Edward Cameron Kirk.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 1 online

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before they come to this country at all.

Dyestuffs. — These are very variously adul-
terated with cheaper dyes, determinable if at all
by expert chemical examination.

Flour and Bread. — Flour is not much adul-
terated in the United States, though it is in Eu-
it^e, where the masses are poorer. The chief
admixture is ground gypsum or other minerals,
which can be detected with the microscope;
diluents but harmless. The chief illegitimate ad-
ditions to bread are alum and sulphate of copper,
to whiten it or correct sourness. Alum in bak-
ing-powder is not thought objectionable, the
heat of baking converting the mixture into in-
soluble aluminum phosphate; and by itself its
chief harm is in disguising the sourness of the
bread. Copper sulphate is always dangerous.
Both are tested by dissolving gelatine, laid for
some hours on a sop of the bread, in a wood-
alcohol tincture of logwood with ammonium
carbonate, which turns blue for alum and green
for the copper salt.

Honey, — Strained honey, a costly article when
pure, is heavily adulterated with glucose syrup
and stigar, cane sugar, corn-starch, etc. The

taste is a better guide to these than any analysift
as that of native flower-fed honey is beyoM
counterfeiting; but chemical analysis can deteet
most of them. Still better is the buying of coniib
honey. The charge has been made by English
chemists that American combs are often made
of parafljne and filled with glucose ; this is most
improbable, but a very simple test will decide it.
The microscope will show pollen grains in the
real, and warm sulphuric acid will blacken bees-
wax but not paraffine.

Lard. — Hogs' lard is adulterated with stear-
ine, tallow, and cottonseed oil; other vegetable
oils, and the lard from animals dying a natural
death, are sometimes added, but have no com-
mercial importance if true.

Milk. — The adulterations of this are re-
ducible to fivt : diluting, skimming, replacing the
skimmed cream with cheaper animal fats, color-
ing to give it the look of that cream, and adding
preservatives or correctives to keep it from
souring or to sweeten its taste when beginning
to turn. Its use as the staff of life for millions of
children and invalids makes its purity one of
the most exigent demands, and its bad quality
or innutritiousness a cause of enormous amounts
of disease and death. In some great cities pure
milk is simply not attainable for the masses at
any price within the means even of ordinary
workmen: the dairy districts within reach of
the city by train, during any time it will keep
sweet and not churn, cannot supply enough for
all, and it is inevitably diluted with water, and
more or less of it treated with chemicals. To
this is added what is not at all necessary, the
skimming off of the cream to sell separately;
both the first and the last heavily reducing its
nutritive value. Still worse, the water used is
always liable to contamination from discharges
of diseased bodies (diphtheria, typhoid, and
scarlet-fever outbreaks have been repeatedly
traced to this cause, sometimes merely from
cooling leaky cans in the tainted water), from
decaying animal or v<egetable matter, or from
the germs with which street dirt is laden. (The
contamination from sores on cows kept in un-
sanitary conditions belongs to another subject.)
As to the effect of the adulterations: Skim-
milk is a cheap ajod valuable food for blood-
making protein, as evinced by the cheese made
from it ; but it should be sold as such, otherwise
infants and invalids who need the cream may
be injured. The fats simply do not replace the
characteristic and valuable qualities of the
cream. Of the chemicals, formaldehyde (also
used for preserving other foods) is dangerous
and should not be permit'tedt Borax, salt, and
carbonate of soda are also used; neither they
nor the arnotto used to give the milk a cream
color are harmful in themselves, but only as dis-
guising the real quality of the milk sold. Chalk
and calves' brains are probably jocular figments.

The method of testing for dilution is by the
lactometer, to determine specific gravity, which
is lowered by admixture of water; in exact re-
verse, it detects skimming (which increases
specific gravity by removing the lighter cream)
by showing normal specific gravity when looks
and taste are inferior. Skimming is also in-
ferred from increase in transparency, as indicated
by the lactoscope: opaque normal milk needs
thinning with a certain percentage of water be-
fore a dark object, or black line ^rawn on •

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white surface, will show through; the less
water a given sample needs for this visibility,
the less cream it contains. For more precise de-
termination the chemist finds the amount of
solids in a sample by evaporating a mixture of
milk and heated sand and weighing the residue;
the amount of fats, by dissolvmg them out with
ether and evaporating. Watering may often be
detected by testing for nitrates, which milk does
not contain and most water docs, and contam-
inated water almost always. The detection of
animal fats used to replace cream is not easy,
though the butyrates have some individual quali-

