Edward Cameron Kirk.

The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 1 online

. (page 38 of 172)
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X. Horn Comb. 4. Club and Dagger. 8. Woman's Sandal.

a. Battle Axe. 5. Head Ornament. 9. Woman's Head-Dress.

3. Woman's Girdle. 6-7. Fetich Figures


Univ. Library, UC Santa Cniz20O1

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profitable is beyond question. The Kimberley
diamond mines, about 600 miles from Cape
Town, now supply 98 per cent of the diamonds
of commerce, though their existence was un-
known prior to 1867, and the mines have thus
been in operation but about 30 years. It is es-
timated that $350,000,000 worth of roueh dia-
monds, worth double that sum after cutting,
have been produced from the Kimberley mines
since their opening in 1868-9, and this enormous
production would have been greatly increased
but for the fact that the owners of the various
mines there formed an agreement to limit the
output so as not to materially exceed the world's
annual consumption.

Equally wonderful and promising are the
great Witwatersrand gold fields of South Africa,
better known as the Johannesburg mines. Gola
was discovered there in 1883, and in 1884 the
value of the gold product was about $50,000. It
increased with startling rapidity, the product of
1888 being about $5,000,000; that of 1890, $io,*
000,000; 1892, over $20,000,000; 189s, over $40,-
000,000; and 1897 and 1898, about $55,ooo,ooa
Work in these mines was practically suspended
during the Boer war.

The gold production of the «Rand» since
1884 has been over $1,000,000,000, and careful
surveys of the field by experts show beyond ques-
tion that the ^gold in sight^ probably amounts
to $3,^00,000,000, while the large number^ of
mines m adjacent territory, particularly thoStoi '
Rhodesia, whose output was valued at over $13,-
ii8»5oo in 1910, ^ives promise of additional sup*
plies, so that it seems probable that South
Africa will for many years continue to be as it
is now, the largest gold-producing field of the

Bibuography: Archeology and Ethnology,
— Deniker, * Races of Man ^ ; South African
Native Races Committee, ^ Natives of South
Africa, Their Economic and Social Condition.^

Fckuna,-^ Smith, * Illustrations of the Zool-
ogy of South Africa.^

Geology. — Thcwnson, x Notes on the Geology
of East Central Africa.^

Historical. — British Empire Series, ^ British
Africa ^ ; Brown^ * The Story of Africa and Its
Explorers ^ ; Greswell, ^ Geography of Africa
South of the Zambesi ^ ; Johnston, ^ Histoiy of
the Colonization of Africa by Alien Races ^ ;
Stanford, ^ Con^>enidium of Geogn4)hy and
Travel > ; White, ^ The Developttient of Afrka.>

Languages.-^ Bleek, ^ Comparative Grammar
of South African Languages ^ ; Cust, ^ Sketch of
the Modem Languages of Africa.^

Travels. — Burton, ^First Footsteps in East
Africa^ ; Cameron, ^Across Af rica> ; Livingston,
< Missionary Travels and Researches in South
Africa>; Lojrd, <In Dwarf Land and Cannibal
Count ry> ; Peters, <New Light on Dark Africa> ;
Stanley, <In Darkest Africa > ; Forbes, *The
Land of the White Helmet> (1910) ; Roosevelt,
* African Game Trails^ (1910).

African International Association, an as-
sociation /ormed in 1876 at Brussels for the
purpose of establishing scientific stations in
east Africa; the outcome of King Leopold's
first Brussels conference of explorers and geog-
ra^ers to devise means for opening up Africa
to civilization. At a second one the next year,
after Stanley^s discoveries of the immensity and

prospective commercial importance of the Kon-
go basin, the Association planned* to extend its
operations there. But the territory was too vast
and rich for any great nation to forego its share
or let others lock up; finally all (the United
States being a party) agreed to leave it to an
international conference at Berlin. This opened
17 Nov. 1884 (Prince Bismarck chairman) and
closed 26 Feb. 1885. The result was the crea-
tion of the Kongo Free State (q.v.), comprising
the basins of the Kongo and its affluents, with
the king of Belgium as sovereign : to be forever
neutral, with perfectly free trade and transpor-
tation for citizens of any country whatever, no
monopolies or concessions of any kind for its
trade to be granted by powers adjoining, all
of whom bound themselves to suppress sla-

African Slave Trade, see Negro, The.

