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THE



HISTORY



OF



THE DECLINE AND FALL



OF THE



ROMAN EMPIRE.



BY EDWARD GIBBON, ESQ.



IN EIGHT VOLUMES.



VOL. IIL



PHILADELPHIA:

PUBLISHED BY WILLIAM Y. BIRCH £5' ABRAHAM SMALL,

VO.S7, SOUTH SECOND STREET.
PRINTED BY ROBERT CARR,

1804.



CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.



CHAP. xxr.

Persecuiio7i of Heresy, ...The Schism of the Doriatists.,..The Avian Con-
troversy.... Athanasius,... Distracted State of the Church and Empire
under Coiistantine and his Sons. ...Toleration of Paganism.



PAGE.

312 AFRICAN Controversy - 3 the Orthodox Party - 31

315 Schism of the Donatists - 5 337....361. Constantiusf'avoursthe Arians32

The Trinitarian Controversy
A. c.
360 The System of Plato

The Logos
300 Taught in the school of Alexandria

A. D.

97 Revealed by the Apostle St. John
The Ebionites and Docetes
Mysterious Nature of the Trinity
Zeal of the Christians
Authority of the Church
Factions - - .

318 Heterodox opinions of Arivis
Three Systems of the Trinity

I. Arianism

II. Tri theism

III. Sabellianism
325 Council of Nice

The Homocusion /

Arian Creeds

Arian Sects

Faith of the Western, or Latin,
Church
360 Council of Rimini

Conduct of the Emperors in the
Arian Controversy
524 IndiSbre-ace of Constantine
325 His Zeal
328... .337. He persecutes the Arian a.nd

CHAP. xxn.

Julian is declared Einperor by the Legions of Gaul.... His March and
Success... .The Death of Ccnstantius... . Civil Adf7ti?iistration of Julian.



7




Arian Councils

Character and Adventures of Atha-


34


ib.




nasius


37


8


330


Persecution against Athanasius


40


ib.


336


His first Exile


42




3-11


His second Exile


43


9


349


His Restoration


45


10


351


Resentment of Constantins


47


11


353


...355. Councils of Aries and Milan


48


13


355


Condemnation of Athanasius


50


15




Exik-s


52


16


356


Third Expulsion of Athanasius




17




from Alexandria


53


18




His Behaviour


55


ib.


356


...362. His Retreat


56


ib.




Arian Bishops


59


19




Divisions


60


20




I. Rome


61


21




II. Constantinople


63


23




Cruelty of the Arians


65


24


345,


&c. The Revolt and Fuiy of the








Donatist CircuiT.ceilinns


67


27




Their Religious Suicides


70


28


312.


..361. General Character of the








Christian Sects


ib.


29




Toleration of Paganism by Con-




ib.




stantine


71


30




By his Sons


73



A. D. PAGE.|A. D

The Jealousy of Constantius against

Julian - -77

Fears and envy of Constantius 79

360 The Legions of Gaul are ordered



to march into the East
Their Discontents
They proclaim Julian Emperor
His Protestations of Innocence



PAGE.

79

81
82
85



CONTENTS.



A. D. PAGE. A. D.

His Embassy to Constantius - 86
360, 361. His fourth and fifch expeditions

beyond the Rhine - 88

361 Fruitless Treaty and declaration of
War
Julian prepares to attack Con-
stantius
His March from the Rhine into

Illy ri cum
He justifies his Cause
Hostile Preparations
561 Death of Constantius
361 Julian enters Constantinople
361 Is acknowledged by tiie whole



89

92

93

97

98

100

101



PAGE.

Empire - - 102
His civil Government and private

Life - - - lb.

Reformatton of the Palace 105

Chamber of Justice - 108
Punishment of the Innocent and

the Guilty - 109

Clemency of Julian - 111
His Love of Freedom and the

Republic - - 112

His care <.f the Grecian Cities 114

Julian, an Orator and a Judge 115

His Character - - 117



CHAP. XXIII.