Mustard. — This is perhaps the most heavily
and universally adulterated article in the mar-
ket: only a small percentage of it is pure, and
even that has had its abundant essential oil,
which makes it difficult to grind, expressed
from it. For one harmless adulteration the
public is responsible, as for butter-color and
pickle-green : that of turmeric or ochre to give it
the bright yellow demanded by customers, while
real mustard is very dull. But it is regularly
diluted with starch, — wheat, com, or rice, —
rape-seed, flaxseed, old turnip- or radish-seed
unfit to plant. For starch, easy tests are iodine,
which turns it blue, and its thickening in boil-
ing water ; for mineral matter, the chemist deter-
mines the amount of ash. For the others,
though the microscope is useful, the best remedy
is to pay for a known brand, — which indeed is
best for all.

Oil. — A large part of the so-called olive oil
of the market is cottonseed, peanut, or mustard
oil, or greatly mixed with it : probably the equal
in quality and taste of the genuine (as it is in-
distinguishable), but a fraud as exorbitant in
price through deception. The use of lard oil is
•probably a figment, that of petroleum oils cer-
tainly so. Tests: Nitric acid colors the adul-
terant oils, but not olive, and sulphuric acid
raises their temperature higher.

Pickles and Canned Goods. — The public de-
mand for bright green pickles has been gratified
by boiling them in copper kettles with vinegar
and some alum, the vinegar forming the highly
poisonous acetate of copper with the kettle, and
coloring the pickles green : it is easily tested by
dipping a piece of clean bright iron in the pickle,
which will gain a coating of copper if it is
present. The same process is said to be gone
through with peas; and even the copper salts
directly added, which would be a basis for a
criminal prosecution. The presence of metallic
salts from the can— ^ which would result from
careless canning and not deliberate addition —
has been thoroughly demonstrated to be harm-
less: oxid of tin would make the canned food
too nauseous to eat long before it reached even
A medicinal proportion, and oxid of lead has
not been found in any quantity. By far the
greatest danger in canned foods is bad canning,
causing putrefactive ptomaines to be created,
which have caused many deaths.

Preserves, Jams, Jellies. — Gelatine and glue
are often used to help the fruit to jelly (not
always an easy thing to assure even by experts) ,
and are often not restricted to the amount need-
ed; the goods are also artificially colored, and
flavored with so-called « fruit oils,» chemical
analysis being needed to determine the con-
stituents. Zinc oxid has been found in pre-

serves, from its use to make covers of jars air-

Spices: Nutmeg, Pepper, Cinnamon, Mac€,
Cloves, Allspice, etc. — Whole spices arc gener-
ally thought safe from adulteration; but they are
not, as inferior members of the same species may
be substituted for them, with immense loss of
quality, exactly as if crab-apples were sold for
dessert apples. Thus, wild nutmegs are often
sold for the cultivated ones, and cassia almost
always for cinnamon. The method of detection
is to know the genuine. For instance, the best
nutmegs are about an indi long and shaped like
a damson plum, weigh one-seventh to one-fifth
of an ounce, and exude oil liberally when pricked
with a pin ; the wild ones are small and pointed
and have less oil and fragrance. The genuine or
Ceylon cinnamon is a thin small roll, of delicate
fragrance which lasts long in the mouth, and tears
rather than breaks; the cassia or Chinese cin-
namon is much coarser and thicker, breaks but
does not tear, is rather mucilaginous when
chewed, and has a strong woody flavor. In
1875 the United States imported $4,073 worth of
cinnamon and $279,250 worth of cassia, or nearly
seventv times as much. Cloves are adulterated
by making them absorb water, of which they will
take up a great deal, to increase their weight

