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HISTORf i




Epochs of Modern History

EDITED BY

C. COLBECK, M.A. ; EDWARD E. MORRIS, M.A.
AND J. SURTEES PHILLPOTTS, M.A., B.C.L.



THE AGE OF ANNE



EDWARD E. MORRIS, M.A.



Epochs of Modern History



THE AGE OF ANNE



BY



EDWARD E. MORRIS, M.A.

OF LINCOLN COLLEGE, OXFORD
LATE HEAD MASTER OF THE MELBOURNE GRAMMAR SCHOOL, AUSTRALIA



WITH MAPS AND PLANS



FI FT III-: NTH IMPRRSr,:'ON.



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON

NEW YORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA

1907

All rights reserved



Epoclis of A/odeni History



THE AGE OF ANNE



BY



EDWARD E. MORRIS, M.A.

OF LINCOLN COLLEGE, OXFORD
LATE HEAD MASTER OF THE MELBOURNE GRAMMAR SCHOOL, AUSTRALIA



WITH MAPS AND PLANS



FIFTEENTH IMPRESr^-QN,



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON

NEW YORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA

1907

All rights reserved



HISTORfl






PREFACE,



It would not Be fair to this little book to send it
forth to take its chance in the world without a preface^
however mucli I should prefer that course. My aim in
writing the book has been so definite, my object so dis-
tinct, that I particularly wish it not to be tried by an un-
suitable standard, nor condemned upon wrong grounds.

In the field of history, as with other kinds of
knowledge, there are two orders of workers. On the
one side are original \NTiters, who make researches,
and delve for new ore ; on the other, those who
perform the humbler but equally needful cflice of
teaching, of spreading knowledge, and working into
shape the material which the former produce. This
book is not a contribution to the general fund of his-
torical knowledge. Those who before knew the history
of its period will find here no new light. It is offered
as an effort to assist in the teaching of history in
schools. It is written in the light of a theory, accord-
ing to the soundness of which and the measure with
which it has been followed my book must stand or fall.

Much as I should like to study history as it ought
to be studied, to ransack Record offices and public
libraries for new information, and with its help to



342^2(j



vi Preface.

place in new aspect facts known before, I can claim
no credit for such work. I have had neither the time
nor the opportunity. The demands upon a school-
master's hours leave him little leisure, and the undue
pressure of examination, with which nowadays each
school-time closes, destroys the working power of at
least a portion of his holidays. But a schoolmaster
may fairly be expected to know the kind of book that
will be good for the purpose of teaching. This is the
reason for my venture ; but I clearly recognise its limits.

The theory on which the book is based is the
cardinal theory of the whole series called Epochs of
History. I was led some years ago to believe that,
in spite of the flood of school histories pouring from
the press, there was room for a series, in which short
periods could be studied with that fulness without
which history is comparatively unprofitable. I had
the good fortune to find publishers in the first to
whom I applied, and to secure the cordial co-opera-
tion of several distinguished writers. As long as I
remained in England I edited the series.

It would be ludicrous to claim originality for this
method. I have always found that schoolmasters
who are really educators accept the doctrine. But
I am very anxious to state it clearly, for history
lessons have been and are continually ruined by the
intrusion of cram — names that are mere shadows, and
a profusion of dates.

History is not taught in schools that the excellent
virtue of accuracy may be learnt. To teach this is
the function of other lessons that occupy a much
larger portion of the pupil's time. Histor}' should



Preface. vii

be tauLjht for the sake of its human interest. Foi
this reason I have made it my first object to avoid
being dull. I have been very biographical, taking
care to introduce formally all new characters of im-
portance as they come upon the stage. Again, I
have not feared the accusation of being a * drum and
tnimpet historian,' for war, unfortunately, is an in-
trinsic part of history, and always stirs the interest of
the young, acting as the bait which may draw them
on to the study of other matters.

