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Part of the

which was presented by
MKS8BS. R. ! and A. Stuart.


BS 2560-^78 1837 v. 4
Greswell, Edward, 1797-186
Dissertations upon tne
principle and arrangement





















On the Census Orbis at the Nativity I — 65

CENSUS of Augustus, recorded by Suidas — Criticism of Kuster —
Census, alluded to in Syncellus — Not a Census Urbis or Census
Civium — Description of it, applicable to that of the census at the
nativity 1 — 5

Census of Augustus, according to Malala — Presence of Pedanius
in Syria, at the time of the council of Berytus — The gens Peda-
nia — Pedanius, not a legate of Saturninus — Presence of Pedanius,
possibly connected with the census at the nativity 5 — 8

Objection to a Census Orbis from the silence of Dio Cassius — Hia-
tus in Dio — Mission of Caius Csesar into the East — Pisan Ceno-
taph — Ars Amandi of Ovid, and Remedium Amoris 8 — 10

Numbers in Suidas — Conjectural emendation of 8 / for vi. fxvpidSes —
Proper sense of av8pes — Population of the empire under Augu-
stus — Opinion of Mr. Hume — Calculation of Mr. Gibbon — Na-
tions comprehended in the empire, in the time of Diodorus of
Tarsus — Estimate of Procopius, of the loss of life under Justinian
— Calculation of the population of the empire, thence deducible —
Plague under Justinian — Evagrius 10 — 16

Limitation of the inquiry to the probable amount of the population
of Rome under Augustus — Numbers in Suidas, as they stand,
applicable neither to the city of Rome, nor to the Roman em-
pire — Censuses of Augustus, on the Ancyran monument — Extra-
vagant calculations of the population of Rome 13 — 1 8

First general argument of the population of Rome — Numbers of Cives,
reported in former censuses — Interruption in the order of the cen-
suses — Census of Phlegon — A Roman census, a Census Civium,


Corn-pension of the poor of Alexandria, in the time of Diocletian —
Proportion of the poor to the Sij/ios generally — Proportion of the
poor at Antioch and Constantinople., in the time of Chryso-
stom 51 — 52

Seleucia ad Tigrim — Power and independence of this city — Jews of
Seleucia, U. C. 790 or 791 — Population of Seleucia, in the time of
Marcus Aurelius — Population, in the time of Pliny 52 — 53

Antioch on the Orontes — The metropolis of Syria — Census of Apa-
mea by Quirinus — Founders or enlargers of Antioch, at different
times — Antigonia — Street, paved by Herod in Antioch — Perimeter
of Antioch — Military popidation of Antioch — Aj^oy of Antioch, in
the time of Chrysostom — Numbers of the church, and of the poor
of Antioch — Oratio Antiochica of Libanius — Probable population
of Antioch — Earthquakes at Antioch, and loss of life, at different
times — Capture of Antioch by Chosroes — New name of Antioch,
Theopolis or Theupolis 53 — 57

Fourth general argument — Probable extent of ground covered by
Rome — Divisions or Regiones of Rome — Pomcerium of Rome
— Ancient Rome, equal in periphery to Athens — Perimeter of
Athens — Walls of Rome, at the census of Vespasian — Suburbs
of Rome — Estimate of the compass of Rome by Aristides — Wall
of Aurelian — Date of its construction — Aida-TTjfia of the wall of
Rome, A.D.4T0 — Olympiodorus — Ammon — Semicircular shape of
Rome — Aidarrjfia in question, the radius of the circle .... 57 — 59

Number of the births at Rome, soon after the same time — Content
of the Circus Maximus, at the same period — Proportion of births
in cities, annually 59 — 60

Allowance to be made, for the language of contemporaries in speak-
ing of the magnitude of Rome — Number of families in the same
house — Altitude of the houses — Vacant spaces — Uninhabited build-
ings 60 — 6 1

Passage of Pliny, descriptive of the magnitude of Rome, U. C. 830,
how to be understood — Reading of xiii miles — Milliarium Au-
reum — Castra Prsetoria — Number of gates of Rome — Number of
Via; Publicse — The Pomcerium, what — Gates and Vise in the time of


Procopius Square miles of the area, or ground plan of Rome —
Insula? and Domus at Rome, and number of both together. . 61 — 65