The immense adulteration of ground spices
makes their convenience a costly purchase. At
the outset, sawdust and starch are added even to
the best, to absorb the oil which makes them
difficult to grrind ; and it rarely stops there. Of 12
specimens called * ground cinnamon ^ examined
by the New York Board of Health in 1883, only
three contained any cinnamon whatever, and
even those were largely mixed with cassia and
sawdust; the others were almost entirely com-
posed of those ingredients, two were sawdust
with a very little cassia, and one was pure saw-
dust Seventy per cent of the allspice, 70 per
cent of the pepper, 82 per cent of the cinnamon,
57 per cent of the cassia, y6 per cent of the
cloves, and 66 per cent of the gmger, was adul-
terated. The most universal adulterations are
starch for bulk, mustard for pungency, and tur-
meric for color. Black pepper demands a spe-
cial note,' as it is the exception rather than the
rule to find it pure. A large percentage of the
samples examined in the past have contained no
pepper at all. « Pepper dust » (the sweepings of
warehouses, in trade a regular article of sale as
« P. D.»), mustard husks, ground wheat, corn,
or rice, capsicum, and even gypsum and sand,
have been found in it Red or cayenne pepper is
much purer than black pepper and is mainly
adulterated with flour.

Sugar. — White cane sugar has become so
cheap that it does not pay to adulterate it, and
the old adulterants lilce marble dust, terra
alba, etc., have practically disappeared except
in cheap confectionery. Sand was never much
used except in brown sugar (4 per cent has
been said to be unavoidable in Manila sugars,
but any percentage is indictable if the direct
addition can be proved), and glucose from saw-
dust has taken its place: equally healthful with
cane sugar, but of course a fraud as less sweet
and a deception.

Tea. — Owing to its cost and the difficulty of
judging its quality by the eve or taste (Adam
Smith has some acute remarics on this), tea has
always been a favorite article of adulteration

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from its introduction into the West ; fortunately,
more than most products the price is an index
of the quality, and it is easy to procure a good
article by paying for it, the supply of good qual-
ity not being limited by nature as with foreign
wines. It has the distinction of having had a
special law passed to prevent its adulteration,
and for the most curious reason imaginable : the
Act of 17 Geo. III. alleges that the admixture
of the leaves of sloe, ash, elder, and other trees
and shrubs with it was working great injury
to the timber and undergrowth. Being a luxury
whose cost presses heavily on the very poor, its
substitutes within the means of that class have
usually none of the characteristic properties,
good or bad, of the genuine, and are mere
flavored warm drinks; curiously, the only
poisonous adulteration ever alleged against it
(groundlessly), ^hat of obtaining its green color
from copper pans, was against the very costliest
brand of all. It has been said, however, that tea
was « faced » with Prussian blue and indigo ;
if so, the time has gone by. But the, stuff sold
to the poor, besides spent tea-leaves, and those
of various plants as above, has been found to
contain masses of sheer dirt, sweepings, brick-
dust, etc., unwholesome and liable to contain
disease germs. See Tea.

Tobacco, — 'Color and flavor are often given
to inferior grades by artificial means. No leaf
is known which wfll counterfeit the tobacco leaf
outright. Snuff, however, lends itself readily to
debasement by colored powder, and lime and
chromate of lead have been found in it.

Vinegar. — The most usual form of adultera-
tion is thinning down with water, then restoring
the lost strength with sulphuric, muriatic, nitric,
of other cheap mineral acids. The first is
easily detected by the considerable precipitate
when barium chloride is added ; the second by a
white -flocculent precipitate on adding a few
drops of solution of silver nitrate. Nitric acid
needs special chemical tests.

Wines. — Naturally their chief adulterants
are water and alcohol, to increase bulk ot
Strength; colors and flavors, astringents, etc., —
caramel, logwood, glycerine, syrups, etc., — to
give artificial qualities resembling reputed
wines ; salicylic acid to prevent souring ; gypsum
to precipitate or^nic matters that muddy the
wine (the latter mjurious as likely to turn into
acid potassium sulphate) ; sugar in the must, to
increase the alcohol, etc. Natural colors like
fruit juices and cochineal are harmless; aniline
colors not always. The chemical tests are too
special to be detailed in a popular work. It
should be said, hotvevet, that by far the leading
adulteration consists in the wine not being real
fermented grape- juice at all: this applies only to
foreign wines, the American being generally
5>ure, and practically the only pure wines at
moderate price on the market. Real wine from
foreign vineyards is a costly article, and the
better grades are pledged years ahead to the great
foreigfn courts, noble houses, and private Euro-
pean buyers. Cheap foreign wines should be
understood from the outset to be made either
from exhausted grape-skins or raisins treated
with alcohol and water (it is not for dessert
use that the great majority of the California
raisin crop is exported to France), or from pear-
juice (much the greatef part of the so-caHed
French « champagne » In America being perry).