The Religion cf Juliart.... Universal Toleration. ... He attemjits to restore and
reform the Pagan JVo7-shi/2,... To rebuild the Tdi/iIc of Jerusalem..., His
artful FersecutioJi of the Christians.... Mutual Zeal and Injustice.



of



A. D.

Religion of Julian
351 His Education and Apostacy

He embraces the Mythology
Paganism

The Allegories

Theological System of Julian

Fanaticism of the Philosophers

Initiation and Fanaticism of Julian

His Religious Dissimulation

He v^'rites against Christianity
561 Universal Toleration
361. ...363. Zeal and Devotion of Julian
in the Restoration of Paganism

Reformation of Paganism

The Philosophers

Conversions

The Jews

Description of Jerusalem

Pilgrimages
363 Julian attempts to rebuild
Temple

The Enterprise is defeated

Perhaps by a preternatural Event

Partiality of Julian



the



.GE.

119

120

123
124
126
127
128
130
132
15 J

135
137
139
141
143
145
146

148
150
151
152



A. D. PAGE.

He prohibits the Christians from

teaching Sciiools - 15J

Disgrace and Oppression of the

Christians - - 155

Thev are condemned to restore the

Pagan Temples - 156

The Temple and sacred Grove of

Daphne - - 158

Neglect and Prophanation of

Daphne - - 160

362 Removal of the dead bodies, and

Conflagration of the Temple 161
Julian shuts the Cathedral of

Antioch - 162

George of Cappadocia oppresses

Ale.'candria and Egypt - 163

361 He is massacred by the People 164
He is worshipped as a Saint and

Marty - - 165

362 Restoration of Athanasius - 167
He is persecuted and expelled bv

Julian - - ' 168

361.. ..363. Zeal and Imprudence of

the Christians - 170



CHAP. XXIV.



Residence of Julian at .dntioch....His successful Expedition against the
Persians, ...Passage of the Tigris. ...The Retreat and Death of Julian....,
Election of Jovian. ...He saves the Romanarmy by a disgraceful Treaty.



A. T>. PACK. I

The Csesars of Julian - 173

362 He resolves to march against the

Persians - - ir4

Julian proceeds from Constant!- 1



>. PAGE.

nop'e to Antioch - 176
Licentious Manners of the People

of Antioch - - ih.

Their Aversion to Julian - 178



CONTENTS.



Scarcity of Corn, and public Dis-
content
Julian composes a Satire against
Antioch
314. ...390. The Sophist Libaniiis
363 March of Julian to the Euphrates
His Design of invading Persia
Disaffectionof the king of Armenia
Military Preparations
Julian enters the Persian Territories
His march over the desart of Meso-
potamia
His Success
Description of Assyria
363 Invasion of Assyria
Siege of Perisabor
Siege of Maogamalcha
Personal Behaviour of Julian
He transports his Fleet from the

Euphra'es to the Tigris
Passage of the Tigris, and Victory
of tlae Romans



CE. 'A.. D. PACE.

Situation and Obstinacy of Julian 205

178 He bums his Fleet - - 207-

Marches against Sapor - 209

180 Retreat and Distress of the Roman

181 Army - - 211
loj Julian is mortally wounded 213

184 363 Death of Julian r 215

185 Election of the Emperor Jovian 217

186 Danger and Difficulty of the

188 Retreat - - 220

Negociation and Treaty of Peace 222
lb. The Weatcness and Disgiace of

190 Jovian - - 223

192 He continues his Retreat to Nisibis 225

194 Universal Clamour against the

ib. Treaty of Peace - 227

19.5 Jovian evacuates Nisibis, and

197 restores the five Provinces to

the Persians - 228

200 Reflections on the Death of Julian 230.

On his Funeral - - 232

202



CHAP. XXV.

The Government and Death of Jovian,. ..Election of Falentinian, ivho
associates his brother Falens, and makes hisjinal division of the Eastern
and Westerii Em jiires.... Revolt of Procojiius..., Civil and Ecclesiastical
Administration...,Ger7nanij.. ..Bri!ai7i..,.Jfrica.... The E,ast.... The Danube
....Death of Valentinian...,His two <S'o?2s, Gratian and Valentinian IT,.
succeed to the Western Emfiire.



