyranny at Akragas — All the cities free — Wealth of
Akragas — Politics of Syracuse — Rise of Ducetius — Foundation
of Kale Akte — Great preparations of Syracuse.

VIII.

The Share of Sicily in the Wars of Old

Greece . 104-139

Sparta and Athens — Sikeliot appeal to Athens — Hermokrates
at Gela — New War at Leontinoi — Appeal of Segesta to
Athens — Hermokrates and Athenagoras — Recall of Alki-
biades — Battle before Syracuse — Alkibiades at Sparta — The
Athenians on the hill— Coming of Gylippos— Second Expedi-
tion voted — Coming of Demosthenes and Eurymedon — Eclipse
of the moon — Last battle and retreat — End of the Athenian
invasion— Banishment of Hermokrates.

IX.

I he Second Carthaginian Invasion . . 140-155

Expedition of Hannibal — Siege and taking of Selinous—
Hannibal's Sacrifice — Death of Hermokrates — Siege of
Akragas — Beginnings of Dionysios— Siege and forsaking of
Gela — Treaty with Carthage.



CONTENTS. Xlll

PAGE

X.
The Tyranny of Dionysios .... 156-1 9 5

The tyranny of Dionysios — Revolt against Dionysios — Con-
quests of Dionysios— Fortification of Epipolai — Dionysios'
double marriage— Siege of Motya — Foundation of Lilybaion —
Sea-fight off Katane — Carthaginian Siege of Syracuse — Defeat
of the Carthaginians— Settlements of Dionysios — His defeat
at Tauromenion — Wars in Italy — Destruction of towns in
Italy — Taking of Rhegion — Dionysios in the Hadriatic — War
with Carthage — Death of Dionysios.

XI.
The Deliverers ...... 197-232

Dionysios and his Son — Dionysios the Younger — Coming of
Dion— Dion delivers Syracuse— Dion and Dionysios — Dion
deprived of the Generalship — Return of Dion— Recovery of
/'the Island— End of Dion — Timoleon in Sicily — Recovery of
the Island — New Settlement of Sicily — War with Carthage —
Battle of the Krimisos — Last days of Timoleon — Archidamos
and Alexander.

XII.

The Tyranny of Agathokles . . 233-260

His early life — His rise to power — His conquests — Battle of
the Himeras— He lands in Africa— His African campaign-
Murder of Ophelias— Agathokles king— End of the African ex-
pedition — Agathokles and Deinokrates— Death of Agathokles.



XIII.

The Coming of Pyrrhos and the Rise of

Hieron 261-275

Various tyrants — Pyrrhos of Epeiros — Hellas, Carthage, and
Rome— Conquests of Pyrrhos— He leaves Sicily — Exploits of
Hieron — Hieron king.



XIV CONTENTS.

TAGE

XIV.
The War for Sicily ..... 276-291

The Mamertines — Hieron's alliance with Rome — Taking ul
Akragas — Roman taking of Panormos — Defence of Panormos
— Hamilkar Barak — Battle of Aigousa— Carthage gives up
Sicily.

XV.

The End of Sicilian Independence . ~ 292-318

Roman power in Sicily — The Hannibalian War— Death of
Hieronymos — Slaughter of Hieron's descendants — Taking of
Leontinoi — Roman siege of Syracuse — Massacre at Henna —
Epipolai in Roman hands— Punic force destroyed by pestilence
— Taking of Syracuse — Exploits of Murines — Outcry against
Marcellus — Sicily an outpost of Europe.

XVI.
Sicily a Roman Province .... 319-354

Relations of cities to Rome — The Roman peace — First Slave
War— Second Slave War — End of the Slave War — Praetorship
. of Verres — Death of Caesar foretold — Peace of Misenum — War
between Caesar and Sextus — Caesai 'naster of Sicily — Third
Slave War — Growth of Christian legends — Beginning of
Teutonic invasions — Rule of Theodoric — Gothic War of Jus-
tinian — Connexion with East-Roman Empire — Constantine

the Fifth.

)

Index . 355



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



the theatre, Syracuse . . . Frontispiece

OLYMPIEION, SYRACUSE 44

HERAKLES AND THE KERKOPES (EARLY SCULPTURE

FROM SELINOUS) 52

AKRAGAS, FROM THE OLYMPIEION .... 54

COIN OF SYRACUSE, TIME OF THE GAMOROI . . 60

TEMPLE OF ATHENE, SYRACUSE . ... . 6 1

COIN OF HIMERA, EARLY 64

COIN OF ZANKLE, SIXTH CENTURY ... 68

COIN OF NAXOS, C. 500 B.C. .... 68

COIN OF KAMARINA. EARLY . . . . 7 1

COIN OF SELINOUS. EARLY 75

DAMARATEION 82

COIN OF GELA. C. 480 B.C. .... .85

COi:>f OF SELINOUS. C. 440 B.C. . . ■ . . 85

TEMPLE AT AKRAGAS 88

AKTAI6N AND HIS HOUNDS 97

COIN OF PANORMOS. C. 420 B.C 102

COIN OF MESSANA. C. 420 B.C 102

COIN OF SEGESTA. C. 415 B.C. . . . . 1 12

MAP OF SYRACUSE DURING I HE ATHENIAN SIEGE . 122



XVI



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



COIN OF AKRAGAS. C. 415 B.C. . . •

SYRACUSAN PENTEKONTALITRON (PRIZE ARMS OF

ASSINARIAN GAMES) ....