Disclaiming originality, I wish to indicate the
sources from which I have drawn. The end of Lord
Macaula/s history overlaps the period, but, unfor-
tunately, only the end : all must lament that he was
not spared to write the history of a time with which
his acquaintance was so intimate. His essay on Lord
Mahon's early book is almost as valuable as that book
itself for the war in Spain. In the same way Lord
Mahon's History of England from the Peace of
Utrecht is helpful for the couple of years at the end
of my period. The volume which the same historian
wrote as Earl Stanhope, to cover the ground between
the close of Macaulay's history and the opening of
his own, I am inclined not to value so highly as
his larger work ; but I have no wish to depreciate a
book that has been one of my chief authorities. * A
History of Great Britain during the Reign of Queen
Anne,' lately published by Mr. F. W. Wyon, is more
thorough in its research and more interesting. His
judgment is independent, and his knowledge of French
memoirs very complete. It is a matter for regret that
he seems tc ignore or to despise the work of German



viii Preface.

historians. I have found Noorden's ' Spanische
Erbfolgekrieg ' a very mine in which to dig, though
I fancy no man could read the book through. The
period is unfortunately beyond the point where the
groat Ranke writes with fulness, but his sketches are
of more value than the details of others. Gfrorer's

* History of the Eighteenth Century ' is suggestive.

I have used Burnet's * History of His Own Time '
with necessary caution, and the Lives of Marlborough
by Coxe and Alison. Considering the purpose for
which the book is intended, I have not hesitated to
use my authorities freely, nor cared to avoid their
language. I confess indeed that I have been amused
to trace thoughts and expressions from authority to
authority, and doubt not that I also have borrowed,
perhaps too easily, even the words of others.

To the list which I have given, and which is by
no means exhaustive, I must add the following as of
use in special portions. M. Duruy's ' Histoire de
France ' (' Rhetorique '), Mrs. Bray's * Revolt of the
Cevennes,' Dr. Bridges' ' France under Richelieu and
Colbert,' the introduction to Carlyle's * Frederick the
Great,' and Thackeray's ' Esmond ' and the * Four
Georges.' It is a matter of regret that in a novel like

* Esmond,' which gives so excellent a picture of Queen
Anne's reign, Thackeray should have placed the Old
Pretender in London at the time of his sister's death
— a deviation from history not necessary to the de-
velopment of his plot.

Edward E. Morris.

The Grammar School, Melbourne :
September 4, 1876.



Chronological Table of Contents.



CHAPTER I.

THE SPANISH SUCCESSION.

PAGB

Spain still territorially the most powerful kingdom in

Europe, though she had outgrown her strength . i

Her want of vitality shown under the feeble rule of

the childless Charles H 2

Importance of the question as to his successor . 4

1 hree claimants :

(i) PhiUp, Duke of Anjou 4

(2) Joseph, the Electoral Prince .... 4

(3) The Archduke Charles 4

Aggressive policy of France under Lewis XIV. dan-
gerous to Europe 4

The one g^eat opponent of Lewis — WiUiam of

Orange 5

1697 The contest stayed by Peace of Ryswick ... 5

1698 First Partition Treaty 6

1700 Death of Joseph, and second Partition Treaty . 6

Irritation of Spain 7

The Darien Scheme 7

Unpopularity of William in England ... 8

The Kingdom of Spain willed to Philip of Anjou . 9

' II n'y a plus de P>T^ndes ' . . • • 9
Lewis's three mistakes :
(i) Reservation ol Philip's right of succession to

the French throne 10

(2) Occupation of Spanish Netherlands . . 10
{3) Recognition of the Old Pretender . . .10



Chronological Table of Co7itents,

PAGB

tyoT The Grand Alliance of the Hague, result of these

mistakes lo

1702 Death of William ll

His character ri



CHAPTER n.



1648



t668



1678
1697

1713

1681
1685
1688



LEWIS XIV. 1714.

(Contemporary with Charles I., Cromwell, Charles
n., James H., William and Mary, Anne, George I.)
Five stages in his reign marked by —

(i) Treaty of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty
Years' War 13

(2) Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which, forced on
Lewis by the Triple Alliance, ended the War of
Succession in Brabant 17

(3) Treaty of Nymwegen, which ended the in-
vasion of Holland ig

{4) Treaty of Ryswick, which ended the war against

the Grand Alliance 23

(5) Treaty of Utrecht 133

Three impolitic acts of Lewis :

(i) Seizure of Strassburg 20

(2) Revocation of Edict of Nantes . . .20

(3) Ravaging of the Palatinate . . . .32



CHAPTER HL

THE NEW DRAMATIS PERSONiB,



Queen Anne


. 5i4


Her Succession ....