A. D. PAGE.

363 State of the Church - 233
Jovian proclaims universal Tole-
ration - - 236

His Prjjgress from Antioch 237

364 Jovian, V. :ih his infant Son, assumes

the Name and EnsigTis of the
Con.-ulbhip - - 238
361- Death of Jovian - ib.
Vacancy of the Throne - 239
264 Election and Character of Valen-
tinian - - 240
He is acknowledged by the Army 242
Ass'-ciates his Brother Valens 243

364 The final Division of the Eastern

and Western Empires - 244

365 Revolt of Procopius - 245
566 His Defeat and Death - 249
37-3 Severe Inquisition into the Crime

of ?vlagic at Rome and Antioch 251
364. ...375. The Cruelty of Valentinian

and Valens - - 254

Their Laws and Government 2o6

Valentinian maintains the religious
Toleration - 259

367... .378. Valens professes Arianism,



A. D.

373

370

356..

364»,
365

366

368

371



343.

307.



366



372
373



and persecutes the Catholics 260
Death of Athanasius - 262

Just Idea of the Persecution of

Valens - - ib.

Valencinian restrains the avarice of

ihe Clergy - 265

,..384. Ambition and Luxury of

Damasus, Bishop of Rome 267

...375. Foreign Wars - 269

I. Germaxy. The Alemanni in-
vade Gaul - - ib.

Their Defeat - 271

Valentinian passes, aud fortifies,

the Rhine - - 273

The Burgundians - 274

The Saxons - - iTo

II. Britain. The Scots and
Picts - . 279

...366. Their Invasion of Britain 282
...370. Restoration of Britain by
Theodosius - - ' 284

III. Africa. Tyranny of Ro-
manus - - 285

Revolt of Firmus - 283

Theodosius recovers Africa 289



VI



CONTENTS.



PAGE. A. D



376 He is executed at Carthage 291

State of Africa - ib.

365.. ..378. IV.TheEAST. The Persian

War - - 293

384 The Treaty of Peace - 296

Adventures of Para, King of Ar-
menia - - 297
V. The Danube. Conquests of



Hermanric - - 299

366 The Cause of the Gothic War 301

367, 368, 369. Hostilities and Peace 303

374 War of the Qiiadi and Sarmatians 305

375 The Expedition of Valentinian 307
His Death - - 309
The Emperors Gratian and Valen-
tinian II. - - ib.



CHAP. XXVI.

Manners of the Pastoral JS/ations.... Progress of the Huns, from China to
Europe. ...Flight of the Goths. ...Theij pass the Danube. ...Gothic War....
Defeat and Death of Valens... .Gratian invests Theodosius ivith the
Eastern Empire.. ..His Character and Success.... Peace and Settlement of
the Goths,



PAGE.

312
314



365 Earthquakes

376 The Huns and Goths

The pastoral Manners of the
Scythians, or Tartars

Diet - - 315

A. C.

Habitations - - 317

Exercises - - 319

Government - - 321

Situation and Extent of Scythia

or Tartary - 324

Origmal Seat of the Huns 326

Their Conquests in Scythia 327

201 Their Wars with the Chinese 328

141. ...87. Decline and Fall of the Huns 330

A. D.

100 Their Emigi-ations - 332

The White Huns of Sogdiana 333

The Huns of the Volga - 534

Their Conquest of the Alani 335

375 Their Victories over the Goths 337

376 The Goths implore the protection

of Valens - - 340

They are transported over the

Danube into the Roman Empii'e 342
Their Distress and Discontent 344

Revolt of the Goths in Mxsia, and

their first Victories - 546

They penetrate into Thrace 349

577 Operations of the Gothic Vv'^ar 351



A. T). PAGE.

Union of the Goths with the Huns,

Alani, &c. - - 354

378 Victory of Gratian over the Ale-

manni - - 356

Valens marches against the Goths 358
Battle of Hadrianople - 360

The Defeat of the Romans 362

Death of the Eir.peror Valens ib.

Funeral Oration of Valens and his

Anny - - 363

The Goihs besiege Hadrianople 364
378,379. They ravage the Roman

Provinces - 366

378 Massacre of the Gothic Youth in
Asia ... 368

379 The Emperor Gratian invests Theo-

dosius with the Empire of the
East - - 369

Birth and Cliaracter of Theodosius 371
379... .382. His prudent and successful

Conduct of the Goth ic W ar 373

Divisions, Defeat, and Submission,
of the Goths - 376

381 Death and Funeral of Athanaric 378
joO Invasion and Defeat of the Gru-

thungi, or Ostrogoths - 380

383. ...395. Settlement of the Goths in

Thrace and Asia - - 382

Their hostile Sentiments - 384



CHAP. XXVH.

