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THE



HISTOEICAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE



THE



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY



OF



EUROPE



BY

EDWARD A. FREEMAN, D.C.L., LL D.

FORMEKLY REGIUS PROFESSOR OF MODERN HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD



THIRD EDITION



EDITED BY

J. B. BURY, M.A., D.LiTT., LL.D.

REGIUS PROFESSOR OF MODERN HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO,

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON
NEW YORK AND BOMBAY

lOOB

\
I \ "
AH rights reserved



PEEFATOEY NOTE

TO

THE THIRD EDITION



While this book does not rank with the most impor-
tant of Mr. Freeman's historical works, it is not too
much to say that none of them is more original. It is
remarkable for the novelty of its conception, and for
the perfectly amazing skill with which he has mar-
shalled and set forth numerous arrays of dry facts,
which become through his masterly arrangement easy
to understand and survey. It has an artistic construc-
tion depending on the central idea, which groups the
geographical vicissitudes of Europe in relation to the
Eoman Empire ; and, though every sentence is thronged
with names, it is not a mere book of reference like the
meritorious text to the Spruner-Menke Atlas ; it can
be read consecutively. It is a book, too, which need
never become antiquated. It may be predicted that it
will be as fresh and as useful to students a hundred
years hence as it is to-day ; and it can always be easily



VI PliEFATORY NOTE TO THE TIUIII* EDITION.

brought up to date by brief additions, without the
necessity of any change in its texture.

Such brief additions have been made in the present
edition ; the few shiftings in poHtical geography of the
past twenty years have been noticed at the appropriate
})laces. In editing a manual of this kind, it does not
seem incumbent or convenient to treat the text as
sacrosanct, as one would treat Gibbon or the author's
own Norman Conquest. The practical purpose of the
work suggests, and its arrangement invites, insertions
in the text rather than an appendix. 13esides insertions
of this kind, with the very slight changes which they
sometimes necessitated, few alterations have been made.
Some footnotes have been modified, some omitted, one
or two added ; and a few trifling errors have been
corrected.

There is one point on which I venture to think that
if Mr. Freeman were here to edit this book himself he
might have been induced to modify his language. It
is his use of the word Aryan. Though ' Aryanism ' was,
if I may say so, one of the pillars of his construction of
historv, I think he might have been induced to substi-
tute the phrase ' of Aryan speech ' in many cases when
he committed himself to ' Aryan.' For the truth is
that, in designating a people as Aryan, speech was his
criterion, and the inference from Aryan speech to
Aryan stock is invalid. How the Indo-Germanic
tongue spread is still an unsolved problem, but it is



PREFATORY NOTE TO THE THIRD EDITION. Vll

certain that all the European peoples who spoke or
speak tongues of this family are not of common race,
and many of them probably have very little ' Aryan '
blood. In studying Section 3 of Chapter I., on the
' Geographical Distribution of Kaces,' the reader will
do well to bear this caution in mind.

J. B. B.



PEE FACE

TO

THE FIRST EDITION.



It is now several years since this book was bej^un. It
has been delayed by a crowd of causes, by a temporary
loss of strength, by enforced absence from England, by
other occupations and interruptions of various kinds.
I mention this only because of the effect which I fear
it has had on the book itself. It has been impossible
to make it, what a book should, if possible, be, the
result of one continuous effort. The mere fact that the
kindness of the publishers allowed the early part to be
printed some years back has, I fear, led to some
repetition and even contradiction. A certain change
of plan was found unavoidable. It proved im-
possible to go through the whole volume according
to the method of the earlier chapters. Instead of
treating Europe as a whole, I found it needful to divide
it into several large geographical groups. The result
is that each of the later chapters has had to go over
afjain some small amount of oround which had been
already gone over in the earlier chapters. In some



X PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

eases later liiilits have led to some cliano'es of view
ov expression. I have marked these, as far as I
could, in the Additions and Corrections. If in any
ease I have failed to do so, the later statement is the
one which should be relied on.