, 24


Character


. 24


Husband and children


. as


Lady Marlborough ....


. 26


Duke of Marlborough


. 26



Chronological Table of Contents. xi

PAGB

Character 26

Lx)rd Godolphin, Lord High Treasurer . , .29
Prince Eugene (Eugenio von Savoie) . . • 30
Heinsius, Grand Pensionary of Holland . . -31



CHAPTER IV.

• THE GRAND ALLIANCE.'



The Emperor 39

The nine Electors 33

How they ranged themselves :

(a) On the French side 33

Bavaria 33

Cologne 33

[b) On the side of the Grand Alliance . . -33
Brandenburg (kingdom of Prussia) . . -33

Bohemia 33

Hanover 33

The Palatinate ....... 33

(<:) Neutral 33

Mayence 33

Treves 33

Saxony 33

The central powers of the Grand Alliance . . 34

England and Holland 34

Other allies :

Minor princes of Germany and Denmark . . 34

Also after the first year, Savoy and Portugal, who

deserted France .... r . 35



CHAPTER V.

OPENING OF THE WAR.



Section l. — Marlborough tn Flanders.

1702 His object 41

To clear the Netherlands of the French . . .41



xii Chronological Table of Contents.

PAGH

X702 Result of the first campaign 41

French cut off from lower valley of the Rhine.

Venloo and other towns taken . . . .41
Capture of Bonn on the Rhine and Huy on the
Meuse . 42-43

Section II. — Campaigns in Germany and elsewhere.

(a) On the Upper Rhine 43

Landau taken by Prince Lewis of Baden . . 43

{b) In North Italy 43

Victory of Cremona won by Prince Eugene, and
passes into Tyrol secured . . •43

{c) In Bavaria 44

Imperialists routed by the French . . -44

In West Indies 44

English under Admiral Benbow worsted . . 44

Section \\\.— Spain.

{a) Failure of attack on Cadiz 45

{b) Treasure ships taken by the English at Vigo . 46
1704 {c) Earl of Galway commands the allies against Duke

of Berwick 46

(</) Capture of Gibraltar by Sir George Rooke . 47



CHAPTER VI.

RISING IN THE CEVENNES.



The strength of the Huguenots in the valleys of the

Loire and the lov/er Rhone ....
The Camisards {'Wearers of the white frock ')

1703 Rise under Jean Cavalier and others

1684 The Dragonnades urged on by Madame de Main
tenon

1704 Failure of EngUsh fleet to help the Camisards .
The weakness of the Empire in Hungary and Tran

sylvania



48
50
SI

52
54

55



Chronological Table of Co7itents. xiii

CHAPTER VII.

BLENHEIM.

PAGB

1704 Object of Lewis to attack Vienna . . . .56
Marlborough's plan — to strike across the Rhine, meet
Eugene, and prevent the junction of the French

armies in Bavaria 57

Battle of Blenheim 59

The results of the victory 64

The power of Lewis XIV. broken and prestige of
French arms destroyed 64



CHAPTER VIII.

LORD PETERBOROUGH.



His character 65

The provinces of Catalonia and Valencia chosen by

the allies as points of attack 67

Capture of Monjuich 69

1 705 Capture of Barcelona ..... 70

Exploits of Peterborough . . . , , • 7*



CHAPTER IX.
THE YEAR OF VICTORY— 1706.

Section \.—Ramillies.

1706 May 23 The battle 75

Its results 'jj

FaU of Brussels, Antwerp, Menin, Dendermonde 77-78

Section 11.— Turin.

Siege of Turin 79

1706 Sept. 7 Battle of Turin 81

Results of Turin , . 81

(i) Disheartening effect on French army . . 81
(2) Th? French driven from Piedmont . . .82
(g) Naples cut oif from France . . , .8a



xiv Chro7iological Table of Contents.

Section III. — Barcelona and Madrid.

?AGH

The French besiege Barcelona 82

The siege raised by Peterborough . . . .83
1706 Madrid entered by Earl of Galway . . . -83
Success ot the allies checked by the chivalrous loyalty
of the Spaniards to Philip 84



CHAPTER X.