Death of Gratian..., Puin of Aria7jism....St. ylmbrose.... First Civil War
against ]\Taximus Charac''-r., Jdministraiion., and Penance, of Theo-
dosius. ...Death cf Valentinian \l.... Second Civil War, against Eugenius.
....Death of Theodosius.



A. D. PAGE. [A. D. PAGE.

379.... 383. Character and Conduct of His Defects - - 386

the Emperor Gratian - 3861383 Discontent of the Roman Troops 388



CONTENTS.



Vll



A. D. PAGE.

Revolt of Maximus in Britain 3P0

383 Flight and Deatli of Gratian - 391
383. ...387. Treaty of Peace between

Maximus and Theodosius - 393
380 Baptism and Orthodox Edicts of

Theodosius - - 394

340... .380. Arianism of Constantinople 397
378 Gregory Naz^anzen accepts the

Mission of Constantinople - SySj

380 Ruin of Arianism at Constantinople 401'

381 In the East - 402
The Council of Constantinople 404
Retreat of Gregory Nazianzen 405

580. ...394. Edicts of Thecdosius against

the Heretics - - 407

385 Execution of Priscillian and his As-
sociates - - 409

375. ...397. Ambrose, Archbishop of Mi-
lan - . . 412

385 His successful Opposition to the

Empress Justina - 413

387 Maximus invades Italy - 418



^.D. PAGE.

Flight of Valentinian - - 420

Theodosius takes arms in the Cause

of Valentinian - - ib.

388 Defeat and Death of Maximus 422

Virtues of Theodosius - 424

Faults of Theodosius - 426

)87 The Sedition of Antioch - 427

Clemency of Theodosius - 430

590 Sedition and Massacre of Thessa-

lonica ... 431

588 Influence and Conduct of Ambrose 433

390 Penance of Theodosius - 434

388.. ..391. Generosity of Theodosius 437

91 Character of Valentinian - 438

192 His Death - - 440

392. ...394. Usurpation of Eugenius - ib.

Theodosius prepares for War 441

394 His Victory over Eugenius - 443

395 Death of Theodosius - 446
CoiTuption of the Times - 447
The Infantry lay aside their Ar-
mour ... 448



CHAP. XXVIII.

Final Destruction of Pa'^anism....l7itroductio7i of the JVorshiii of Saints,
and Relics, among' the Christians.



378 ...395. The Destruction of the Pa-
gan Religion
State of Paganism at Rome

384 Petition of the Senate for the Altar
of Victory

388 Conversion of Rome

381 Destruction of the Temples in the
Provinces
The Temple of Serapis at Alexan-
dria ...

389 Its final Destruction



390
449
450^390.



453
455



457



461
463



The Pagan Religion is prohibited 466
Oppressed ... 468
...420. Finally extinguished 470

The Worship of the Christian Mar-
tyrs ... 472
Geiieral Reflections - 474
I Fabulous Martyrs and Relics ib.

II. Miracles ' - . 475

III. Revival of Polytheism - 477

IV. Introduction of Pagan Cere-
monies - . - - 479



THE HISTORY



OF



THE DECLINE AND FALL



OF THE



ROMAN EMPIRE.



CHAP. XXI.



Persecution of Heresy. ..The Schism of the Donatists...The

Arian Controversy Athanasius Distracted State of

the Church and Empire under Constantine and his Sons,
.... Toleration of Paganism.

THE grateful applause of the clergy has consecrated CHAP,
the memory of a prince who indulged their passions and XXI.
promoted their interest. Constantine gave them security,
wealth, honours, and revenge: and the support of the or-
thodox faith was considered as the most sacred and im-
portant duty of the civil magistrate. The edict of Milan,
the great charter of toleration, had confirmed to each in-
dividual of the Roman Avorld, the privilege of chusing and
professing his own religion. But this inestimable privi-
lege was soon violated: with the knowledge of truth, the
emperor imbibed the maxims of persecution; and the
sects which dissented from the Catholic church, were af-
flicted and oppressed by the triumph of Chi'istianit}-.
Constantine easily believed that the Heretics, who pre-
sumed to dispute his opinions, or to oppose his com-
mands, were guilty of the most absurd and criminal ob-

