Edward Augustus Freeman.

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Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries

Public Document

No, 2


tZTfie Commontoealtl) of i^a£(sac|)u^ett^




Department of Education

Year ending November 30, 1940

Issued in Accordance with Section 2 of Chapteb 69
OF the General Laws

Part I

Publication op this DoctmzNT Afpboved by the Commission on Adminibtbation and Finance
1500— 6-'41— 6332.


WALTER F. DOWNEY, Commissioner of Education

Members of Advisory Board

Ex officio The Commissioner of Education, Chairman

Term Expires

1940. Alexander Brin, 55 Crosby Road, Newton

1940. Thomas H. Sullivan, Slater Building, Worcester

1941. Mrs. Anna M. Power, 15 Ashland Street, Worcester

1941. Kathryn a. Doyle, 99 Armour Street, New Bedford

1942. Mrs. Flora Lane, 27 Goldthwait Street, Worcester
1942. John J. Walsh, 15 Pond View Avenue, Jamaica Plain

George H. Varney, Business Agent

Division of Elementary and Secondary Education and State Teachers


Alice B. Beal, Supervisor of Elementary Education
A. Russell Mack, Supervisor of Secondary Education

Raymond A. FitzGerald, Supervisor of Educational Research and Statistics and In-
terpreter of School Law
Thomas A. Phelan, Supervisor in Education of Teacher Placement
Daniel J. Kelly, Supervisor of Physical Education
Martina McDonald, Supervisor in Education
Ralph H. Colson, Assistant Supervisor in Education
Ina M. Curley, Supervisor in Education
Philip G. Cashman, Supervisor in Education

Presidents of State Teachers Colleges and the Massachusetts School of Art

John J. Kelly, Bridgewater James Dugan, Lowell

Charles M. Herlihy, Fitchburg Grover C. Bowman, North Adams

Martin F. O'Connor, Framingham Edward A. Sullivan, Salem

Annie C. Crowell (Acting), Hyannis Edward J. Scanlon, Westfield

Clinton E. Carpenter, Worcester

Gordon L. Reynolds, Massachusetts School of Art, Boston

Division of Vocational Education

M. NoRCROSS Stratton, Assistant Director

Subdivision of Supervision
John G. Glavin, Field of Agricultural Schools and Departments
Dakiel H. Shay, Field of Industrial Schools for Boys and Men
Frank L. Allen, Field of Vocational Art Education in Industry and Business {Resident,

Massachusetts School of Art, 370 Longwood Avenue, Boston)
Caroline H. Wilson, Assistant, Fields of Industrial Schools, Household Arts Schools

and Departments, and Continuation Schools for Girls and Women
Clare L. Walsh, Assistant, Field of Household Arts Schools and Departments

Subdivision of Teacher-Training

M. NoRCROSS Stratton, Co-ordinator, Teacher-Training and Supervision, and Fields
of Industrial Schools for Boys and Men, and Continuation Schools for Boys

Franklin E. Heald, Field of Agricultural Schools and Departments {Resident,
203 Stockbridge Hall, Massachusetts State College, Amherst)

WiNTHROP S. Welles, Part-time Assistant, Field of Agricultural Schools and Depart-
ments {Resident, 307 Stockbridge Hall, Massachusetts State College, Amherst)

Thomas L. Flynn, Field of Industrial Schools for Boys and Men

William J. McConnell, Assistant, Field of Industrial Schools for Boys and Men

John I. Lusk, Assistant, Field of Continuation Schools for Boys

Louis J. Gaetani, Assistant, Field of Public Service Occupations

Anna A. Kloss, Fields of Industrial Schools, Household Arts Schools and Departments,
and Continuation Schools for Girls and Women

2 P.D. 2

Martha T. Wonson, Assistant, Field of Household Arts Schools and Departments
Clare L. Walsh, Assistant, Field of Household Arts Sc?tools and Departments
Lou Lombard, Assistant, Field of Household Arts {Resident, Framingham State Teachers

Subdivision of Occupational Information, Vocational Counseling, Survey and Placement