I hope that I have made the object of the work
clear in the Introductory Chapter. It is reaUy a very
humble one. It aims at little more than tracino- out
the extent of various states at different times, and at
attempting to place the various changes in their due
relation to one another and to their causes. I am not,
strictly speaking, writing history. I have little to do
with the internal affairs of any country. I have looked
at events mainly with reference to their effect on the
European map. This has led to a reversal of what to
manv will seem the natural order of tliinos. In a
constitutional history of Europe, our own island would
claim the very first place. In my strictly geographical
point of view, I beheve I am right in giving it the last.

I of ("ourse assume in the reader a certain ele-
mentary knowledge of European history, at least as
much as mav be learned from mv own Cleneral Sketch.
Names and things which have been explained there I
have not thought it needful to explain again. I need
hardly say that I found myself far more competent to
deal with some parts of the work than with others.
Xo one can take an equal interest in, or have an
equal knowledge of, all branches of so wide a subject.



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION'. XI

Some parts of the book will represent real original
research ; others must be dealt with in a far less
thoroua-li way, and will represent onlv knowleds'e o-ot
up for the occasion. In such cases the reader will
doubtless find out the difference for himself. But
I have felt mv own deficiencies most keenly in the
German part. Xo part of European history is to me
more attractive than the early history of the German
kingdom as such. Xo part is to me less attractive than
the endless family divisions and unions of the smaller
German states.

In the Slavonic part I have found great difficulty
in following any uniform system of spellino-. I con-
suited several Slavonic scholars. Each o-ave me advice,
and each supported his own advice by arguments which
I should have thouoiit unanswerable, if I had not
seen the arguments in support of the wholly different
advice siven me bv the others. A^-lien the teachers
differ so widely, the learner will, I hope, be forgiven,
if the result is sometimes a little chaotic. I have tried
to write Slavonic names so as to give some approach to
the sound, as far as I know it. But I fear that I have
succeeded very imperfectly.

In such a crowd of names, dates, and the like, there
must be many small inaccuracies. In the case of the
smaller dates, those which do not mark the great
epochs of history, nothing is easier than to get wrong
by a year or so. Sometimes there is an actual difference



Xll PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

of Statement in different authorities. Sometimes there
is a difference in the reckoning of the year. For
instance. In what year was Calais lost to Eno'land?
We should say 1558. A writer at the time would say
1557. Then again there is no slip of either pen or
press so easy as putting a wrong figure, and, except in
the case of great and obvious dates, or again when the
mistake is very far wrong indeed, there is no slip of pen
or press so likely to be passed by in revision. And again
there is often room for question as to the date which
should be marked. In recording a transfer of territory
from one power to another, what should be the date
given ? The actual military occupation and the formal
diplomatic cession are often several years apart. Which
of these dates should be chosen ? I have found it hard
to follow anv fixed rule in such matters. Sometimes
the military occupation seems the most important point,
sometimes the diplomatic cession. I believe that in
each case where a question of this sort might arise, I
could give a reason for the date which has been chosen ;
but here there has been no room to enter into dis-
cussions. I can only say that I shall be deeply thankful
to any one who will point out to me any mistakes or
seemino' mistakes in these or anv other matters.

The maps have been a matter of great difficulty.
I somewhat regret that it has been found needful to
bind them separately from the text, because this looks
as if they made some pretensions to the character of



PREFACE TO THE FIEST EDITION. XUl

an historical atlas. To this they lay no claim. They
are meant simply to illustrate the text, and in no way
enter into competition either with such an elaborate
collection as that of Spruner-Menke, or even with
collections much less elaborate than that. Those maps
are meant to be companions in studying the history of the
several periods. Mine do not pretend to do more than
to illustrate chang-es of boundary in a oeneral way. It
was found, as the work went on, that it was better on
the whole to increase the number of maps, even at the
expense of making each map smaller. There are dis-
advantages both ways. In the maps of South-Eastern
Europe, for instance, it was found impossible to show
the small states which arose in Greece after the Latin
conquest at all clearly. But this evil seemed to be
counterbalanced by giving as many pictures as might be
of the shifting frontier of the Eastern Empire towards
the Bulgarian, the Frank, and the Ottoman.