African War, The, in Roman history,
Csesar's campaign against the Pompeians who
after Pharsalia kept up the war in Africa, and
were crushed at Thapsus, 46 b.c. The history of
it printed as Caesar's is not his, and the author is

Afridi8» af-re'dez, a tribe of Afghans or
Pathans on the northwest Indian border near
the Khyber Pass, who after many years of the
customary border raids were dignified into al-
most a. great power by the ill-advised policy of
the IndiaVi government in ^ding out an im-
posing army against them in place of the usual
small punitive expeditions. The tribe sent their
women into the English camp to be cared for
and protected, fought for some months in their
mountains till the planting season was come,
then submitted and promised an indemnity, hav-
ing enjoyed the highest glory and felicity their
natures could appreciate. Holdich ( < Anthro-
pological Institute > for 1899) thinks they repre-
sent the early Aryan type, wild but shrewd and

Afrikander («Taal» Dutch for African),
a native South African ; commonly used for the
Dutch stock alone.

Afrikander Bond or Bund, an association
of white natives of South Africa to make na*
tive influence paramount there and ultimately
secure its independence; fohncd in 1879, but
thus named in 1880. The Cape Colony wing
supported Cecil Rhodes till after the Jameson
Raid in 18^, which it considered as fostered bf
him with objects exactly contrary to its own.
It carried the elections in 1898, and while ad»
vising Kruger to grant concessions to the Out*
landers for safety's sake, its sympathies were
hostile to them; in the ensuing war it was a
heavy handicap to the English, seeming likely
at one time to add Cape C>)lony to the revolt;
indeed, it held a convention, 6 Dec. 1900, at
Worcester, C. C, condemning the war and Eng-
lish policy, insisting on the recognition of the
South African Republic, and censuring the pol'
icy of the High Commissioner. The success of
the British and the annexation of the territory
to the empire of Great Britain brought about
a dissolution of the organization.

After-damp, the gaseous product formed
by an explosion of fire-damp (q.v.) in a coal
mine. It consists largely of nitrogen from the

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air, and carbon dioxide formed by the explosive
combustion of the hydrocarbon gas given off by
the coal. It seldom contains sufficient free oxy-
gen to support respiration. Hence its danger to
the miners.

Afterglow, a display of brilliant colors
in the western sky after sunset. The colors are
usually various shades of red, although yellows
and grays are sometimes visible. Afterglows
follow volcanic eruptions of explosive diaracter
and are generally ascribed to the presence of mi-
nute dust particles in the air. The eruption of
Krakatoa in 1883 was accompanied by most gor-
geous afterglows which were observed through->
out the world and persisted for several years.
Similar effects were seen Over a much smaller
area after the outbursts of Mont Pelee and La
Soufriere in May 1902. The name foreglow is
given to such' displays in the eastern sky before

by a secondary sensation of the same quality as
the primary sensation. After-images of touch
follow after brief contact. They do not appear
under ordinary circumstances, but may be ob-
served if special 'conditions are produced; for
example, a gentle tap of a point of a seedl^
will be followed by a pause, then an after-sen-
sation which differs from the primary sensation
in that it seems to be produced from within the
body, not from without. The effects of a tem-
perature stimulus may persist for a time in the
same quality as the primary sensation. Afterr
taste and after-smell have been ol>served, but
have not been studied. Auditory after-^-sensa-
tions, analogous to after-sensations of touch, are
very weak and of brief duration.

After- injages of vision are stronger andipore
permanent, consequently have been given much
more attention by experimentalists. It has been
found that after the retina has been stimulated
by light for one seidond, ^r less, the primary
image disappears quickly; an interval of less
than two seconds is iftien followed by a posi-
tive after-image, that is^ an after-^hnage of the
0ame quality as the primary knage.

A stimulus of lon|irer dhratibn is -followed im-
mediately by the lidsitcire afterrimage) and this
isia^e may itself be followed by a negative
after-image, that is, an image which differs very
much in brightness fcrom the primary imas^, or
is of a different color. With some observers a
brief stimulus is followed immediately by a nega-
tive after-image, which fades away quickly t6
be followed after an interval by a more perma-
nent positive after-image. Several images may
succeed each other immediately or be separated
by an interval of time. A stimulus of still
greater duration is followed directly by a nega-
tive after-image. In such cases the after-image
is usually of a color tliat is complementary to
the color of the primary image, especially if ob-
served with closed eyes or if projected upon —
that is, seen while looking at — a gray back-
ground. The duration of the after-image varies
with the intensity, duration, and area of the

stimulus. The results of experiments, under con-
ditions such that the intensity of the light does
not vary, have not as yet shown that any one color
has more power to produce after-images than
any other color. The greater the angular dis-
tance of the portion of the retina stimulated,
from the fovea, the less distinct and the less
durable is the after-image. There seems to be
no after-image at an angular distance of 45*' or
more from the fovea. The explanation for this
fact may be physiological, or psychological, or
both; that is, it may be due to the fact that the
periphery of the retina is more easily fatigued
than the fovea, or it may be due to lack of abil-
ity to attend to those portions of the retina
which are not customarily attended to. When
an object occupies the attention, the eye is so
directed toward it that the image falls over the
fovea; the mind does not ordinarily attend to
fmages that are not over or very near the