George P. Haley, Field of Occupational Information and Vocational Counseling
Robert F. Nolan, Field of Survey and Placement

Subdivision of Administration
Carl E. Herrick, All Fields Earl B. Webb, All Fields

Rehabilitation Section
Herbert A. Dallas
Edward D. Callahan, Assistant
Henry Heim, Assistant
M. Monica King, Assistant
Katherine MacLarnie, Assistant
Frederick V. Nissen, Assistant
Anthony A. Rosse, Assistant
Joseph F. Rogers, Assistant
Louis Tracy, Assistant

Division of University Extension

JAMES A. MOYER, Director

E. Everett Clark, Supervisor in Education
Helen B. Garrity, Supervisor, Class Organization
Mary L. Guyton, Supervisor in Adult Alien Education
John P. McGrail, Supervisor in Education
Ellen Fitzpatrick, Registrar
Ursula K. Toomey, Field Agent in the Connecticut Valley

Division of Immigration and Americanization

Term expires Members of Advisory Board

1940. Loretta M. Murphy, Maiden

1940. Mrs. Eva Whiting White, Boston

1941. Everett A. Churchill, Belmont

1941. Joan C. Kiley, Lynn

1942. Narcizo Gomes, New Bedford
1942. Bronislaus A. Jr^zisRSKi, Cambridge

Alice W. O'Connor, Supervisor of Social Service
Patrick J. Hurley, District Immigration Agent {Fall River)
Joseph A. Donovan, District Immigration Agent {Lawrence)
William F. Kelleher, District Immigration Agent {Worcester)
John A. McInnis, District Immigration Agent (Springfield)

Division of tlie Blind

WILLIAM H. McCarthy, Director

Term expires Members of Commission

1940. Florence A. Johnson, Lawrence

1941. Arthur F. Sullivan, Boston

1942. Mrs. Homer Gage, Worcester

1943. Robert H. Hallowell

1944. Edward J. Wall, Melrose

Florence W. Birchard, Employment Joseph S. Phelps, Relief

Edith R. Ervin, Employment Mary W. Richardson, Social Work

Ethel M. Frederick, Relief Ida E. Ridgeway, Work for Children

Francis B. Ierardi, RelieJ Rose E. Trainor, Sales Promoter

Helen E. Jowders, Work for Children Fred V. Walsh, Relief

Theodore C. Leutz, Census Louise C. Wright, Employment

Robert J. McCarthy, Census Florence E. Cummings, Manager,
Helen F. O'Leary, Accountant Sale^'oom

P.D. 2

Division of Public Libraries


Term expires Board of Commissioners

1940. Rev. John A. Butler, Cambridge

1941. Mrs. GoLDA R. Walters, Woburn

1942. William T. O'Rottrke, Brockton

1943. Stacy B. Southworth, Braintree, Chairman

1944. Ruth Haynes Furber, Watertown
E. Louise Jones, Field Library Adviser
Mary M. Doyle, General Secretary

Teachers' Retirement Board

CLAYTON L. LENT, Secretary

Members of the Board

Ex officio WALTER F. DOWNEY, Commissioner of Education

Term expires

1940. Elizabeth F. Wassum, Springfield
1940. Harry Smalley, Fall River

Massachusetts Nautical School


Term expires Board op Commissioners

1940. Clarence E. Perkins, Winthrop, Chairman

1941. Walter K. Queen, Needham

1942. Theodore L. Storer, Cambridge

Massachusetts State College, Amherst

HUGH P. BAKER, President


Ex officio His Excellency Leverett Saltonstall
Ex officio Walter F. Downey, Commissioner of Education
Ex officio William Casey, Commissioner of Agriculture
Ex officio Hugh P. Baker, President of the College