THE YEAR OF DISASTER— 1707.

Neutrality of Charles XII. of Sweden secured by

Marlborough 86

1707 March The allies defeated by Duke of Berwick at

Almanza 88

Archduke Charles reduced to single province of

Catalonia 89

Naples secured by the Emperor . . . -90

B'ailure of attack on Toulon 90

Defeat of allies on Rhine by Villars . . . .91
Sir Cloudesley Shovel lost off the Scilly Islands , 91



CHAPTER XI.

LATER FIGHTING IN THE LOW COUNTRIES.

Section l.—Oudenarde and Lille.

Brabant inclining to French ... . . 92

Siege of Gudenarde 92

Eugene joins Marlborough . • • • 93

1708 July II Battle of Oudenarde 93

Siege of Lille 95

Skirmish at Wynendale 96

Surrender of Lille 97

Section \\.— Negotiations.

State of France ... ... 97

Lewis proposes terms 98

Embassy of Torcy and Conference at the Hague . 98



Chronological Table of Contmts. xt

PAGH

The proposals of the allies are intolerable. King

Lewis makes spirited appeal to his people . . 99
The answer to it . 100

Section III. — Malplaguet.

Preparations on both sides 100

Villars with Boufflers second 10 1

Marlborough takes Toiirnai and Mens . . . 102
1709 Sept 1 1 Battle of Malplaquet . . . .104



CHAPTER XII.

LATER CAMPAIGNS IN SPAIN.
Section I.— The Three Years thai followed Almama.

General Stanhope 105

1709 Port Mahon taken 106

Duke of Orleans succeeds Berwick . . ■ . 107

French withdrawn from Spain ..... 107

1710 Battle of La Gudina ...... 108

Section II. — The final Campaign.

Stanhope's advance .... . . 108

His victory' at Almenara 109

His victory at Saragossa no

The allies adx'ance and occupy Madrid . . iio-iii
They retreat to Toledo . . . . .111

Return 10 Catalonia 112

English defeat at Brihuega 113

Drawn-batJle of Villa Viciosa 114



CHAPTER XIIL

THE FORTUNES OF PARTIES.



The development of parties and their influences . 1 15
Opposite views of Whigs and Tories on the Revo-
lution and religious toleration . . . .116



xvi Chronological Table of Contents.



rAGH



The queen inclines to the Tories as the Church

party 117

Her first Ministry Tory in the main . . . .117
Godolphin and Marlborough gradually go over to

the Whig camp 118

1703- 1704 Occasional Conformity Bill brought fonvard

three times — its defeat in the Lords . . 118-119
Lord Somers the most eminent Lord . . . 120
Sunderland the most violent of the Whig Junto . 121
Abigail Hill comes on the scene .... 121
She supplants the Duchess of Marlborough . . 122
1708 Yet the Ministry is made more Whig by the enforced

resignation of Harley and St. John
Steady growth of Cabinet government
Life-command refused to Marlborough
1710 Dr. Sacheverell's sermon .

General election — Tory majority
Dismissal of Whigs ....
Occasional Conformity bili passed .



122
123
124

I2S
I2S

T26



CHAPTER XIV.

FAG-END OF THE WAR.



The two Tory chiefs — Harley, Earl of Oxford, and

St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke . . . 126-127
Archduke Charles becomes Emperor . . . 128
Marlborough's last campaign 128

171 1 Expedition against Quebec ..... 129

Marlborough's disgrace , 129

Death of Godolphin 130

Twelve Tory peers created 130

Ormond commander-in-chief ..... 130
English troops separated from the allies . . .131
Eugene still commands the ' road to Paris . . 131

1712 July 24. Victory of French at Denain . . .13a



Chronological Table of Contents. xvH

CHAFI'ER XV,

PEACE OF UTRECHT.

