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_BY THE SAME AUTHOR._

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CHIEFLY ITALIAN.

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_Companion Volume to 'Subject and Neighbour Lands of Venice.'_
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SKETCHES
FROM THE
SUBJECT AND NEIGHBOUR LANDS
OF
VENICE.




[Illustration: PERISTYLE AND CATHEDRAL TOWER, SPALATO.]




SKETCHES
FROM THE
SUBJECT AND NEIGHBOUR LANDS
OF
VENICE.

BY
EDWARD A. FREEMAN, D.C.L., LL.D.,
HONORARY FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, OXFORD.

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS.

London:
MACMILLAN AND CO.
1881.

[_All Rights reserved._]




PREFACE.


This volume is designed as a companion and sequel to my former volume
called "Architectural and Historical Sketches, chiefly Italian." Its
general plan is the same. But more of the papers in the present volume
appear for the first time than was the case with the earlier one, and
most of those which are reprinted have been more largely changed in
reprinting than those which appeared in the former book. This could
hardly be otherwise with the pieces relating to the lands east of the
Hadriatic, where I have had to work in remarks made during later
journeys, and where great events have happened since I first saw those
lands.

The papers are chiefly the results of three journeys. The first, in
the autumn of 1875, took in Dalmatia and Istria, with Trieste and
Aquileia. At that time the revolt of Herzegovina had just begun, and
Ragusa was crowded with refugees. Some of the papers contained
references to the state of things at the moment, and those references
I saw no reason to alter. But I may as well say that the time of my
first visit to the South-Slavonic lands was not chosen with reference
to any political or military object. The journey was planned before
the revolt began; it was in fact the accomplishment of a thirty years'
yearning after the architectural wonders of Spalato, which till that
year I had been unable to gratify. If that visit taught me some things
with regard to our own times as well as to earlier times, it is not, I
think, either wonderful or blameworthy.

In 1877 I visited Dalmatia for the second time, and Greece for the
first. I should be well pleased some day to put together some out of
many papers on the more distant Greek lands. In this volume I have
brought in those on Corfu only, as that island forms an essential part
of my present subject.

In the present year 1881 I again visited Dalmatia and some parts of
Istria and Albania, as also a large part of Italy. This has enabled me
to add some papers on the Venetian possessions both in northern and
southern Italy, as also one on the Dalmatian island of Curzola, which
on former visits I had seen only in passing.

The papers headed "Treviso," "Gorizia," "Spalato revisited," "Trani,"
"Otranto," "Corfu to Durazzo," and "Antivari," are all due to this
last journey, and have never been in print before. That on "Curzola"
appeared in _Macmillan's Magazine_ for September 1881. Those headed
"Udine and Cividale," "Aquileia," "Trieste to Spalato," "Spalato to
Cattaro," "A trudge to Trebinje," appeared in the _Pall Mall Gazette_
in 1875. The rest appeared in the _Saturday Review_ in 1875 and 1876.
But many of them have been so much altered that they can hardly be
called mere reprints; they are rather recastings, with large
additions, omissions, and changes, such as the light of second and
third visits seemed to call for.

I made none of these journeys alone, and I have much for which to
thank the companions with whom I made them. In 1877 I was with the
Earl of Morley and Mr. J. F. F. Horner. And I must not forget to
mention that it was Lord Morley who at once read and explained the
inscription in the basilica of Parenzo, when Mr. Horner and I had seen
that Mr. Neale's explanation was nonsense, but had not yet hit upon
anything better for ourselves. In a great part of my two later
journeys I had the companionship of Mr. Arthur Evans, my friend of
1877, my son-in-law of 1881. How much I owe to his knowledge of
South-Slavonic matters, words would fail me to tell. I had seen
Dalmatia for the first time, and I had begun to write about it, before
I knew him and, I believe, before he had published anything; otherwise
I should almost feel myself an intruder in a province which he has
made his own. One out of many points I may specially mention. It was
Mr. Evans who found and explained the two missing capitals from the
palace at Ragusa, which are at once so remarkable in themselves and
which throw so much light on the history of the building.