Term expires

1940. Davis R. Dewey, Cambridge

1940. John F. Gannon, Pittsfield

1941. Joseph W. Bartlett, Newton

1941. Philip F. Whitmore, Sunderland

1942. John Chandler, Sterling Junction

1942. Frederick D. Griggs, Springfield

1943. Nathaniel I. Bowditch, Framingham

1943. William C. Monahan, Framingham

1944. James T. Cassidy, Dorchester

1944. Mrs. Elizabeth L. McNamara, Cambridge

1945. Mrs. Katherine G. Canavan, Amherst

1945. Joseph B. Ely, Westfield

1946. Clifford C. Hubbard, Norton
1946. David J. Malcolm, Charlemont

Officers of the Trustees
His Excellency Leverett Saltonstall, President
Nathaniel I. Bowditch, Framingham, Vice-President
Robert D. Hawley, Amherst, Secretary
Fred C. Kenney, Amherst, Treasurer

The Bradford Durfee Textile School, Fall River


Ex officio His Honor Alexander C. Murray, Mayor
Ex officio Walter F. Downey, Commissioner of Education
Ex officio Hector L. Belisle, Superintendent of Schools

4 P.D. 2

Term expires

1942. John S. Brayton, Fall River, President
1941. James Tansey, Fall River, Vice-President

1939. Frank L. Carpenter, Fall River, Treasurer

1940. Edward F. Doolan, Fall River, Clerk
1940. Odias Dumont, Fall River

1940. James W. Hennessey, Fall River

1940. Roy A. Jenkins, Fall River

1940. Richard A. Soja, Fall River

1941 . Edmond a. Berube, Fall River
1941. John A. Granfield, Somerset
1941. Percy Marriott, Somerset

1941. Nathan Sternsher, Fall River

1942. Raymond F. Morton, Fall River
1942. Thomas Platt, Swansea

1942. Antone Souza, Fall River

1942. Godfreyde Tonnancoxjr, Fall River

Lowell Textile Institute



Ex Officio His Honor George T. Ashe, Mayor

Ex officio Walter F. Downey, Commissioner of Educatior,

Term expires

1940. Edward G. Boyle, Woburn

1940. William F. Corliss, Amesbury

1940. Albert J. Malley, Andover

1940. Joan C. Shanley, Lowell

1940. Frank P. Sweeney, Peabody

1941. John A. Calnin, Lowell

1941. Walter A. Conway, Marblehead

1941. John H. Corcoran, Cambridge

1941. Harold W. Leitch, Andover

1941. Francis P. Madden, Winthrop

1942. Richard G. Chadwick, Lowell
1942. Roland E. Derby, Tyngsborough
1942. Harold V. Farnsworth, Winchester
1942. Stephen R. Gleason, Lowell

1942. Ulysses J. Ltjfien, Chelmsford

New Bedford Textile School

Maud L. Clark, Treasurer

Ex officio His Honor Leo E. J. Carney, Mayor
Ex officio Walter F. Downey, Commissioner of Education
Ex officio Allen P. Keith, Superintendent of Schools

Term expires

1940. Raymond R. McEvoy, Taunton

1940. Ernest Robitaille, New Bedford

1940. Samuel Ross, New Bedford

1940. John A. Shea, Taunton

1940. James B. Sullivan, New Bedford

1941. Philip G. Cashman, Lynn

1941. Frederick H. McDevitt, Sr., New Bedford

1941. F. Milton McGrath, Brockton

1941. Walter H. Paige, New Bedford

1941. John Regan, New Bedford

1942. William E. G. Batty, New Bedford
1942. John F. Glennon, New Bedford
1942. Harry T. Perkins, Fairhaven
1942. Albert Ruth, South Dartmouth
1942. Manuel Silva, New Bedford

P.D. 2



James G. Carter
Emerson Davis
Edmund Dwight

George Putnam
Charles Hudson
George N. Briggs
William G. Bates
John W. James
Elisha Bartlett
Heman Humphrey
Stephen C. PhilHps
Barnas Sears
Edwin H. Chapin
Henry B. Hooker
Stephen P. Webb
Thomas Kinnicutt
Joseph W. Ingraham
John A. Bolles
George B. Emerson
Charles K. True
Mark Hopkins
Edward Otheman
Isaac Davis
Alexander H. Vinton
George S. Bout well
Henry Wheatland
Hosea Ballou
Ariel Parish
Cornelius C. Felton
Alonzo H. Quint
William A. Stearns
Russell Tomlinson
Erastus O. Haven