PAGH

Negotiations 13a

1706 (a) After Ramillies 132-

1709 \b) At the Hague 132

1710 [c] At Gertruydenburg 133

1711 [d) At Utrecht 133

[713 March Peace of Utrecht signed 133

1714 The Emperor makes a separate peace at Rastadt . 134
Results of the Peace of Utrecht , . . . 134
To France :
The Spanish monarchy left in the hands of the

Bourbons 134

To England :
The possessions of Gibraltar and Minorca,
Hudson's Bay Territory, Newfoundland, and

Nova Scotia 134

To Spain :
The loss of possessions in Italy and the Nether-
lands 135

To Prusiia :

The acknowledgment of its status as a kingdom i^fi
To the Dutch :
Gain of a barrier in the Austrian Netherlands

against France 136

Arguments for the Treaty:

(a) The war a great burden to England and

increase of national debt ..... 136
{b) Strength of patriotism in Spain enlisted on the

side of Philip V 137

{c) The union of Spain and Austria more dangerous
than that of Spain and France . . . • i37
Against the Treaty :

(a) Necessity for seizing the opportunity of pre-
venting danger from France for the future . 137

(b) Worthlessness of renunciations . . 137

(c) The scanty fruits of such splendid triumphs . 137
The war a just one, but should have been finished

after Ramillies 138



xviii Chronological Table of Contents.



CHAPTER XVI.

THE UNION WITH SCOTLAND.

Section I.— The Union itself.

PAGE

1704 The Scotch Act of Security passed in opposition to

the English Act of Settlement .... 139

1706 Commission appointed to treat, with Lord Somers as

N. its president 140

1707 The Union accomphshed 140

Opposition in Scotland ...... 141

Principles of representation 142

The Scotch law unchanged ..... 143

Adoption of the Union Jack 143

Good results of the Union 144

Compared with union with Ireland .... 144

Section II.— Attempt /or the Pretender.

2707 Jacobite rising 145

Sketch of the old Pretender 145

Failure of the attempt 147



CHAPTER XVII.

PETER THE GREAT AND CHARLES XII.

Section I. — The North-Eastern State System.

View of Russia, Denmark, Sweden, and Poland . 148

Section II. — Peter the Great.

His early hfe . . . . . . . • 152

His policy .153

In pursuance of it he travels in Western Europe . 153
He visits Holland and England .... 154

St. Petersburg founded . . . . . .155

The Patriarchate abolished . , , , . 156



Chronological Table of Contents, xix

PACK

European fashions introduced 156

The institution of the Tchin 15^

Section \l\.— Charles XII.

i6g7 Charles succeeds to the throne .... 158

His character 159

He fights Denmark, Poland, and Russia in succes-
sion 160

1700 His victory at Narva 160

He becomes the arbiter of Europe .... i6r

Section W .—Pultowa.

1708 Charles marches to meet ^fazeppa in the Ukraine . 163

1709 July 8 Battle of Pultowa 164

The power of Charles XII. broken . . . 165

He takes refuge with the Turks . . , .165

171 1 Peter the Great crosses the Pruth, and is defeated by

the Turks 165

Section N.— End of Charles XII. and of. Peter.

Charles XII. expelled from Turkey , . . . i66

1718 Dec. II His death at the siege of Fredericshall . 167

Peter the Great makes a second journey through

Europe 167

1725 Feb. His death 168



CHAPTER XVIII.

the PROTESTANT SUCCESSION.

Measures to secure the succession of the nearest

Protestant heir

1597-1690 The Electress Sophia

Her mother Elizabeth, daughter of James I.
Her father Frederick, Elector Palatine
Her brother Prince Rupert



169
171
171
171
172



XX Chronological Table of Contents.

TAGH

Sketch of her life 173

The Jacobites the extreme wing of the Tory party . 174

The Tory ministers charged with Jacobite leanings . 175

1714 Quarrels in the Ministry 176

The last week of Anne's life 176

Previous career of Shrewsbury 177

His appointment as Lord High Treasurer . . 178

The Protestant succession secured .... 178

1660-1728 Sketch of George I. 179

His merits as a king for England .... 180



CHAPTER XIX,

END OF LEWIS XIV.



1715 Sept. I Death of Lewis XIV.

T643-1715 Events in England parallel with his reign
His later life clouded by trouble
Death of the Dauphin ....
Death of the Duke and Duchess of Burgimdy
Lewis XIV.'s reign an evil one for France
Policy of the Regent, the Duke of Orleans



180
181
181
181
182
183
i8<5



CHAPTER XX.

THE FRAGMENTS THAT REMAIN.