A blow on the head- inay cause the after-
image to become less intense or to cease en-
tirely. Electrical stimulation of Uie eye and
optic nerve will change the character of the
after-image and shorten the time of its duration.
General fatigue will shorten the duration of the
after-image; for example, it has been found
that an after-image lasts about 30 per cent
longer in the morning than in the evening. The
distraction of attention in any manner has its
effect on the course of the after-image; when
tTie attention is directed wholly upon the after-
image the duration is one third longer than
when the attention is not concentrated upon it.

If one eye only be stimulated, an after-image
may appear in the unstimulated ej^e. Four hy-
potheses have been offered to explain this trans-
fer of the image froip one eye to the other : (i)
The appearance is a phenomenon of binocular
contrast. When one eye is stimulated by a
bright colored light, and the other eye is stimu-
lated by a very little gray light or is protected
from all light, the contrasted color may be seen
in the unstimulated eye during the time of
Stimulation, and this may leave an after-image
in that eye. (2) A second hypothesis is that the
eyes are accustomed to function together, and
whatever affects one retina ' affects- the other
also. This may be considered as a modified
form of the first hypbthesis. (3) Another hy-
pothesis is that the aftei^-image has its seat in
the centres in the brain, not in the end organ
or retina, and that it fnay be seen in' whichever
eye is open. This hypdthesis seems to be over-
thrown by the fact that an lelectrical stimulation
of the optic nerve produces a aeusation like that
produced by a flash of light, but no after-
image follows. Another fact difficult for this
hypothesis to explain is that if one eye be
stimulated the after-image appears in the other
eye only in case that eye be well darkened. (4) A
fourth hypothesis is that the transfer of the after-
image is not real but only apparent. In support
of this hypothesis it has been found that when
« that portion of the right eye which corresponds
to the blind spot of the left eye was stimulated, »
(Franz) there was an apparent transfer of the
image to the left eye; also if the unstimulated
eye be disturbed or interfered with during the
course of the after-image no change in the
image may be observed, whereas if the stimulat-
ed eye be interfered with the image disappears.

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(Fechner, < Elemente der Psycho-physik > ;
S. I. Franz, < After-Images,> Psych. Rev.,
Monograph Supplement, Vol. III., No. 2, 1899;
E. B. Titchener, ^Ueber binocular Wirkungen
monocular Reize.' See Eye; Vision.

Afzelius, Arvid August, af-tsa'li-oos, ar'-
ved ow-goost', Swedish scholar and author: b.
17S5.; d. 1871 ; pastor at Enkoping 1821-71 ;
specially esteemed for his researches in Old
Norse history and literature. He wrote poetical
f Romances >; translated the Elder Edda, and
with Geijer edited a famous collection of Swed-
ish folk-songs (3 vols. 1814-17).

Ag, the chemical symbol for the element
silver. It is an abbreviation of argentum, the
Latin name for silver.

Agades, a'ga-dez, a town of Africa, near
the middle of the Sahara, capital of the oasis
kingdom of Air or Asben; at one time a seat
of great traffic, probably containing 60,000 in-
habitants. In 1910 it had a population of about

Agag, a-gag, (i) in Jewish history, a king
of the Amalekites saved by Saul out of the
slaughter of his people, and hewn in pieces by
Samuel before Yahwc's altar: evidently a sur-
vival of human sacrifice. (2) A character in
Dryden's < Absalom and Achitophel,> represent-
ing Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, the London
magistrate found murdered shortly after taking
Titus Oates' deposition concerning the imagfi-
nary « Popish Plot.»

A'gai, Adolf, a-goy, a Hungarian hu-
morist: b. 1836. He edited the chief Hungarian
comic paper, Borssem Janko (John Peppercorn),
and wrote for it brilliant sketches of society,
character drawings of national types, etc., of a
high order of wit and humor.