Edward Everett
Marcus Morton
John Davis
George N. Briggs
George S. Boutwell
John H. Chfford
Emory Washburn
Henry J. Gardner
Nathaniel P. Banks
John A. Andrew
Alexander H. Bullock

George Hull
Henry H. Childs
John Reed
Henry W. Cushman
Ehsha Huntington
William C. Plunkett
Simon Brown
Henry W. Benchley

Original, Members — 1837

Horace Mann
Edward A. Newton
Robert Rantoul, Jr.

Appointed Since
David H. Mason
John P. Marshall
Emory Washburn
Abner J. Phipps
James Freeman Clarke
William Rice
John D. Philbrick
Samuel T. Seelye
George T. Wilde
Gardiner G. Hubbard
Alonzo A. Miner
Henry Chapin
Constantine C. Esty
Edward B. Gillett
Phillips Brooks
Christopher C. Hussey
Charles B. Rice
Elijah B. Stoddard
Horatio G. Knight
Abby W. May
Charles Francis Adams, Jr.
Milton B. Whitney
Thomas Wentworth Higginson
Admiral P. Stone
Francis A. Walker
Edward C. Carrigan
Horace E. Scudder
Elmer H. Capen
Kate Gannett Wells
Alice Freeman Palmer

Ex-Officiis — Governors
WiUiam Claflin
William B. Washburn
William Gaston
Alexander H. Rice
Thomas Talbot
John D. Long
Benjamin F. Butler
George D. Robinson
Oliver Ames
John Q. A. Brackett
William E. Russell

Thomas Robbins
Jared Sparks

George I. Aldrich
George H. Conley
Joel D. Miller
Franklin Carter
Clinton Q. Richmond
Caroline Hazard
Albert E. Winship
Thomas B. Fitzpatrick
Frederick P. Fish
Sarah Louise Arnold
Simeon B. Chase
Levi L. Conant
Frederick W. Hamilton
Paul H. Hanus
Jeremiah E. Burke
James Chalmers
Margaret Slattery
Samuel L. Powers
Michael J. Downey
George H. Wrenn
Arthur H. Lowe
Ella Lyman Cabot
Grace S. Mansfield
Henry B. Sawyer
Walter V. McDuffee
Lincoln Filene
Mary E. Murray
P. A. O'Connell
Roger L. Putnam

Frederic T. Greenhalge
Roger Wolcott
W. Murray Crane
John L. Bates
William L. Douglas
Curtis Guild, Jr.
Eben S. Draper
Eugene N. Foss
David I. Walsh
Samuel W. McCall
Calvin Coolidge

Ex-Officiis — Lieutenant-Governors

Eliphalet Trask Byron Weston

John Z. Goodrich Oliver Ames

John Nesmith William H. Haile

Joel Hayden Louis A. Frothingham

William Claflin Robert Luce

Joseph Tucker Edward P. Barry

Thomas Talbot Grafton D. Gushing

Horatio G. Knight Channing H. Cox


Secretaries of the Board
Horace Mann 1877-1893.

Barnas Sears 1894-1902.

George S. Boutwell 1903-1904.

Joseph White 1904-1915.



Commissioners of Education

David Snedden
Payson Smith


John W. Dickinson
Frank A. Hill
C. B. Tilhnghast
George H. Martin

James G. Reardon
Walter F. Downey

P.D. 2



In September, 1940, the Commissioner sent to the superintendents of schools,
the principals and teachers of Massachusetts, the following statement entitled
"We Volunteer."


As Massachusetts teachers return to their classrooms this September, they
seek only to know how best to help, how best to serve.

