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Golden jubilee edition of The paradise of childhood online

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to edge, as in Figs. 55 and 56. Figs. 53 and
55 are the opposites to Figs. 54 and 56. Other
changes of position may be made. For ex-
ample, in F"ig. 53 the block marked « may be
placed above or to the right or to the left of
the block marked b. The cubes may also be
placed in certain relations to each other on the
table, T\athont being in actual contact. These
positions should be practiced perseveringly at
the outset, so as to furnish a fouadation for

* See chapter on Forms of Life and Beauty.



side and edge to edge. In Fig. 100, h per-
forms as a has done.

But with more developed children we may
proceed on other principles. Fig. 101, intro-
ducing changes only on two instead of four
sides, and thus arriving successively at the
forms found in Figs. 102-112.

After each occupation, the scholars should
replace their cubes in the boxes, as heretofore
described, and the material should be re-
turned to the closet where it is kept, before
commencing any other play.



76



GOLDEN JUBILEE EDITION.





























































































































































































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PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD.



77




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78



GOLDEN JUBILEE EDITION.











































































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Fig. 109. Fig. 110.

EDITOirS NOTES.



Fig. 111.



Fig. 112.



As tlie best knowledge cauuot be attained
without division or analysis of a whole, the
divided solids follow those which give the im-
pression of wholes. An arbitrary di\asiou can-
not give clear ideas, so a regular di\nsion,
according to certain laws, is necessary.

Prominent features of this gift are the like-
ness of each part of the cube to the whole, and
the contrast of size between the cube and its
parts. The chief object of the gift is to de-
velop the creative power of the child ; so that
he is encouraged to follow his instinctive wish
to see the construction of things, and begins
his investigation of particular phenomena. He
divides the cube to find its component parts and
examines the pieces. He finds that each part
is like the whole, only smaller, so that the im-
pression of this jjarticular form is deejjened ;
he can create many forms and byre-arranging
discover new qualities and uses.

The material allows the child to express out-
wardly his inner conceptions, which is one of
the first demands of hfe. The desire to look
at the interior of things is the germ of the fullest
development, the beginning of the formation
of the scientific mind.

Wliile this gift is similar to the cube of the
second in size and material, and interests the
child because of this likeness, it is the contrast
between the two cubes that holds his attention.



Thus he is taken from what he already knows,
into a wider field of knowledge.

Let the child compare the two gifts in regard
to faces, corners, edges, direction and clement
of rest ; in this way test his memory and lead
hhn to commence a classification of objects by
deciding that all bodies of similar proportions
and qualities must be cubical in form.

The harmony of the child's development
through this gift rests chiefly on the method
with which he begins and ends his play with
it. If he takes the cube from the box as a
whole, it stands before him a tj'pe of the unity
he would learn about ; and if after the play
he reconstructs the typical whole, his inner
nature is satisfied, for he has proceeded from
imity, through his play to unity again ; but if
he takes the parts out one by one all is con-
fusion, aiipealiug only to the external side of
his nature.

In plaj'ing, every part should lie used, other-
wise the material is wasted. The child should
early learn that nothing is isolated and un-
connected, nothing without its purpose and its
appointed use. If all the given material is used
the relation of the part to the whole is kept con-
stantly before the mind and eye of the child ;
each part being of value only as it helps to
make the whole complete.

Details in small things are of great impor-



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD.



79



tance, and the kinderaiai-tuer sliould carefully
impress on the cliild the idea of order and neat-
ness in the taking out and putting away of the
cube. As soon as the box containingHiisgift
is given out the child recognizes it as another
cube, and the kindergartner should call atten-
tion to tlie paper upon it, compare it with the
other boxes, and talk aliout it. Then placing
the box four inches from the front of the table
reverse it so that it rests upon the top, draw
out the cover, lift the box so as not to distiu'b
the cubes, place the lid diagonally inside and
remove the Ijos to give free play for the work.
This simjile operation gives the child an ex-
ample of order.

In this first presentation of the divided cube,
lead the child to see it as a whole that can be
divided into parts, so that he shall get a defi-
nite idea of the "ndiole, its parts, of form and
comparative size and of the relations of num-
ber and position, learning readily to compre-
hend the use of such terms as front, back, top,
bottom, right and left. Review the naming of
ojjposites and the directions of the different
lines. Divide the cube m all its various waj-s,
so that it has top and bottom halves, front and
hack halves and light and left halves ; give a
simple sequence with a short story, thus : Move
the right half of the cube two inches to the
right, to make the road which little Blary takes
on her way to grandma's in the country. Place
the halves together again, and move the left-
half two inches to the left (the brook which
runs liy the foot of the meadow where she sails
her tin}' boat and watches the fishes play).
Put the parts together again and remove the
top-half, placing it two inches to the back,
(two lunch tables in the grove Ijack of the
house).