(Ellen H. RkAards, <Food Materials afi4
Their Adulteration s,> an admirable household
manual of food selection and preparation, Bos-
ton 1886; < Health in Diet, Health Exhibition
Literature,> Vol. V., London 1884; Battershall,
<Food Adulteration and its Detection,) New
York 1887; Wedderburn, popular treatise on
<Food Adulterations,) Washington 1890; Wiby.
Richardson, Crampton, and Spencer, < Foods
and <'Food Adtilterant8,> Washington, 1887-92;
Olsen, <Foods and Their Adulteration^ (I909)»

Adultery, unlawful intercourse between
two married persons not standing to each other
in the relation of husband and wife, or between
a married person and another unmarried. I.1
the former case, it has been called double, and
in the latter single adultery. Unlawful volun-
tary sexual intercourse between two persons,
one of whom at least is married, is the essence

port, on the seller's oath and the appraiser's
estimate. Theoretically, this is much fairer
than a specific duty (on a nnit of mea^^ri^, as
pound, jrard, bushel, bale, etc.), since the costlier
pay their equal percentage with' the cheaper;
but in practice, it has serious drawbacks, annoys
both sellers and government much, defrauds the
latter somewhat and its people a great deal.
Values are unstable, the exporter is interested
to understate them, and the officials are eager
to scent fratjd. wiience niuch friction and many
lawsuits. As to the last item, general tariffs arc
apt to prodttce an appearance of moderaite aver-

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age by e<]uating a low duty on grades of slight
consumption with a high one on those chiefly
used; a deception impossible on specific duties,
which at least must declare themselves. The
customs officers much prefer these also. The
United States tariffs are of both kinds, some ar-
ticles having a combination of the two.

Advancement, in law, is a gift by antici-
pation from a parent to a child of the whole or
a part of what it is supposed such child would
inherit on the death of the parent. An advance-
ment can only be made by a parent. to a child
(2 Jones, 137), or in some States by statute
to a grandchild. (4 Kent Comm. 419.) The
effect of an advancement is to reduce the dis-
tributive share of the child by the amount so
received, estimating its value at the time of re-
ceipt. In some States, however, the child has
his option to retain the advancement and aban-
don his distributive share.

Advancement of Learning, The, by Fran-
cis Bacon, 1605, the original title being < Of the
Profidence and Advancement of Learning, Di-
vine and Human.> This book, received with
great favor by the court and by scholars, was
afterward enlarged and published in Latin with
the title <De Augmentfs Scientiarum,> as the
first part of a monumental labor, < The Instaura-
tion of the Sciences,) of which the second part
was the still famous < Novum Organum,> on
which Bacon's fame as a philosopher rests.

Advent, the period of some weeks before
the Nativity, observed in all the apostolic
churches as a season of solemnity of emotion
and action, marriages and public amusements
being interdicted or reprobated; in the Roman
Catholic Church also a season of fasting and
penance. In the Western Churches — Roman,
Ltxtheran, English, and Protestant Episcopal —
it is of four weeks, beginning the Sunday next
alter 26 November, or that nearest St. Andrew's
Day (30 November) ; in the Greek Church it is
six weeks, beginning 11 November, St. Martin's
Day. Our first notice of it is in the 6th century,
at the Synod of Lerida (524) ; and two sermons
on it in 542 show that it was then in general ob-
servance. In that century also the Eastern and
Western Churches, following the Nestorians,
made it the beginning of the ecclesiastical year
instead of Easter. Its four Sundays were be-
lieved to have been introduced into the calendar
bj Gregory the Great ; and to have reference to
Christ's fourfold coming early spoken of — in
the flesh, at the hour of death" to his faithful
followers, at the fall of Jerusalem, and at the
day of judgment. On these grounds the gospels
were chosen for the four Sundays. Its ordering
was settled in the Western Church t)y Charle-
magne's « Homilarium.»

Advent, Second. See Millennium.