America has unanimously decided to arm herself for defensive protection.
A five-year program is planned. But even if we should build more airplanes
than any nation on earth, build a greater number of tanks, or ships, or of
submarines — even with all these, without a solid, complete and harmonious
body of citizens, we are weak. We have only to think of France, Belgium,
Holland, Norway, Poland, and England, to know what an important part
civilians now play in international conflict. We need a united America. Wliere
else can we look, with a serious plan for the future, if not to the schools of
our land?

We must, then, each of us, recognize a duty and a responsibiUty. We dedi-
cate ourselves to our task. We teach in America, for America, teaching
Americanism energetically and continuously. The power of our example is
important. Our leadersliip is necessary. Let us continue to develop and main-
tain what we have sought to do in the past — a program of sound American
citizenship all along the line.

Even the form of our government is under attack. We all recognize a con-
flict between two diametrically opposed forms of government. However, in
addition, there is a conflict of ideas. Our nation seeks to treat the individual
■udth proper dignity. In America a person has a right to his own soul. Here,
the child is not for the state; the state is for the cliild, for each citizen. Where
else in the world is there such an opportunity for teachers to assist in promoting
the interest of each child?

In our security we have become so accustomed to our way of life that parents
and children have become careless with our national heritage. We have taken
too much for granted. Now we recognize that democracy can fail unless it has
the united support of its citizens. Mistakes which have been made, or are being
made, T\dll now come cO the surface. So, let us be vigilant. Indifference on the
part of anyone who has a public responsibility, or the failure of anyone to do
his utmost as a citizen, is dangerous in terms of our democracy. With the
realization that America is becoming a mihtary nation, we must appreciate
also that we are seeking to do what perhaps no other nation has previously
done — to become militarized and yet retain our democratic way of hfe. We
recognize that freedom is a great privilege. Many in the world have lost it.
We still retain it, each of us. Our freedom, however, carries with it a grave
personal responsibility. In my judgment, it is not a time for criticism of a
negative sort. It is a time for participation. Instead of talking about our
failures, let us concentrate on our successes. As a nation, in terms of practical
idealism, we have been, for our short life, the most successful on earth.

A united America need not fear. Properly united and armed she may stand
before the world undaunted and unafraid. She has a right to demand loyalty
from everyone within her borders.

This heritage of ours was won by sacrifice, suffering, valor and heroism.
It was not obtained without a price. As we value it, so we must now work to
preserve it, by sacrifice, national self-disciphne, honest, devoted and unselfish

I look to our teachers with confidence as leaders in this crisis. We are
fortunate in having this opportunity to serve our country. No one of us is a
private in the army of the United America. Each is an officer and we so must

P.D. 2 7

consider ourselves. We have responsibility in addition to our own conduct and
attitude. We must direct others, wisely, and energetically, and loyally.

A little over a century and a half ago in Massachusetts began the struggle
for American freedom. Men and women gave their lives and their fortunes to
this end. It was here that American liberty took its first faltering steps, and
later began a confident march forward, under the flag of a united people having
as their greatest asset an intense will to be a free, self-governing people. We
still have that will. We wish not only to be free but to live in accord with our
own American way of life. Let that be your will, my will, the will of every
child in all our schools. Such a united will in America is a tremendous, yes,
an unconquerable force. We are not a docile nation. We are not victims of
regimentation. We have a free will, and a will to be free. We intend to pro-
tect and defend our rights. We seek not territory, not to conquer; we seek
only peace in a land which God has blessed in so many ways.

Then, as we return to our classrooms, let us say with deep devotion "We
volunteer." We enroll ourselves in the army of American teachers. We seek
to serve America as valiantly as if each of us were on the battlefield.

Standards for the Appointment of Teachers in
THE Commonwealth of Massachusetts

In view of the fact that the Commonwealth of Massachusetts has no general
certification law for the quahfication of teachers, it seems desirable for the Depart-
ment of Education to make recommendations on minimum standards to school
committees and superintendents of schools in towns and cities throughout the State.

The State Department recognizes that many towns and cities have standards
which are equivalent to or higher than those submitted. However, the Department
submits this official statement in order to recommend to all communities approved
minimum standards.