As from the whole to the half, so also proceed
from the half to the cjuarter-cubes by dividing
the halves into halves, then to the eighth of the
whole cube, liy dividing the quarters into
halves. Show that two-fourths and four-eighths
equal one-half, that two-eighths equal one-quar-
ter, that eight-eighths equal the whole, etc. Of
course these progressive steps can only betaken
slowly and in accordance with the child's com-
prehension, the kindergartner making sure that
each point is understood, liefore another is
given. For the division of the gift sing the
following song to the tune of '-All for Baby,"
iu Miss Poulsson's Fiuijer Plays : —



(Wiiole cube).

Here is mamma's kitclien,
Built so close and tight ;

(Place the top half on the table against the
right of the lower half).

Here's the brenkfast table,
'Which we'll dress in wliite.

(Draw right-half one inch to the right).

Xow we will divide it,
pee ! we have two more ;

(Separate these halves right and left).

Again we will divide it.
Now we each have four.

Push back all the liack ones.
Each one from its mate.
Kow if we should count them
AVe'll tiud that we liave eight.

Pusli them up together
Astliej- were before.
One and one are two, and
Two and two are four.

Lift the right half np.
And place it on tlie top ;
Now our cube is whole
And, it's time to stop.

The children find pleasure iu di^^ding the
cube into its parts, examining each separate
piece, and in arranging and re-arranging the
eight parts in different waj-s.

To bring out the number and position of the
faces, call the cube a barn ; let a little bird fly
from the top, another from the front, one from
the back, from the right side and from the left.
Show the edges and their directions by build-
ing walls, platforms and columns of different
heights and lengths in different directions,
bringing the square faces of the cul)e so con-
stantly before the child that his concept of a
square becomes a true one.

In the use of the building material allow
the little children much freedom. Check from
the beginning any tendency to knock down any
of the forms which they make, and lead them
to change one form into another related to it liy
slight alterations. Keep this up until the child
acquires the habit of following this plan. Have
them build neatly and accurateh' according to
the measurements of the squared table, as this
brings the play building of the child under the
fundamental law of all building and its beauty
as well as its practicability is soon seen.

To increase the interest of the child, and draw
out involuntary freedom, connect the building
with his own experiences ; connect the forms iu



80



GOLDEN JUBILEE EDITION.



his play by a simple story or let a child tell of
something he has seen, and illustrate by build-
ing the object. Show the different ways cubes
may touch each other, as face to face ( direction
front and back, or right and left) ; edge to
edge, with the corners front, faces front right
and left, or front and back ; edge to face at
the front, back, right and left. To add in-
terest let the children invent and tell a story
about the object. They are delighted to see



their cube grow into a table, a chair for grandpa,
a bed, a church, a bridge, a lighthouse to
guide the sailors. These objects they clothe
with life, developing their imagination and
originality. Thus through this gift the forma-
tive and expressed powers of the child are ex-
ercised, his judgment and reason are developed
and he gains a love of all that is beautiful and
harmonious.



THE FOURTH GIFT.



The precertinu; gift consisted of cubical
blocks, all of their three diineusions being the
same. In the Fourth Gift, we have greater vari-
ety for purposes of construction, since each of
the parts of the large cube is an oblong block,
whose length is twice its width, and four times
its thickness. The dimensions bear the same
proportion to each other as those of an ordi-
nary brick ; and hence these blocks are some-
times called lirieks. They are useful in teach-
ing the child difference in regard to length,
breadth, and height. This difference enal)les
hiui to construct a greater variety of forms
thaa he could by means of the third gift. By
these he is made to understand, more dis-
tinctly, the meaning of the terms vertical
and horizontal. And if the teacher sees fit to
pursue the course of experiment sufficiently
far, many philosophical truths will be devel-
oped ; as, for instance, the law of equilibrium,
shown by laying one block across another, or
the phenomenon of continuous motion, exhibi-
ted in the movement of a row of the blocks, set
on end, and gently pushed from one direction.

PREPARATION FOR CONSTRUCTING
FORMS.

This gift is introduced to the children in a
manner similar to the presentation of the third
gift. The box is reversed upon the table and
the cover is removed. Lifting the box care-
fully, the cube remains entire. The children
are made to observe that, when whole, its size
is the same as that of the previous one. Its
parts, however, are very different in form,
though their number is the same. There are
still eight blocks. Let the scholars compare one
of the small cubes of the third gift with one of
the oblong blocks in this gift ; note the simi-
larities and the differences ; then, if they can
comprehend, that notwithstandiug, they are so
unlike in form, their soM contents is the same,
since it takes just eight of each to make the
same sized cube, an important lesson will have
been learned. If told to name objects that re-
semble the oblong blocks, they will readily
designate abrick, table, piano, closet etc., and
if allowed to invent forms of life, will doubt-
less construct boxes, benches, etc.