On the Jewish a?id Julian dates of the several years of the
Jewish war 66 — 8 1

Cardinal dates in the Jewish year, Nisan 15 and Tisri 15 — Inter-
val between, of what extent — Calendar of the dates in question
from U. C. 819, A. D. 66 to U. C. 826, A. D. 73 66—68

Jewish year lunar, at the gospel era — Book of Enoch — Galen — Book
of Ecclesiasticus — Syro-Macedonian names of months, applied
by Josephus to the months in the Jewish year in his time. . 66 — 67

Confirmation of the correctness of the calendar proposed, by cases in
point, U. C. 819, 820, 821, and 822 — Investigation of the Julian
date of Tisri 15, U. C. 822 — Rule of Josephus, in specifying the
lengths of the reigns between Nero and Vitellius 69 — 70

Reign of Galba — Reign of Nero — Corruption in the text of Jose-
phus — Reign of Otho — Birthday of Otho — Reign of Vitellius —
Birthday of Vitellius — Date of the day of his death — Third of
Apellseus in Josephus — Corruption, for the 20th of Audenseus —
Tisri, a month of 29 days 70 — 74

Date of the death of Nero — Lengths of the reigns from Nero to Vi-
tellius — Course of events, between the adoption and the death of
Piso — Date of the death of Otho, and arrival of the news at
Rome — Course of events in Tacitus, between xv. Kal. Jan. and the
date of the death of Vitellius 72 — 73

Modern Jewish calendar — Rabbi Samuel — Difference in the mode of
computing the number of days in Nisan — Rule, by which it might
best be regulated — Nisan in an intercalated year, necessarily
thirty days — Octaeteric cycle, among the Jews — Adar and Veadar
— Testimony of Galen — Liber Enoch yc — 76

Statements occurring in Josephus — Artemisius, a month of 30 davs
— Lous, a month of 29 — Date of the duration of the second
temple — Omission, in the number of days — Omission of one part
of a certain number, in Josephus — Adar or Dystrus, 30 days


Book of Esdras— Interval from Nisan 15 to Jar 15, in the year
of the Exodus — Nisan, a month of 29 days — Tpiams, or last day
of Tisri — Secondary sense of rpuiKas — Tisri, U. C. 822, a month

of 29 days Tpiaicas of Xanthicus, in the Syro-Macedonian

year 7 6 — 8l


Chronology of the Historia Naturalis of Pliny 8a — 97

Notices of time in the Historia — Work of Pliny, De Grammatica, or
Dubii Sermonis — Mutianus ter Consul — Consulships of Mucian —
Tacitus, De caussis corruptee eloquentia; — Neapolis in Samaria —
War in Britain — Age of Homer and Hesiod — Interval from the
death of Cato Major — Foundation of Utica — Theophrastus —
Temple of peace — Lupus, prefect of Egypt — Story of Sabinus —
Works of Pliny — Date of the death of Pliny 82 — 88

Date of the death of Virgil, according to Pliny — Reasons for pre-
ferring it to the common one — Donatus' life of Virgil — Twelfth
ode of the fourth book of Horace, addressed to Virgil — Date of
the fourth book of Horace — Sicambri — Rhaeti and Vindelici —
The Consolatio ad Liviam — Date of Horace, Carminum iv, v —
Virgil living, U. C. 739 88 — 90

Date of the Bucolics, Georgics, and iEneid of Virgil — Episode of
Aristseus, in the fourth Georgic — Death of Gallus — Internal
evidences of the date of the third Georgic — Internal evidences of
the date of the iEneid 90 — 91

Epigram of Domitius Marsus — Death of Tibullus, synchronous with
that of Virgil — Classical sense of juvenis — Age of Virgil, when he
composed his Bucolics — Date of the birth of Virgil — Virgil, con-
temporary with Cicero — Date of the birth of Tibullus — Suspected
genuineness of Tibullus, iii. v. 17, 18 — Amores of Ovid — Order
and time of the extant or other works of Ovid — Date of the Ars
Amandi, and Remedium Amoris — Expedition of Caius Caesar —
Banishment of Ovid — Allusions to the cause of it — Probable date
of the Amores — Gallus, Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid, flourished
successively 9 1 — 95