It is understood that the acceptance of these standards is in the hands of the local
school authorities, that is, the school committees and the superintendents of schools.
By statute and tradition, the authority for administering schools is on an entirely
democratic basis in this Commonwealth. It is the responsibility of the local school
committees and superintendents of schools to maintain educational standards.

The statutes placing such responsibility on local school officials are as follows:



"The School Committee of a town not in a superintendency union or district
shall employ a superintendent of schools and fix his compensation. A super-
intendent employed under this section or section sixty or sixty-three shall be
the executive officer of the committee, and under its general direction, shall
have the care and supervision of public schools, shall assist it in keeping its
records and accounts and in making such reports as are required by law, and
shall recommend to the committee, teachers, textbooks, and courses of study."



"It shall elect and contract with the teachers of the public schools, shall
require full and satisfactory evidence of their moral character, and shall ascer-
tain their qualifications for teaching and their capacity for the government
of schools."
The interpretation of these statutes by the State Department of Education is
that the superintendent shall recommend all teachers, all textbooks and all courses
of study to the school committee for its approval or disapproval. This is the basis
of sound educational procedure.

As is the teacher, so is the school. The merit of each teacher is the controlling
factor in determining the quality of the school. Qualification of the teacher for the
position, therefore, should be the sole basis for the appointment, retention and pro-
motion of teachers. The best qualified teacher for each position is the best assur-
ance that the interests of the children and citizens are being properly protected.

8 P.D. 2

The schools of our nation are inevitably of major concern at all times, and par-
ticularly now when democracy is challenged. The school is the chief instrumentality
set up in America for the training of our citizens, for developing and maintaining
thoughtful patriotism and for handing down the traditions of our American way
of life to future generations.

We in Massachusetts recognize the fact that our schools must be maintained on
a high standard, in accord with our traditions, and comparable to the standards
existing in any state in the Union.

It is understood that these standards do not apply retroactively to those who
are now teachers in Massachusetts.

The Commissioner of Education recommends that these be accepted as minimum
standards throughout the Commonwealth.

Standards for the Appointment of Teachers in the Commonwealth of
Massachusetts Recommended by the State Department of Education

The candidate should furnish

1. Evidence of good moral character.

2. A health certificate from a physician.


Kindergarten teachers should be selected from those persons who have made
definite preparation for teaching the kindergarten-primary grades.

The candidate should have a Bachelor's degree with kindergarten-primary educa-
tion as the major field and a minimum of six semester hours of supervised practice
teaching in the kindergarten-primary grades, or

A Bachelor's degree with a minimum of 18 semester hours in the field of kinder-
garten-primary education, including the following and other courses :

1. Principles and aims of Kindergarten and Elementary Education. Philos-
ophy and History of Education.

2. General Psychology and Child Psychology.

3. Principles and Methods of Teaching in the Kindergarten-Primary grades;
Kindergarten-Primary School Curriculum; Tests and Measurements, plus
a minimum of six semester hours of supervised practice teaching in the
kindergarten-primary grades.

Elementary Grades

Elementary school teachers should be selected from those persons who have made
definite preparation for teaching in the elementary grades.

The candidate should have a Bachelor's degree, with elementary education as
the major field and a minimum of six semester hours of supervised teaching in the
elementary grades, or

A Bachelor's degree, six semester hours of supervised teaching in elementary
grades and a minimum of 18 semester hours in the field of education, including the
following subjects:

1. Principles and Aims of Elementary Education.
History and Philosophy of Education.

2. General Psycholog}^ and Child Psychology.

3. Principles and Methods of Teaching in the Elementary Grades.
The Elementary School Curriculum.

Tests and Measurements.

Junior High School

The candidate should have a Bachelor's degree with a minimum of 18 semester
hours in the major field to be taught, and 12 semester hours in each minor field.
The professional preparation should also carry a minimum of 16 semester hours,
including six semester hours in some phase or phases of secondary education and

Online LibraryEdward Augustus FreemanSketches from French travel → online text (page 1 of 112)