Agalmatolite, ag-al-mat'o-lTt (from the
Greek words agalmOj image, and Hthos, stone),
a soft, massive stone, grayish or greenish in
general hue, and often yellow, brown, and red,
or streaked with those colors. It is soft enough
to be cut with a knife, and it takes a good polish.
The Chinese use it for carving images, notably
small pagodas and grotesque figures of animals
and men; ingenious advantage often being
taken of its varied colors for the production of
odd eflfects. The hardness of the Chinese va-
riety is mostly from 2.0 to 2.5, and its specific
gravity about 2.8. It is not a definite mineral,
some specimens being silicious pinite, while
others are referable to pyrophyllite and stea-

Agama (Caribbean name), a genus of
lizar<S, tjrpical of the large and important family
AgamidcB, which is distributed over all Africa
(except Madagascar) , Arabia, Asia south of the
Caucasus and Himalayan mountains, the Ma-
layan Islands, and Australia. None are found
in the New World. They are closely related to
the iguanas, and are characterized by acrodont
dentition (that is, the teeth surmount ridges of
the jaw), a broad and short tongue, and the ab-
sence of bony tubercles (osteoderms) in the
skin, but large and numerous spines are often
present. They may have brilliant colors, but
many are dull, desert-inhabiting species. Some
have parachutes, as the flying dragon, and others
defensive appendages, as the frilled lizard.
Prominent examples are the dragons, bloodsuck-
ers, false chameleons, frilled lizards, spiny-tailed

desert lizards, dabs, molochs, and related forms
elsewhere described imdcr their own names.
The family contains about 200 species arranged
in about 30 genera, and is most numerous in the
region from India to Australia.

Agamemnon, in the Iliad, is the Greek
« great king » or « king of kings,» the overlord
of Greece both north and south of the Gulf
of Corinth; the royal seat is at Mycenae in the
Peloponnesus. He is represented as a rather
weak man, presiding over a turbulent assembly
of practically independent feudal chiefs, who
will not openly defy him because he is conse-
crated to his position by Zeus, but who arc
entirely independent as regards their individual
districts, though bound to follow him to war
when ordered. His character is of course purely
the invention of the poet, and its relation to that
of Achilles and other chiefs is curiously like
that of Charlemagne to Roland
the chansons; the dashing nob
hero, and the monarch slurred
unjust, and capricious, king by i
special merit. But the position
archaeology has proved that M;
the seat of a wealthy and po^
probably about 1500 B.C. and so

well as that several Troys flo — r-

ished; and these proofs that the basis of the
story was traditional and not mythical naturally
tempt the sanguine to hope for further points of
truth, which research tends steadily to justify.
As to the character of the monarchy, later theo-
rists take the reverse view from the" earlier.
Grote held that the account in Homer showed
the germ of a developing constitutionalism, the
criticising commons vyPho were becoming a thorn
in the monarch's flesh being satirized and cari-
catured in Thersites. and the king only an Afyadi
chief elected by his equals; Mahaffy thinkd
it the decay of a monarchy of the Oriental type,
the feudal anarchy indicating break-down in-
stead of growth. In the legend he is the son of
Atreus (q.v.), and brother of Menelaus, king
of Sparta, whose wrong in the seduction and
carrying aiway of his wife Helen (q.v.) by Paris,
son of Priam, king of Troy, he avenges by a
levy of all the Greeks to make war on Troy,
when its king Priam will not give up Paris or
make him give up Helen. (See Helen; Iliad;
Troy.) The sacrifice of his daughter Iphigenia
(q.v.), to secure a passage from Aulis, is a later
fiction, and recalls Jephthah and his daughter
curiously. His quarrel with Achilles is the
theme of the Iliad. When Troy was sacked, he
received Priam's prophetess-daughter Cassandra
(q.v.) among his share of the spoils. Returning
home after 10 years' absence, he was murdered
by his cousin ^Egisthus, son of Thyestes (sec
Atreus), aided by Agamemnon's wife Clytem-
nestra (q.v.) with whom he had been living
in adultery for a short time previously; and his
son Orestes on growing up avenges him by kill-
ing his mother, his sister Electra abetting. In
Homer, the motive for Agamemnon's murder is
simply that of any adulterous pair in ridding
themselves of an inconvenient husband; in JEs-
chyJus' < Agamemnon,' Cl3rtemnestra slays him
with her own hand, professedly in revenge for
his sacrifice of Iphigenia, obviously sharpened
by jealousy of Cassandra, and throwing the ulti-
mate responsibility on Nemesis, who is pursuing
the house of Atreus.