In one or two instances I have taken some small
liberties with my dates. Thus, for instance, the map of
the greatest extent of the Saracen dominion shows all
the countries which were at any time under the Saracen
power. But there was no one moment when the
Saracen power took in the whole extent shown in the
map. Sind and Septimania were lost before Crete and
Sicilv were won. But such a view as I have ffiven
seemed on the whole more instructive than it would
have been to substitute two or three maps showing the



xi\- TREFACE TO THE FIKST EDITION.

various losses and gains at a few years' distance from
one another.

I have to thank a crowd of friends, including some
whom I have never seen, for many hints, and for much
help given in various ways. Such are Professor Pauli
of Gottingen, Professor Steenstrup of Copenhagen,
Professor Eomanos of Corfu, M. J -B. Galiffe of
Geneva, Dr. Paul Turner of Budapest, Professor A. W.
Ward of Manchester, the Eev. H. F. Tozer, Mr.
Ealston, Mr. Morfill, Mrs. Humphry Ward, and my
son-in-law Arthur John Evans, whose praise is in all
South-Slavonic lands.

SOMEKLEAZE, WeLLS :

December 16, 1880.



PEEFACE

TO

THE SECOND EDITION.



The reception which has been <>iveii to the first

edition of this book may be taken as showing that it


supphed a real want, and that, notwithstanding some

manifest defects, it has been found to be useful. The
speedy demand for a second edition has led to a revi-
sion, as thorough as the very short time which circum-
stances allowed for it has made possible. And I trust
that I have made considerable improvements, especi-
ally in the early part. I Ijelieve that I have done
something to lessen the faults which followed almost
necessarily from the circumstances under which it
was first written. But I fear that they may still be
too clearly seen, even in the present form of the
work. I could see also that many improvements
might have been made in the maps, especially the
earlier ones. But a thorough revision of them would
have needed a far longer time than could just now



XVI PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

1)(^ ixiven to the work. I have therefore done iiothiii"
}nore than adapt the last map in the Sonth-Eastern
series to the latest arranoements of 1880-1881.
It shows how unstaljle a thing political geography is
that changes of this kind have already been needed,
both in the map and in the text. And I may per-
haps be forgiven if I hope that my work in this way
may not yet be over.

SOMKRLEAZE, WeLLS :

September 20, 1881.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

INTROnUCTIOX.

PAtt':

Definition of Historical Geography . . . . . 1

Its relation to kindred studies . . . . . .1-2

Distinction between geographical and political names . . 3-5

§ 1 . Geographical A sped of Eiirope.

Boundai-ies of Europe and Asia ...... 5—6

General geography of the two continents — the gi-eat pen-
insulas .......... 6-7

§ 2. Effects of Geography on History.

Beginnings of history in the southern peninsulas — -charac-
teristics of Greece and Italy ...... 7-8

Advance and extent of the Iloman dominion ; the Mediteri-a-

nean lands, Gaul, an<l Britain ..... 8-9

Effects of the geographical position of Germany, France, Spain,

Scandinavia, Britain ....... 9-10

Effect of geographical position on the colonizing powers . 10

Joint working of geographical position and national clia-

racter . . . . . . . . . .11



§ 3. Geographical DistribuMoa of Ii'aces.



Europe an Aryan continen' — non- Aryan remnants
later settlements ......

Fins and Basques .......

Order of Aiyan settlements; (i reeks and Italians .