VOL. III. B



2 THE DECLINE AND FALL

9,ll^.^- stinacy; and that a seasonable application of moderate
,^-^^<->^^ seventies might save those unhappy men from the danger
of an everlasting condemnation. Not a moment wa&
lost in excluding the ministers and teachers of the sepa-
rated congregations from any shai-e of the rewai"ds and
immunities which the emperor had so liberally bestowed
on the orthodox clergy. But as the sectaries might still
exist under the cloud of royal disgrace, the conquest of
the East was immediately followed by an edict Avhich
announced their total destruction.^ After a preamble
filled with passion and reproach, Constantine absolutely
prohibits the assemblies of the Heretics, and confiscates
their public propertv to the use either of the revenue or
of the Catholic church. The sects against whom the Im-
perial severity was directed, appear to have been the ad-
herents of Paul of Samosata ; the Montanists of Phrygia,,
v/ho maintained an enthusiastic succession or prophecy;
the Novatians, who sternly rejected the temporal efficacy
of repentance; the Marcionites and Valentinians, under
whose leading banners the various Gnostics of Asia and
Egypt had insensibly rallied; and perhaps the Manichse-
ans, who had recently imported from Persia a more artful
composition of Oriental and Christian theology.^ The de-
sign of extirpating the name, or at least of restraining the
progress, of these odious Heretics, was prosecuted with
vigour and effect. Some of the penal regulations were
copied from the edicts of Diocletian; and this method of
conversion was applauded by the same bishops who had
felt the hand of oppression, and had pleaded for the rights
of humanity. Two immaterial circumstances may sei^ve,
however, to prove that the mind of Constantine was not
entirely corrupted by the spirit of zeal and bigotry. Be-
fore he condemned the Manichseans and their kindred
sects, he resolved to make an accurate enquiry into the

1 Eusebius in Vit. Constantin. l.iii. c. 63, 64, 65, 66.

2 After some examination of the various opinions of Tillemont, Beau-
sobre, Lardner, &c. I am convinced that Manes did not propagate this
sect, even in Persia, before the year 270 . It is strange, that a philosophic
and foreign heresy should have penetrated so rapidly into the African pro-
vinces ; yet I cannot easily reject the edict of Diocletian against the Mani-
chieans, vvliich may be found in Baronius ( Annal. Eccl. A. D. 287).



OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. 3

nature of their religious principles. As if he distrusted CHAP,
the impartiality of his ecclesiastical counsellors, this de- ,^^^,L->,.
licate commission was entrusted to a civil magistrate ;
whose learning and moderation he justly esteemed ; and
of whose venal character he was probably ignorant.^ The
emperor was soon convinced, that he had too hastily pro-
scribed the orthodox faith and the exemplary morals of
the Novatians; who had dissented from the church in
some articles of discipline which were not perhaps essen-
tial to salvation. By a particular edict, he exempted them
from the general penalties of the law;'* allowed them to
build a church at Constantinople, respected the miracles
of their saints, invited their bishop Acesius to the council
of Nice ; and gently ridiculed the narrow tenets of his sect
by a familiar jest; which, from the mouth of a sovereign,
must have been received with applause and gratitude.'

The complaints and mutual accusations which assail- Afrcan
ed the throne of Constantine, as soon as the death of ^°'"'°'
Maxentius had submitted Africa to his victorious arms, A. D. 312.
were ill adapted to edify an imperfect proselyte. He
learned, with sui-prise, that the provinces of that great
country, from the confines of Cyrene to the columns of
Hercules, were distracted with religious discord.^ The
source of the division was derived from a double elec-



3 Constantinus, enim cum limatius superstitionum quaereret sectas, Ma-
nichaorum et similiuin, &c. Ammian. xv. 15. Strategius, who from this
commission, obtained the surname cf Musonianus, was a Christian of the
Arian sect. He acted as one of the counts at the council of Sardica.
Libanius j^raises his mildness and prudence. Vales, ad locum Ammian.

4 Cod. Thecd. 1. xvi. tit. v. leg. 2. As the general law is not inserted
in the Theodosian code, it is probable that, in the year 438, the sects which
it had condemned were already extinct.