SYRACUSAN STONE QUARRIES
COIN OF HIMERA. C. 430 B.C.
COIN OF KATANE. C. 410 B.C.
COIN OF SYRACUSE. C. 409 B.C. HEAD OF ARETHUS.'

MAP OF AKRAGAS

PASSAGE IN THE CASTLE OF EURYALOS .
SYRACUSE UNDER DIONYSIOS ....
APPARENT ARCH IN THE WALL OF ERYX
COIN OF MOTYA. C. 40O B.C.
MAP OF MOTYA AND ERYX . . .

PHOENICIAN CAPITAL FROM LILYBAION .

TAUROMENION

COIN OF SYRACUSE. Dl6N'S TIME

COIN OF SYRACUSE. TIMOLe6n's TIME. ZEUS

ELEUTHERIOS

TEMPLE OF SEGESTA

COIN OF AGATHOKLES, WITH NAME OF SYRACUSE

ONLY. 317 TO C. 310 B.C.
COIN OF AGATHOKLES, WITH NAME ONLY. C. 3IO-

306 B.C.

COIN OF AGATHOKLES, WITH ROYAL TITLE. C. 306-

289 B.C.

COIN OF MAMERTINI AT MESSANA. C. 282 B.C.

COIN OF HIKETAS. 287-278 B.C. .

COIN OF HIERON II. 275-2 1 6 B.C.

COIN OF QUEEN PHILISTIS C. 2 7 5-2 1 6 B.C. .

PRETENDED TOMB OF THER6N AT AGRIGENTUM



PAGE
126



STORY OF SICILY.



CHARACTERISTICS OF SICILIAN HTSTORY.



The claim of the history of Sicily to a place in the
Story of the Nations is not that there ever has been
a Sicilian nation. There has very seldom been a time
when there was a power ruling over all Sicily and
over nothing out of Sicily. There has never been a
time when there was one language spoken by all men
in Sicily and by no men out of Sicily. All the
powers, all the nations, that have dwelled rftmd the
Mediterranean Sea have had a part in Sicilian history.
All the languages that have been spoken round the
Mediterranean Sea have been, at one time or another,
spoken in Sicily. The historical importance of Sicily
comes, not from its being the seat of any one nation,
but from its being the meeting-place and the battle-
field of many nations. Many of the chief nations of
the world have settled in Sicily and have held dominion
in Sicily. They have wrought on Sicilian soil, not
only the history of Sicily, but a great part of their
own history. And, above all, Sicily has been the



2 . CHARACTERISTICS OF SICILIAN HISTORY.

meeting-place and battle-field, not only of rival nations
and languages, but of rival religious creeds.

It follows from this that, while the history of Sicily
has had a great effect on the general history of the
world, it is still, in a certain sense, a secondary history.
For some centuries past, and also in some earlier times,
this has been true in the sense that Sicily has been
part of the dominion of some other power ruling out
of Sicily. But Sicily has not always been in this way
a dependent land. In one age it contained the greatest
and most powerful city in Europe. In another age
it- was the seat of the most flourishing kingdom in
Europe. Yet its history has always been a secondary
history, a history whose chief importance comes from
its relations to things out of Sicily. The greatest
powers and nations of the world have in several ages
fought in Sicily and for Sicily. Their Sicilian warfare
determined their history elsewhere.

In this way the history of Sicily is one of the
longest and most unbroken histories in Europe. It
does not belong, wholly or chiefly, either to what is
called " ancient " or to what is called " modern "
history. Of its two most brilliant periods, one belongs
to what is commonly called " ancient," the other to
what is commonly called " modern." And nowhere
is it more hopeless to try to keep the two asunder ;
nowhere is the history so imperfect if we try to look
at one period only. For the history of Sicily is before
all things a history of cycles. The later story is the
earlier story coming over again. Th at is to _s ay^ , like
c^usje^Jiaii^been at work in very distant t imes, and
t hey have ledtoTiEe res ults.



GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF SICILY. 3

Now all these characteristics of Sicilian history
come from the geographical position and the geo-
graphical character of the land. Sicily is an island.
It is a great island, an island which, in the days when
cities were powers, could contain many independent
powers. And above all, it is a central island. It lies
in the very middle of the great inland sea which parts
and unites Europe, Asia, and Africa. That is to say,
as long as the civilized world consisted only of the
lands round the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily was the
very centre of the civilized world. Its position in-
vited settlement from every quarter, and its size
allowed settlement from many quarters at once.
Sicily therefore became the battle-field of many
nations and powers ; but it was so for many ages
without becoming the exclusive possession of any one.
And its position specially marked it out as the chosen
battle-field of one particular form of strife. Sicily
lies in the very middle of the Mediterranean. It forms
a breakwater between the Eastern and the Western
basins of that sea. We count it as part of Europe ;
but it comes nearer to Africa than any other part of
central Europe. As it is a breakwater between the
two seas, it is a bridge between the two continents.
The question was sure to come, Shall the great
central island belong to the East or to the West ?
Shall it be part of Africa or part of Europe ?

On this last question the whole history of Sicily
turned as long as Sicily played a great part in
the history of the world. In the great strife between
East and West, and between the religions which had
been adopted in East and West, Sicily has at two



4 CHARACTERISTICS OF SICILIAN HISTORY.

periods of the world's history played a foremost
part. The land has been twice fought for by Aryan
and Semitic men, speaking Aryan and Semitic
tongues, and professing and righting for their several
religions. In both cases the geographical relations of
the struggle have been strangely turned about. In
the strife between East and West, the East has be-
come West, and the West East. That is to say, in
the strife for Sicily, the Eastern side has been both
times represented by men who have attacked Sicily
from the West. Its enemies have been, not men
coming straight from Asia, but men of Asia who had
settled in Africa. In each case the representatives of
the West (righting from the East), have been men
speaking the Greek tongue, and the representatives of
the East (attacking from' the West) have been men
speaking a Semitic tongue. < That is, they were first
the Phoenicians, then the Saracens. In each case the
strife has been made keener by difference of religion.
In the first case it was the difference between two
forms of heathendom, between the two very different
creeds of Gree4^_£rjd_J^cenicia. In the second case
it was the keenest difference of all, the keenest be-
cause the two religions have so much in common,
the strife between the two great forms of monotheism,
ChristianityLaad Islam. In both cases the strife has
been waged in Sicily and for Sicily ; in both cases the
prize has in the end passed to the power which was at
the time strongest in the neighbouring land of Southern
Italy. That is, Sicily passed to the Romans in the
f.rst strife, to the Normans in the second. This
forms the great cycle of Sicilian history ; the main



STRIFE OF EAST AND WEST. 5

events of the earlier time seem to be acted over again
in the latter.

This is the great characteristic of Sicilian history,
but it is not quite peculiar to Sicily. The same kind
of cycle, the same waging of the great strife of East
and West at different times and by different actors, is
to be found in the history of Cyprus and of Spain as
well as in that of Sicily. But Cyprus is much smaller
than Sicily ; it lies in a corner of the Mediterranean,
its revolutions did not affect the general history of
the world in the same way as those of Sicily which
lies in the middle. Spain is geographically much
greater than Sicily ; but Spain lies at what in early
times was the end of the world, and the historical
importance of Spain came much later, as it lasted
much longer, than that of Sicily. Sicily, as the cen-
tral land, was the truest centre of the strife. It is on
its central position that the whole history of Sicijy
turns. As long as the lands round the Mediterranean
were the whole of the European world, the strife for
Sicily, the central land of them all, had an importance
which none could surpass. So it was in the former
time of strife, the strife between the pagan Greek and
the Phoenician. By the second time of strife, the strife
between the Christian Greek or Roman — we may call
him either — and the Saracen, the boundaries of the
European world had been enlarged. Sicily was no
longer the centre of the world, and its fortunes,
though still of great moment, are of less moment than
before. In later times again, when the European
world has spread over all parts of the earth, when the
Ocean has become the central sea instead of the



6 CHARACTERISTICS OF SICILIAN HISTORY.

Mediterranean, Sicily has altogether lost its central
position and its importance. For some centuries
Sicily has held only a secondary place in Europe, and
it has commonly been dependent on some other
power.