Celts, Teutons, Slaves, Lithuanians

Displacement and assimilation among the Aryan races

Intrusion of non- Aryans ; Saracens

Turanian intrusions ; Bidgarians ; Magyars ; Ottomans ;

differences in their hist( ry . . . . .17

VOL. I. a



and

12
13
. 13
14-15
16
16



XVlll



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER II.

GREECE AND THE GREEK COLONIES.

§ 1 . The Emtern or Greek Peninsula.

(leographical and historical characteristics of the Eastei-n,

Greek, or Byzantine peninsula .... 18-19

Its chief divisions ; Thrace and Illyria ; their relations to



PAUE



Greece ........

Greece Proper and its peninsulas ....

Peloponnesos .......

§ 2. Insular and Asiatic Greece.

Extent of Continuotis Hellas .....

The Islands

Asiatic Greece .......

§ 3. Ethnology of the Eastern PeninstUa.

The Greeks and the kindred ra<;es ....

Illyrians, Albanians, or Skipetar ....

Inhabitants of Epeiros, Macedonia, Sicily, and Italy
Pelasgians ........

The Greek Nation



19-20
20-21
. 21



. 21
. 22
22-23



. 23
. 24
. 24

24-25
. 25



§ 4. Earliest Geography of Greece and the Neighbouring Lands.

Homeric Greece : its extent and tribal divisions . . 25-27

Use of the name Epeiros . . . . . . .27

I'he cities : their groupings unlike those of later times ;

supremacy of Mykene . . . . . . .27

Extent of Greek colonization in Homeric times . . -28
The Asiatic catalogue ........ 28

Probable kindred of all the neighbouiing nations ... 29
Phoenician and Greek settlements in the islands ... 29

§ 5. Change from Homeric to Historic Greece.

Changes in Peloponnesos ; Doiian and Aitolian settlements . 29

Later divisions of Peloponnesos 30

Changes in Northern Gi-eece ; Thessaly 30

Akarnania and the Corinthian colonies ..... 31
Foundation and destruction of cities . . . . .31

§ 6. The Greek Colonies.

The ^gsean and Asiatic colonies ..... 32-33

Early greatness of the Asiatic cities ; Miletos ... 33



CONTENTS.



XIX



PAGE

Their submission to Lydians and Persians .... 33
The Thracian colonies ; abiding greatness of Thessalonike and

Byzantion ......... 33

More distant colonies ; Sicily, Italy, Dalmatia . . 34-35

Parts of the Mediterranean not colonized by the Gi-eeks ;

Phoenician settlements ; struggles in Sicily and Cypi'us . 35
Greek colonies in Afi-ica, Gaul, and Spain .... 36
Colonies on the Euxine ; abiding greatness of Cherson and

Trebizond . . . . . . . . .36

Beginning of the ai'tificial Greek nation ..... 37

§ 7. Growth of Macedonia and Epeiros.

Growth of Macedonia ; Philip ; Alexander and the Successors ;

effects of their conquests . . . . , . 37-38

Epeiros under Pyrrhos ; Athamania ..... 38

The Macedonian kingdoms ; Egypt ; Syria .... 38

Independent states in Asia ; Pergamos ..... 39

Asiatic states ; advance of Greek cultuie .... 39

Free cities ; Herakleia ........ 39

Sinope ; Bosporos ......... 40



§ 8. Later Geography of Independent Greece.

The Confederations ; Achaia, Aitolia ; smaller confederations
Macedonian possessions ......

First Roman possessions east of the Hadriatic

Progress of Roman conquest in Macedonia and Greece .

Special character of Greek history .....



40
40
41
41

42



CHAPTER III.

FORMATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

Meanings of the name Italy ; its extent under the Roman

commonwealth ........ 43

Chanicteristics of the Italian peninsula ; the great islands . 44

§ 1. The I nhahitants of Italy and Sicily.