The same precision should be observed in
all the details of opening and closing the plays
with this gift as in those previously described.
FORMS OF LIFE.

The following is a list of Fr^bel's forms.
If the names do not appear quite striking, or
to the point, the teacher may try to substitute
better ones : —




Fig. 1.



The Cube.



f?^/ . ! I. 'I . r
Fig. 2.
Part of a Floor, or Top of a Table.




Fig. 3.
Two Large Boards.




Fig. 4.
Fom- Small Boards.




Fig. 5.
Eight Buildina; Blocks.




Fig. 6.
A Long Garden Wall.



82



GOLDEN JUBILEE EDITION.






I

Fia;.



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A City Gate.




Fig. 8.
Another City Gate.




Fig. 9.



A Bee Staud.





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A Colonnade











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Fig. 11.



A Passage.




Fisf. 12.



Bell Tower.




Fig. 13.
Open Garden House.




Fig. 14.
Garden House, with doors




Fia;. 15.



A Shaft.




Fig. 16.



Shaft.




Fig. 17.
A Well, with cover.



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD.



83




Fig. 18.



A Fountain.




Fig. i;).
Closed Garden Wall.




Fig. 20.
An Open Garden.




Fig. 21.



An Open Garden.




Fig. 22.
Watering Trough.



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Fig. 23.



Shooting Stand.




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Fig. 24.



Village.




Fig. 2.5.



Triumpliul Arch.




Fig. 26.



Merry-go-round .



Fig. 27.
Large Garden Settee.



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Fig. 28.



Seat.



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Fig. 29.



Settee.



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Fig. 30.



Sofa.





Fig. 31.



"wo Chairs.



84



GOLDEN JUBILEE EDITION.



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Fio-. 32.
Gaideu Table and Chairs.




Fisr. 33.



Cbildreu's Table.





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Fig. 34.



Tombstone.




Fig. 35.



Tombstone.




Fio-. 36



Tombstone.




Fig. 37.



Monument.




Fig. 38.



Monument.




Fig. 39.



Winding Stairs.




Broader Stairs.



Fig. 40.



Stalls.



Fig. 41.



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Fig. 42.



A Cross Road.



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD.



85




Fig. 43.



Timuel.



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Fis;. 44.



Pyramid.




Fig. 45.



obooting Stand.




Fisr. 46.



Front of a House.




Fig. 47.

Chair, -n-itb Footstool.




A Throne.



Fig. 48.




Fig. 50.

Figs. 49 and 50 are illustrations of Continr
uous Motion.

Here as in the use of the previous gift, one
form is produced from another by slight
changes, accompanied by explanations on the
part of the teacher. Thus, Fig. 30 is easily
changed to Figs. 31, 32, and 33, and Fig. 34
may be changed to Figs. 35, 36, and 37. In
every case, all the blocks are to be employed
in constructing a figure.

FORMS OF KNOWLEDGE.

This gift like the preceding, is used to com-
municate ideas of di^•isibility. Here, however,





Fig. 51. Fig. 52.

on account of the particular form of the parts,
the processes are adapted to illustrate the di-
vision of a surface, as well as of a solid body.



Fig. 53.
The cube is arranged so that one vertical
and three horizontal cuts appear, (Fig. 51 ) and
the child is then requested to separate it into



86



GOLDEN JUBILEE EDITION.



Fio;. 54.



halves, (Fig. 52) these halves iuto quarters,
(Fig. 53) and these quarters iuto eighths,
(Fig. 54). Each of the latter will be fouuil to
be one of the oblong blocks, and this for the
time may be made the subject of couversatiou.

"Of what material is this block made?"

"What is the color?"

"What objects resemble it in fonn?"

"How maiiy sides has it?"

"Which ii! the largest side?"

"Which is the smallest side?"

"Is there a side larger than the smallest
and smaller than the largest ?"

In this waj', the scholars learn that there are
three kinds of sides, symmetrically arranged
in pairs. The upper aud lower, the right and
left, the front and back, are respectively equal
to and like each other.

By questions, or by direct explanation, facts
like the following, may be made apparent to
the minds of children. "The upper aud lower
Bides of the block are twice as lai'ge as the
two long sides, or the front aud back, as they
maybe called. Again, the front aud back are
twice as large as the right ;nd left, or the two
short sides of the oiocii. Consequently, the
two largest sides are four times as large as
the two smallest sides." This can be demon-
strated in a very interesting way, by placing
several of the blocks side by side, iu a variety
of positions, and in all these operations the
children should be allowed to experiment for
themselves. The small cubes of the preceding
gift may also with propriety be brought in
comparison with the oblong blocks of this gift,
and the differences observed.



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Online LibraryEdward WiebéGolden jubilee edition of The paradise of childhood → online text (page 13 of 40)