The illustrations to my former volume met with some severe criticism.
But I am bound to say that of that severe criticism I agreed to every
word. Only I thought that the critics would perhaps have been less
severe if they had seen my original drawings themselves. The
illustrations to the present volume have been made by a new process,
partly, as before, from my own sketches, but partly also from
photographs. I trust that they will be found less unsatisfactory than
those that went before them.

As there are in these papers a good many historical references, some
of them to rather out-of-the-way matters, but matters which could not
always be explained at length in the text, I have drawn up a
chronological table of the chief events in the history of the lands
and cities of which I have had to speak.

I need hardly say that this volume, though I hope it may be useful to
travellers on the spot, is not strictly a guide-book. But a good
guide-book to Istria and Dalmatia is much needed. I am not joking when
I say that the best guide to those parts is still the account written
by the Emperor Constantino Porphyrogenitus more than nine hundred
years back. But it is surely high time that there should be another.
The attempts made in one or two of Murray's Handbooks are very poor.
Sir Gardner Wilkinson's "Dalmatia and Montenegro," published more than
thirty years ago, is an admirable book, and one to which I owe a very
deep debt of gratitude. It first taught me what there was to see in
the East-Hadriatic lands. But it is over-big for a guide-book. Mr.
Neale's book contains some information, and, even in its ecclesiastical
grotesqueness, it is sometimes instructive as well as amusing. But we
can hardly take as our guide one who leaves out the Ragusan palace and
who, when at Spalato, does not think of Diocletian. It would be in
itself well if Gsel-fels, the prince of guide-book-makers, would do
for Dalmatia as he has done for Sicily; but one would rather see it
done in our own tongue.

SOMERLEAZE, WELLS,
_September 20th, 1881_.




CONTENTS.


THE LOMBARD AUSTRIA: - PAGE

TREVISO 3

UDINE AND CIVIDALE 24

GORIZIA 41

AQUILEIA 52

TRIESTE 70


TRIESTE TO SPALATO: -

TRIESTE TO SPALATO 85

PARENZO 97

POLA 109

ZARA 121


SPALATO AND ITS NEIGHBOURS: -

SPALATO 137

SPALATO REVISITED 149

SALONA 156

TRAÜ 175


SPALATO TO CATTARO: -

SPALATO TO CATTARO 189

CURZOLA 200

RAGUSA 218

RAGUSAN ARCHITECTURE 240

A TRUDGE TO TREBINJE 260

CATTARO 271


VENICE IN THE FOOTSTEPS OF THE NORMANS: -

TRANI 287

OTRANTO 313

FIRST GLIMPSES OF HELLAS 332

CORFU AND ITS NAMES 343

CORFU AND ITS HISTORY 353

CORFU TO DURAZZO 365

ANTIVARI 381




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


PAGE

PERISTYLE AND CATHEDRAL TOWER, SPALATO _Frontispiece_

PORTA GEMINA, POLA 113

TOWER OF SAINT MARY'S, ZARA 132

SAINT VITUS, ZARA, AND THE ORTHODOX CHURCH, CATTARO 133

THE TOWER, SPALATO 145

CATHEDRAL, TRAÜ 182

SAINT JOHN BAPTIST, TRAÜ 185

TOWER OF FRANCISCAN CHURCH, RAGUSA 242

PALACE, RAGUSA 245

DOGANA, RAGUSA 253

CABOGA HOUSE, GRAVOSA 255

CATHEDRAL, TRANI 299

CATHEDRAL, TRANI, INSIDE 305

CHURCHES AT CORFU 358

SAINT JASON AND SAINT SOSIPATROS, CORFU, INSIDE 363




CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.