Ligurians and Etruscans ....... 45

The Italiiin nations ; Latins and Oscans . . . 45-46

Other nations ; lapygians ; Gauls ; Yeneti ; use of tlie name

Venetia ......... 46-47

Greek colonies in Italy ; Kyme and Ankon . " . . . 47

The southern colonies ; their history .... 47-48

ci ^



XX



CONTENTS.



I'AfJK

liihabitants of Sicily ; Siknuiaiis and Sikels .... 48
Phwnician and (Ueek .settlements; livahy of Aryan and

Semitic powers ....... 48-49

§ 2. (r'nurt/t of the Roman Power in Italij.
Gradual conquest of Italy ; different positions of the Italian



states .......

Origin of Rome ; its Latin element dominant
Early Latin dominion of Rome
Conquest of Veii ; moi-e distant wars
Incorporation of the Italian states .



49

49-50
. 50
. 50
50-51



§ H. Jlte Western Provinces.

Natui-e of the Roman provinces ......

Eastei-n and Western provinces ......

Fir.st Roman possessions in Sicily ; conque.st of Syracuse

State of Sicily ; its Greek civilization .....

Sardinia and Corsica .......

Cisalpine Gaul ........

Liguria ; Venetia ; Istria ; foundation of Aquilei.i .

Spain ; its inhal)itants ; Iberians, Celts ; Greek and
Phcenician colonies .......

Concfuest and romanization of Spain ....

Transalpine Gaul ; the Pi'ovince ......

Conquests of Csesar ; threefold division of Gaul

Boundaries of Gaul purely geographical ; survival of nomen-
clature 57-58

Roman Africa ; restoration of Carthage .... 58-60





51




52


52-


-^53




53


53


-54


54-


-55




55


55-


-56


56


^57




57


57-


-58



§ 4. The Eastern Provinces.

Conti-ast between the^Eastei-n and Westei-n provinces ; Gi-eek

civilization in the East ....... 60

Distinctions among the Eastern provinces ; boundaiy of

Tauros .......... 61

The lUyi^ian provinces ; kingdom of Skodra ; conquest of

Dalmatia and Istiia ...... 62-63

The outlying Greek lands : Crete, Cyprus, Kyrene . . 63

The Asiatic provinces ; piovince of Asia ; Mithiidatic Wai- ;

independence of Lykia ....... 64

Syria ; Palestine . . . . . , . . .65

Rome and Parthia ......... 65

Conquest of Egypt ; the Roman Peace ..... 66



CONTENTS.



XXI



§ 5. Conquests under the Empire.



PAGE



Conquests from Augustus to Xero ; incorporation of vassal

kingdoms ........ 66-67

Attempted conquest of Germany ; frontiers of Rhine and

Danube ; conquests on the Danube .... 67-68

Attempt on Arabia ........ 68

Annexation of Thrace and Byzantion . . . . 68-69

Conquest of Britain ; the wall ...... 69

Conquests of Trajan ; his Asiatic conquests sui-rendered by

Hadrian .......... 70

Ai-abia Petrfea ......... 70

70-71
71



Dacia ; change of the name



Roman, Greek, and Oriental parts of the Empire



CHAPTER IV.

THE DISMEMBERMENT OF THE EMPIRE.

§ 1. The Later Geography of the Empire.

Changes under the Empire ; loss of old divisions . . .73

New divisions of Italy under Augustus 74

Division of the Empire under Diocletian . . . 74-75

The four Praetorian Piefecture.s .75

Prefectui-e of the East ; its character .... 75-76

Its dioceses; the East ; Egypt, A.sia, Pontos . . . .76

Diocese of Thrace ; pro\ances of Sc;yi;hia and Euro pa . 76-77

( Treat cities of the Eastern Prefectui-e . . . . .77

Prefecture of Illyricum ; position of Greece . . . 77-78

Dioceses of Macedonia and Dacia ; province of Achaia . 78

Prefectui-e of Italy ; its extent ...... 78

Dioceses of Italy, lUyr-icum, and Africa ; greatness of Cai-

thage 79

Prefecture of Gaid . . . . . . . . .79

Diocese of Spain ; its Afi^ican territoiy ..... 80

Dioceses of Gaul and Bi-itain ; province of Valentia . . 80



§ 2. The Division of the Empire.