Later career of the Duke of Marlborough . . 185

£722 His death 186

Fate of the Catalans i86

1716 Victor Amadeus becomes king of Sardinia . . i86
1724 Philip V. of Spain abdicates, but on the death of his

son restunes the government 187

Later events in the hfe of the Emperor Charles . 187

1740 His death ... .... 188



Chronological Table of Contents. xxi

CHAPTER XXI.

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL.
Section 1. — Popnlatio?7, Tozvns, Architecture.

PAGl

Population in time of Anne roughly estimated at be-
tween five and seven millions . . . 188-1 8g
Population and wealth greatest in the south and

east 189

Important towns (London, Bristol, Norwich, York,
Exeter, Shrewsbury, Worcester, Derby, Notting-
ham, Canterbury) i9<J

Steady growth of London 19°

Sketch of London life of the period .... 191

The City and Westminster ^92

The London Exchange the centre of the commerce

of the world 192

Sir C. Wren, the architect of St. Paul's . . . i93

His style '95

Sir John Vanbrugh, the architect .... ^95
Description of Bath 19^

Section H. — The Poor. Statistics.
Gradual improvement in the condition of the poor . 196
Pauperism in the reign of Anne . . . .198

Prices and wages i99

Distribution of land i99

Com the staple produce 200

Wool next in importance . . . . . . 200

Cotton manufacture in its infancy . . . .201

Other manufactures 201

High standard of comfort ..... 202

Consumption of beer diminished by introduction of

tea and coffee 202

The ' Spectator ' on luxuries 203

Claret driven out by port 204

Section HL — National Debt.

General principle of a debt 205

Later history of the debt < 'jo6



xxii Chronological Table of Contents.



»AGH



The policy of repudiation attributed to the Pretender
4. by the Whigs 207

Section W. —Strength of Parties.

The Tories, their strength in the country . . 208

The Whigs, their strength in the towns . . . 209
Oxford, the Tory university — Cambridge the Whig 209
The clergy below the present standard . , , 210
Their position improved by Queen Anne's Bounty . 210



212
212

2T3
213
213



CHAPTER XXTI.

LITERATURE.

Section I. — French Literature.

Influence of patronage and rules of art . . . 211
Literature greatest in first half of reign of Lewis XIV. 212
Strength of the drama

1622-1673 The comedies of Moli^re .

1606-1684 The tragedies of Comeille

1639-1697 The tragedies of Racine .
Development of French prose .

1627-1704 Absolutism in religion advocated by Bossuet . 214

1623-1662 Revolt of Pascal against this absolutism . . 214
Reform advocated by the saintly Fdnelon . . 214

Influence of French on English hterature, — Later
reaction on French literature . . . 214-21";

Section II. — English Literature.

Literature all-powerful and in close alliince with

politics 215

1688-T744 Alexander Pope 216

1711 ' Essay on Criticism ' 218

1712 ' Rape of the Lock • . 218

1715-1725 'Homer' . 218

1732-1734 • Essay on Man ' 218

Pope's style and influence 219



Chronologtcal Table of Contents. xxiii

PAGE

The age of Anne strongest in prose .... 2ig

Party spirit gives an impulse to pamphlet-WTiting . 221

1667-1745 Jonathan Swilt 221

1704 'Tale of a Tub' 222

' Conduct of the Allies ' 222

1724 ' Drapier's Letters ' 223

1726 'Gulliver's Travels' 223

1661-1731 Daniel Defoe ....... 223

' The True-bom Englishman ' . . . , . 224
' Shortest way wth the Dissenters ' . . 225

1719 ' Robinson Crusoe ' 225

Joseph Addison 226

1705 ' The Campaign ' 227

Character of Addison 228

' Cato ' . 229

7671-1729 Sir Richard Steele 229

1711 Joined by Addison in the 'Tatler' and the 'Spec

tator ' ...... 330

Fnfluence of the 'Spectator on the futuie . . 231



233



MAP S.

Europe, 1700 To face title f age

PAGE

Battle of Blenheim, August 13, 1704 .... 60

Battle of Ramillies, May 23, 1706 • • . • 75

Italy, 1700 to face 79

The Netherlands ;, 91

Western Europe : showlng the principal
changes effected by the Treaties of
Utrecht and Rastadt .... ^, 134


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