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Agamenticus, Mount, a noted landmark
tn York co., Maine, near which one of the earli-
est settlements in this territory was made in
1631. It is a few miles back from the shore
and rises to the height of 673 feet.

Agamogenesis. See Parthenogenesis.

Agaiia, ag-an'ya, the principal town of
Guam, the largest of the Ladrone Islands, 1,500
m. E. of Luzon, Philippines, and 1,300 m. S.
of Yokohama. The Ladrone, or Marianne,
group l>elonged to Spain ; but, as a result of the
war between the United States and Spain in
1898, the former took possession of the island
of Guam, and in 1899 established a naval station
and seat of administration at Agana, with Capt
Richard P. Lcary, U. S. N., as first governor.
The town contains the usual public buildings of
a military station, and a college.

Agan^e, -nip'5, a fountain on Mount
Helicon, in Greece, sacred to the Muses, which
had the property of inspiring with poetic fire
whoever drank of it.

Agape, ag'a-pe (Gr. agapi, love), in eccle-
siastical history, the love-feast or feast of charity,
in use among the primitive Christians, when a
liberal contribution was made by the ridi to feed
the poor. During the first three centuries love-
feasts were held in the churches without scandal,
but in after-times the heathen began to tax
them with impurity, and they were condemned
at the Council of Carthage in 397. Some modem
sects, as the Wesleyans, Sandemanians, Mora-
vians, etc., have attempted to revive this feast

Agapemone, ag-a-pem'o-ne (lit. « the abode
of love»), the name of a singular conven-
tual establishment which has existed at Spaxton,
near Bridgewater, Somersetshire, since 1859, the
originator of it being a certain Henry James
Prince, at one time a clergyman of the Church
of England, who called himself the Witness of
the First Resurrection. The life spent b^ the
inmates appears to be a sort of religious epicure-
anism. Some of the proceedings of the inmates
of the « Abode of Love » have resulted in apoli^
cations to the courts of law, where parties for-
merly members of the societjr have returned to
the world and sought to regam their rights from
Prince and his f<3lower8, and, such case^ have
caused aome scandal; but the sect has been
scarcely heard of for some years.

Ag^hite, a name given to the turquois
(q.v.) by Fischer^ in 1806, in compliment to the
naturalist Agaphi. It is no longer in general

Agar-agar, 5'gSr-S'gSr, also known as
Bengal isinglass. A dried seaweed or vegetable
gum obtained from Singapore. It is almost
completely soluble in water, dissolving to a
tasteless and odorless mass. It is much used as
a culture medium in bacteriology.

Agaric {Agaricus)f a genus of fungi, char-
acterized by having a fleshy cap or pileus and a
number of radiating plates or gills on which are
produced the naked spores. The majority of this
species are furnished with stems, but some are
attached to the objects on which they gfrow by
their pileus. Over a thousand species are known,
and are arranged in five sections according as the
color of their spores is white, pink, brown, pur-
)1e, or black. Many of the species are edible,
ike the common mushroom {A. campestris).


and supply a delicious article of food, while
others are deleterious and even poisonous. Sec
Fungi; Mushrooms.

Agaricic Acid, ag-ar-is'ik, a substance
having the formula CitHMOg, which is obtained
from certain species of mushrooms by extraction
with ether or strong alcohol. It is also soluble
in hot glacial acetic acid and oil of turpentine
It cr^rstallizes in fiat^ four-sided plates, and also
in prisms, according to the solvent from which
it is deposited, and melts at about 290"* F. It
dissolves in boiling water, but crystallizes out
again upon cooling. A similar substance, known
as agaricin, is obtained from the fly-agaric by
extraction with alcohol, and Jahns states that
it is identical with agaricic acid. Several salts
of agaricic acid are known. See Agakic Resin.

Agaric Mineral, ag'a-rik, or a-gar'ik. (i)
A soft, white variety of calcite, breaking easily
in the fingers, and occurring in caverns and in
the clefts of rocks, in regions where the ^ound
water contains much lime. (2) A variety of
silicate of magnesium, found in Tuscany, and
also known as mountain-milk or rock-milk.
Bricks made from it will float in water; hence
it is supposed that this is the material from
which the ancients made their floating bricks.

Agaric Resin, a red resinous substance,
obtained from certain mushrooms, together with
agaricic acid (q.v.), T>y extraction with alcohol
or ether. It melts at 194* F. It is insoluble in

Online LibraryEdward Cameron KirkThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts ..., Volume 1 → online text (page 38 of 172)