Adventists (often spoken of as < Second-
Adventists,» and formerly as « Miller ites»), a
sect foimded by William Miller (q.v.), begin-
ning with his preaching in 1831, on no doctrinal
creed or theory of ritual or church government,
but the belief in the speedy coming of Christ to
reign on the earth: a persuasion shared by so
many hundred thousands in many sects, — form-
ing indeed an essential fotmdation-stone of one
considerable body, the Catholic Apostolic, — that
it hardly seems a basis for a separate church;

and in fact it is not one, but six, each with a
special creed and organization. Mr. Miller's
studv of the Biblical prophecies, especially the
Booic of Daniel, had convinced him that the
coming was to be between 21 March 1843 and
21 March 1844; after this time had passed, he
was led to believe that he had erred by a year
through mistaking the Jewish year for the
Roman, which would be 1844, the exact date
(the prophecies having given it even to an hour
if we understood them) being 24-5 October.
Vast multitudes, many being first t^ptized by
immersion, assembled in different places (one
group on an island in the Connecticut River
above Hartford) to welcome the occasion and
the Saviour Tnot however in ascension robes, as
usually stated, or not generally) ; one lady went
to Palestine to meet her Saviour first; some in
the fervor of their faith gave away their prop-
erty; and the excitement scarcely flagged tul
far into November. There was a « Shut-Door »
faction, who believed that on the tenth day Christ
had shut the door, and the « tenth-day » debate
and literature were considerable ; one of « Feet-
Washers " ; and in the shock of disappointment,
the Shakers received considerable accessions.
On 20 April 1845 Mr. Miller called a convention
at Albany, N. Y., of the still faithful (over
50,000 in aJI), which issued a declaration of be-
lief and adopted the name of Adventists. The
declaration was that Christ will come socm, but at
an unknown time; that the dead both just and
tmjust will arise, and with the resurrection of
the saints the Millennium will beg^n; but that
there is no promise of the world's conversion,
and the saints do not enter into their inheritance
at death. Mr. Miller died in 1849, but the sect
has maintained its vitality with remarkable per-
sistence in the face of repeated disappointments,
several other periods having aroused wide hopef
among them. They now, however, in. general
fix no specific date, but like their fellows in other
Churches await the hour in the Lord's good
time. Their Church government is congrega-
tional, save that the Seventh Day Adventists
and the Church of God (originally one) have a
general conference which is supreme. Their bap-
tism is by immersion.

Their branches are: (i) The EvanjB;elicaI
Adventists, formed 1845, who believe in the
resurrection of the saints first to eternal bliss,
and the wicked last to eternal torment, but that
all are conscious after death while waiting. (2)
The Advent Christians, organized 1861, who be*
lieve that the dead are unconscious, that the
wicked are punished by annihilation, and that
salvation is free to all who ineet its conditions
before death. They are chiefly located in New
England, and their literature is published by the
American Millennial Association, Boston. They,
maintain home. and extensive foreign missions;
the former aided by the * Helpers' Union,* a wo-
man^* auxiliary. (3) The Seventh-Day Advent-
ists (q.v.), formed in 1845, who believe as (2) con-
cerning the dead ; that the gift of propheoy still
exists, and was accorded to Mrs. Ellen G. White ;
that the United States is the Two-Homed Beast ;
that 1843 was a real fulfillment of prophecy,
namely, the « cleansing of the sanctuary* and
the befrinning of the « investigative judgment » ;
and that total abstinence, vegetarianism, and
hygiene are part of religion. This is by far the
strongest of all. Its headquarters are at Battle

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Creek, Mich., and its members are spread
througrhout the United States, being especially
strong- in the West, and numerous in other
countries as well as America, having a mis-
sionary society active in all parts of the globe.
It has seven publishing houses, in America, Eu-
rope, and Australia, and sanitariums and semi-
naries in a number of States. Its members
are spread throughout the Atlantic States.
Four camp-meetings are held each year, in New
England and Virginia. Home missions are sup-
ported by an adult and a juvenile society. The
publishing house is at Springfield, Masss

(4) The Church of God, formed 1864-5
by a split from (3), on refusal to hold Mrs.
White inspired or the United States the
Beast; otherwise its beliefs are the same. It
is located chiefly in the West and South-
west, and has a publishing house at White
Cloud, Mich., and a sanitarium at Stanberry, Mo.

(5) The Life and Advent Union, organized
r»6c, which believes that the wicked never wake
from their sleep of death. (6) The Churches of
God in Jesus Christ (« Age-to-Comc Advent-
ists»), who believe in the establishment of the
kingdom of God on earth, with Christ as king
and the saints partakers with him, the annihila-
tion of the wicked, and the restoration of Is-
rael. They are established in various parts of
the United States and Canada.

The following is a summary of the size and

Online LibraryEdward Cameron KirkThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 1 → online text (page 30 of 172)