B.C.
Foundation of Korkyra _c._ 734

Foundation of Epidamnos _c._ 627

War between Corinth and Korkyra about Epidamnos 435

Colonization of Pharos and Issa 385

Korkyra held by Agathoklês 300

Korkyra held by Pyrrhos 287

First Roman war with Illyria, time of Queen Teuta
and Demetrios of Pharos 229

Korkyra, Epidamnos, and Apollonia become allies of
Rome 229

Second Illyrian War 219

Foundation of Aquileia 181

First Roman Conquest of Illyria 168

First mention of Tragyrion (Traü) 158

First Dalmatian War 156

Salona the head of Dalmatia 117

Roman Conquest of Istria 107

Foundation of Forum Julii _c._ 45

Colony of Tergeste fortified by Augustus 32

Foundation of Pietas Julia _c._ 30

A.D.
Final conquest of Dalmatia 6

Martyrdom of Saint Caius 296?

Diocletian retires to Salona 305

Crispus put to death at Pola 326

First church of Aquileia built by Fortunatian _c._ 347

Gallus put to death at Pola 354

Aquileia destroyed by Attila 452

Dalmatia under Marcellian 454-468

Dalmatia under Odoacer _c._ 480

Dalmatia under Theodoric 488

The Emperor Glycerius Bishop of Salona 474

Nepos killed near Salona 480

Salona recovered to the Empire 535

Building of the church of Parenzo 535-543

Belisarius sails from Salona 544

Narses sails from Salona 552

Schism in the church of Aquileia 557

Beginning of the Patriarchate of Grado 606

Lombard conquest of Italy begins 568

Slavonic settlements under Heraclius _c._ 620

Salona destroyed by the Avars 639

Inland Dalmatia under Charles the Great; the
coast cities left to the Eastern Empire 806