We may therefore sum up the history of Sicily in
a very few words. It is the central land of the
Mediterranean sea ; it was the central land of
Europe, as long as Europe meant only the lands on
the Mediterranean sea. As such it became the
battle-field of nations and creeds, the prize for
Europe and Africa to struggle for. The first time
of strife was between Greeks and Phoenicians,
between representatives of West and East, between
men of Europe and men of Asia transplanted to
Africa. The end of this strife was the victory of
Europe, but in the shape of the incorporation of
Sicily into the dominion of Rome. Of that dominion
Sicily remained a part for many ages, till the second
time of strife came, the strife which was waged with the
Saracen by men whom we may call either Greek-
speaking Romans or Greeks under the allegiance of
the Eastern Rome. The end was the establishment
of the Norman kingdom of Sicily, which was for a
short time the most flourishing state in Europe.
After a while Sicily lost its central position and
with it its special character as the meeting-place of
the nations. But its history as such had kept it
back from that form of greatness which consists in
being the chief seat of some single nation. There
has been no Sicilian nation. The later history of



SUMMARY OF THE HISTORY. 7

Sicily has thus lost its distinguishing character. It
has become an ordinary part, and commonly a sub-
ordinate part, of the general history of Europe, and
specially of that of Italy.

In this way Sicilian history begins when the great \ y^
colonizing nations of antiquity, the Phoenicians and the j
Greeks, began to settle in Sicily. Our first business
therefore is to see what manner of people the
Phoenicians and the Greeks were at the time of their
first settlements, what manner of land Sicily was, and
what earlier inhabitants the new settlers found in it.
Then we shall go on with the history of the two
colonizing nations in Sicily. In so doing we shall
have to say again many things that have already been
said in other parts of the Story of the Nations.
Indeed the most part of the Story of Sicily must
have been told already. But it has been told, as far
as Sicily is concerned, piecemeal. Things have been
told, not in their relation to Sicily, but in their
relations to some other land or power. Here they
will be told as parts of a connected Sicilian story,
a story of which Sicily is the centre, and in which
other lands and nations find their place only in their
relations to Sicilian affairs.



II.



SICILY AND ITS INHABITANTS.

[It may be needful to explain that, during the present chapter and
for some time after it, we have no contemporary, or even continuous,
narrative to follow. In the very earliest times of course there coujd be
none. The nearest approach to a narrative is the description of Sicily
and its native inhabitants and of the Greek settlements there which
Thucydides gives at the beginning of his sixth book. For the rest we
have to put our story together from all manner of Greek sources. We
have incidental notices of Sicily and the nation of Sicily in a crowd of
Greek writers from the Odyssey onwards. Much is learned more
directly from later Greek writers, as the geographer Sjtrabo and the
Sicilian historian Diodoros of Agyrium. If his work were perfect, we
should have a continuous, though not a contemporary, Sicilian history.
Something too may le got from Dionysios of Halikarnassos, the
historian of Rome. All these preserve to us valuable notices from
earlier writers, especially from the Sicilian historians Antiochos and
Philistos. But they too were not contemporary. Of Phoenician
authorities we unluckily have none. Among modern writers Adolf
Holm has got together pretty well every scrap that can be found in
his Geschichte SicMens.]



We spoke in our first chapter of the way in which
the geographical position of the island of Sicily, as the
central island of the Mediterranean sea, allowed, and
almost compelled it, to play the particular part in
history which it did play. We have now to see how
the history of the land was affected by its geographical



COLONIES IN SICILY. 9

character as well as by its geographical position. We
must remember the general state of the world at the
time when, first the Pho enicia ns and then the Greeks,
began to plant colonies in Sicily and other lands. To
such European nations as have already come, however
.dimly, into sight, the lands round the Mediterranean
were the whole world, and the inland sea itself was
what the Ocean is now. Europe contained no great
kingdoms, like Asia ; the more advanced a people was,
the greater was its political disunion. The indepen-
dent city was the accepted political unit. In Greece
above all, the nature of the land, the islands, the penin-
sulas, the strongly marked inland valleys, fostered the
separate being of each city in its fullest development.
Every city either was independent or thought itself
wronged if it was not so. It was only in the more
backward parts of Greece that towns or districts in
the early days grouped themselves into leagues. In
Italy the growth of such leagues was the most marked
feature. Outside Greece and Italy the other European
nations had hardly got beyond the system of tribes,
as distinguished alike from independent cities and
from great kingdoms. Among the Asiatic nations the
Phoenicians alone had at all fully developed the same
kind of political system as the Greeks. With them
too the independent city was the rule. They alone
among barbarians knew anything of the higher
political life. They were the only worthy rivals of
Greece.

Now, as the world stood then, it was only nations
like the Phoenicians and Greeks, whose political
system was one of independent cities, that could in



10 SICILY AND ITS INHABITANTS.

the strict sense plant colonies. We must distinguish
colonies, as we now understand the word, from
national migrations. In an early state of things
nothing is more common than for a whole people, or
a large part of a people, to leave their own land for
some other. Their old land is left empty or much
less thickly inhabited, and very often some other
people steps in and takes possession of it. Both
Greeks and Phoenicians and the other ancient nations
of Europe and Asia must have come into their lands
in this way. And the same thing went on again
when the settlement of the present nations of Europe



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