Change in the position of Rome ...... 80

Division of the Empire, A.D. 395 ...... 81

Rivali-y with Paithia and Persia inhei'ite<l by the Eastei-n

Empire 81-82

Teutonic inva.sions ; no Teutonic settlements in the East 82-83



XXU CONTENTS.

§ 3. The Tentonic Settlements loithin the Emjnre.



The Wandering of tlie j^Tations ...... 83

New nomenclature of the Teutonic nations . . . 83-84

Warfiire on the llhine and Danube ; Roman outposts beyond

the rivers •••••.... 84

Teutonic confederations ; Marcomanni ; Quadi ... 85
Fi-anks, Alemans, Saxons ; Germans within the Empire . . 86

Beginning of national kingdoms ••.... 86

Loss of the Western provinces of Rome ..... 87

Settlements within the Empire by land and by sea . . . 87
Franks, Burgundians, Goths, Vandals .... 87-88

Early history of the Goths ...... 88-89

The West-Gothic kingdom in Gaul and iSpain . . 89-90

Alans, Suevi, Vandals ; the Yandals in Africa ... 90
The Franks ; use of the name i^?-a?icia . . . . .91

Alemans. Thuringians ; Low-Dutch tribes .... 92

The Fiankish dominions ; Roman Germany teutonized

afresh; peculiar position of the Franks . . . 91-93

Celtic remnant in Armoiica oi- Britanny . . . .93

The Burgundians ; various uses of the name Burgundy ;

separate history of Provence .94

Inroads of the Huns ; battle of Chalons ; origin of Venice 94-95

Nominal reunion- of the Empire in 476 95

Reigns of Odoacer and Theodoric ..... 95-96

§ 4. Settlement of the English in Britain.
Withdrawal of the Roman ti'oops from Britain ... 96
Special character of the English Conquest of Britain . . 97
The Low-Dutch settlers, Angles, Saxons, Jutes; origin of

the name English ....... 97-98

The Welsh and Scots _ .98

§ 5. The Eastern Empire.

Comparison of the two Empires; no Teutonic settlements

in the Eastern . . . . . . , .99

The Tetraxite Goths 99

Rivalry wdth Parthia continued under the revived Persian

kingdom •••...... 99

Position of Armenia .99

Momentary conquests of Trajan 100

Conquests of Marcus, Severus, and Diocletian; cessions of

. Jovian 100-101

Division of Armenia ; Hundred Years' Peace . . .101
Summary 101-102



CONTENTS. xxiii



CHAPTER V.

THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.
§ 1. The Reunion of the Empire.

PAGE

Continued existence of the Empire ; position of the Teutonic

kings 103

Extent of the Empire at the accession of Justinian . .104

Conquests of Justinian ; their eflects .... 104-106
Provence ceded to the Franks . . . . . .105

§ 2. Settlement of the Lombards in Italy.

Early history of the Lombards ; Gepidse, Avars . . 106-107
Possibility of Teutonic powers on the Danube . . .107

Lombard conquest of Italy ; its paitial nature ; territory

kept by the Empire 107-108

§ 3. Rise of the Saracens.

Loss of the Spanish province by the Empire . . . .108

Wars of Chosroes and Heraclius . . . . . .109

Extension of Roman power on the Euxine . . . 109-110

Relation of the Arabs to Rome and Persia . . . .110

Union of the Arabs ixndei- Mahomet ; renewed Aiyan ;nid

Semitic strife . . . . . . . . .110

Loss of the Eastern and African provinces of Rome . .111

Saracen conquest of Persia . . . . . . .111

Conquest of Spain ; Saracen province in Gaul . . 111-112



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