The church of Pola built by Bishop Handegis 857

Cattaro taken by the Saracens 867

Saracen siege of Ragusa 867

First Venetian conquest of Dalmatia 997

Poppo Patriarch of Aquileia; rebuilding of the
church 1019-1042

First authentic mention of Gorizia 1051

Croatian kingdom of Dalmatia 1062

Foundation of Saint Nicolas at Traü 1064

Corfu conquered by Robert Wiscard 1081

Corfu recovered by the Empire 1085

Exploits of the English exiles at Durazzo 1086

Magyar kingdom of Dalmatia 1102

The tower of Saint Mary's at Zara built by Coloman
of Hungary 1105

Beginning of the Counts of Gorizia 1120

Corfu held by Roger of Sicily 1147-1150

Dalmatia restored to the Eastern Empire 1171

Corfu conquered by William the Good 1186

Corfu, Durazzo, etc., held by Margarito as a
kingdom dependent on Sicily 1186

Richard the First at Ragusa 1192

Taking of Zara by the Crusaders 1202

Venetian Counts at Ragusa 1204

Corfu and Durazzo first occupied by Venice 1206

Building of Traü cathedral 1215-1321

Corfu and Durazzo recovered by Michael of Epeiros 1216

Durazzo recovered by the Empire 1259

Corfu and Durazzo ceded to Manfred 1268

Consecration of Saint Anastasia at Zara 1285

Durazzo under Servia 1322

Durazzo restored to the Kings of Naples 1322

Pola submits to Venice 1331

Neapolitan duchy of Durazzo 1333-1360

Treviso first occupied by Venice 1338

Building of the Archbishop's castle at Salona 1347

Treviso besieged by Lewis of Hungary 1356

Dalmatia ceded to Lewis of Hungary 1358

Durazzo the capital of an Albanian kingdom 1358-1392

Complete independence of Ragusa 1359

Markquard, Patriarch of Aquileia; recasting
of the church 1365-1381

Gradual advance of Venice in Dalmatia 1378-1444

Treviso ceded to Leopold of Austria 1381

Trieste commends itself to Austria 1381

Final acquisition of Corfu by Venice 1386

Venetian occupation of Argos 1388

Treviso restored to Venice 1388

Second Venetian acquisition of Durazzo 1392

Building of the palace at Ragusa 1388-1435

Butrinto and Parga commend themselves to Venice 1407

Consecration of Saint Chrysogonos at Zara 1407

Sebenico annexed by Venice 1412

Building of the cathedral at Sebenico 1415-1555

Cattaro becomes Venetian 1419

Traü annexed by Venice 1420

Curzola finally submits to Venice 1420

Dominions of the Patriarch of Aquileia annexed
by Venice 1420

Udine annexed by Venice 1420

Lesina occupied by Venice 1424

The city of Aquileia left to the Patriarchs 1451

Argos ceded by Venice 1463

Fluctuations between Venice and the Turk in
Dalmatia 1465-1718

Date of the cloister at Badia 1477

Otranto taken by the Turks 1480

Otranto recovered by Alfonso 1481

Veglia annexed by Venice 1481

Monopoli stormed by the Venetians 1495

Trani, Otranto, and other cities pledged to Venice
by Ferdinand of Naples 1496

Durazzo and Butrinto lost by Venice 1500

Gorizia annexed to Austria by Maximilian 1500

Treviso besieged by Maximilian 1508

Trani, etc., recovered by Ferdinand of Aragon 1509

Building of the Dogana at Ragusa 1520

Trani, etc., recovered by Venice 1528

Trani, etc., restored to Charles the Fifth 1530

Aquileia annexed to Austria 1544

Mark Anthony de Dominis Archbishop of Spalato 1622

Building of the gate at Curzola 1643

The great earthquake at Ragusa 1667

Prevesa won and Butrinto recovered by Venice 1685-1699

The Emperor Leopold repairs the castle of Gorizia 1660

Athens taken by Morosini 1687

Abolition of the patriarchate of Aquileia; Udine
and Gorizia become metropolitan sees 1751

Peace of Campo Formio; fall of Venice: Venetia,
Istria, and Dalmatia, except Ragusa, occupied
by Austria 1797-8

The Ionian Islands and the Venetian outposts
ceded to France 1797

Septinsular Republic under Ottoman overlordship 1798

Prevesa stormed by Ali of Jôannina 1798

Venetia, Istria, Trieste, and Dalmatia ceded
to the French kingdom of Italy; Dalmatia partly
occupied 1805

The Republic of Ragusa suppressed by Buonaparte 1808

Various points occupied by England 1810-1814

Cattaro delivered from France by England and
Montenegro; Cattaro, capital of Montenegro 1813

Dalmatia recovered by Austria, Ragusa also
occupied by Austria for the first time 1814

Venetia, Istria, and Trieste recovered by Austria 1814

English occupation of Curzola 1813-1815

The Ionian Islands under British protection 1815

Surrender of Parga to the Turk 1819

Liberation of Venice and recovery by Austria 1848-9

The Ionian Islands added to free Greece 1864

Final liberation of Venetia 1866

Austrian attempt to infringe the liberties of the
Bocchesi; defeat of the Austrians 1869

Beginning of the war in Herzegovina 1875

Servian and Montenegrin war; recovery of Antivari,
Dulcigno, and Spizza by Montenegro 1876-7

Congress of Berlin; Dulcigno restored to the Turk;
Spizza taken by Austria; Antivari left to
Montenegro; the Turk "invited" to cede Epeiros
to free Greece 1878

The liberation of Epeiros decreed the second time 1880

Dulcigno recovered for Montenegro 1880

Liberation of Thessaly, but not of Epeiros 1881




THE LOMBARD AUSTRIA.




TREVISO.

1881.


The north-eastern corner of Italy is one of those parts of the world
which have gone through the most remarkable changes. That it has often
changed its political masters is only common to it with the rest of
Italy, and with many other lands as well. The physical changes too
which the soil and its waters have gone through are remarkable, but


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Online LibraryEdward Augustus FreemanSketches from the subject and neighbour lands of Venice → online text (page 1 of 23)