5 Sozomen, 1. i. c. 22. Socrates, I. i. c. 10. These historians have
been suspected, but I tlunk without reason, of an attachment to the Nnva-
tian doctrine. The emperor said to the bishop, " Acesius, lake a ladder,
" and get up to heaven by yourself." Most of the Christian sects have, by
turns, borrowed the ladder of Acesius.

6 The best materials for this part of ecclesiastical history may be found
in the edition of Optatus Milevitanus, published (Paris, 1700.) by M. Du-
pin, who has enriched it with critical notes, geographical discussions, ori-
ginal records, and an accurate abridgment of the whole controversy. M.
de Tillemont has bestowed on the Donatists the greatest part of a volume
(torn. vi. part i) : and I ana indebted to him for an ample collection of all
the passages of his favourite St. Augustin, which relate to those heretics.



4 THE DECLINE AND FALL

CHAP, tion in the chuixh of Carthae-e : the second, in rank and

XXI o ' 7

^^,,~^, opulence, of the ecclesiastical thrones of the West. Cseci-
lian and Majorinus were the two rival primates of Afri-
ca ; and the death of the latter soon made room for Do-
natus, who, by his superior abilities and apparent virtues,
was the firmest support of his party. The advantage
which Cscilian might claim from the priority of his or-
dination was destroyed by the illegal, or at least indecent,
haste, with which it had been performed, without ex-
pecting the arrival of the bishops of Numidia. The au-
thority of these bishops, who, to the number of seventy,
condemned Csecilian, and consecrated Majorinus, is again
weakened by the infamy of some of their personal cha-
racters ; and by the female intrigues, sacrilegious bar-
gains, and tumultuous proceedings which are imputed to
this Numidian council.^ The bishops of the contend-
ing factions maintained, with equal ardour and obstinacy,
that their adversaries were degraded, or at least disho-
noured, by the odious crime of delivering the Holy Scrip-
tures to the officers of Diocletian. From their mutual
reproaches, as well as from the story of this dark trans-
action, it may justly be inferred, that the late persecution
had embittered the zeal, without reforming the manners,
of the African Christians. That divided church was in-
capable of affording an impartial judicature ; the contro-
versy was solemnly tried in five successive tribunals,
which were appointed by the emperor ; and the whole
proceeding, from the first appeal to the final sentence,
lasted above three years. A severe inquisition, v/hich
was taken by the Praetorian vicar, and the proconsul of
Africa, the report of two episcopal visitors who had been
sent to Carthage, the decrees of the councils of Rome
and of Aries, and the supreme judgment of Constantine

7 Schisma igitur illo tempore confusre mi'.Heris iracundia peperit ; am-
bitus nutrlvit ; avaritia roboravit. Optatus, 1. i. c. 19. The langiiaee of
Piirpurius is that of a furious madman. Dicitur te necasse filios sororis
tujc duos. Purpurius respondit ; Piuas me terreri a te . . . occidi ; et oc-
cido^eos qui contra me faciunt. Acta Concil. Cirtensis, ad calc. Optat.
p. 274. When Cieciiian Nvas invited to an assembly of bishops, Purpu-
rius said to his brethren, or rather to his accomplices, " Let him come
*' hither to receive our imposition of hands ; and we vdll break his head
*' by way cf penance." Optat. 1. i. c. 19.



OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. 5

himself in his sacred consistory, were all favourable to ^.^ '\^'
the cause of Caecilian ; and he was unanimously acknow- y,^-v->^
ledged by the civil and ecclesiastical powers, as the true
and lawful primate of Africa. The honours and estates
of the church were attributed to his suffragan bishops,
and it was not without difficulty, that Constantine was
satisfied with inflicting the punishment of exile on the
principal leaders of the Donatist faction. As their cause
Avas examined Avith attention, perhaps it was determined
with justice. Perhaps their complaint was not without
foundation, that the credulity of the emperor hud been
abused by the insidious arts of his favourite Osius. The
influence of falsehood and corruption might procure the
condemnation of the innocent, or aggravate the sentence
of the guilty. Such an act, however, of injustice, if it



Online LibraryEdward GibbonThe History of the decline and fall of the Roman empire (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 50)