No allusion to the death of Virgil, in Horace— First allusion to the
.Kneid, in any contemporary writer — Date of the Elegies of Pro-


pertius — Inconsistency between the extant accounts of the death
of Virgil — Epitaph of Virgil on himself — Calabria, a name coex-
tensive with Messapia — Absurdity of the account of the Life of
Virgil — Visit of Virgil's to Athens — Date of the first book of the
Odes of Horace 95 — 97

Chronology of the Second Jewish War, in the time of
Ha drian 98 — 116

Duration of the second Jewish war, analogous to that of the first —
Desolating effects of the second war — Expulsion of the Jews from
Judaea — Traditionary accounts of the Jews, relating to the second
war 98 — 99

Seventy years' interval, between the beginning of the first and the
end of the second war, analogous to the seventy years' interval,
between the destruction of the temple and the second of Darius
— Dates of the close of the second war — Siege of Bither — Expo-
sition of the seventy weeks, secundum Hebrreos — First of Darius,
confounded by Jerome with the first of Cyrus — Close of the war,
A. D. 136 — Olympiads of Phlegon 99 — 102

Date of the beginning of the war — Dates of Jerome — Church of the
holy sepulchre — Venerarium of Ambrose, on mount Calvary —
Date of Epiphanius — Referred to the second of Titus — Beginning
of the war, A. D. 127 1 02 — 1 03

Motives to the rebellion of the Jews — iElia Capitolina — Interdict
against circumcision, removed in the reign of Antoninus Pius —
Coincidence of the rebellion with the interval of Hadrian's visit
to Egypt and Syria 103 — 104

Journeyings of Hadrian — Tillemont — Eckhel — Coins of the Egyptian
nomi prove the presence of Hadrian in Egypt, in the eleventh of
his reign — Number of the nomi — Nomi, which have the eleventh
of Hadrian, and nomi, which have not — Coins of Antinous — Date
of the death of Antinous— Hadrian in Egypt, in the eleventh of
his reign — Alexandrian, or Egyptian, reckoning of the years of his
reign 104 — 107

Objection, from the coins of Alexandria, in the XV th of Hadrian — Do


not exhibit the Adventus Augusti — An Adventus not necessarily
implied by their devices — Letter of Hadrian, in Vopiscus — Epi-
gram of Publius Balbinus, on the statue of Memnon — Memnon,
Phamenoph — Common reckoning of the XVth of Hadrian, the
XVIth, in the Egyptian — Sabina in Egypt by herself, on this
occasion — Possible double visit of Hadrian's to Egypt, in his
eleventh and his fifteenth — Letter of Hadrian to Servianus, in
Vopiscus — Hadrian in Egypt, not long before the adoption of
Verus 1 07 — 1 1 o

Visits of Hadrian to Athens — Hadrian present at the Mysteries —
At the Dionysia — Apologies of Quadratus and Aristides — Rescript
to Fundanus — Consecration of the Olympium — Date of Philostra-
tus — Propylsea of Athens — Testimony of Dio Chrysostom — Strabo
— Dicsearchus, or the /3/os 'EXXdSo? — Visit of Hadrian to Africa —
Visit to Britain 11 o — 1 1 3

Different accounts of the duration of the war — The last four years,
the most arduous part of the war — Rebellion under Hadrian,
confounded with that under Trajan — Colonies of Hadrian in
Africa — Roman commanders in the war — Julius Severus, Titus
Annius Rufus — Readings of this name — Velius Rufus — Hadrian
with the army in person, in the course of the war — Double era of
the coins of Gaza — Presumptive proof that Hadrian was there,
between what limits 11 3 — 1 1 5

Fragment remaining of the apology of Quadratus — Quadratus might
be personally acquainted with subjects of our Saviour's miracles
— Anecdote recorded by Socrates, of Acesius and Constantine at
the council of Nice, from Auxanon, an eyewitness — Similar
accounts of Evagrius , 11 5 — 1 1 6


On the Propkecy of the Seventy Weeks, and the second part
0/ the Chronology of the Acts of the Apostles ... 1 17 — 258

Proposed survey of the chronology of the Acts, from the thirteenth
chapter to the end — Two fixed points capable of being determined
therein — Determination of the second of them first. ...11 7 — 1 1 8

Point of time of St. Paul's last arrival at Jerusalem in the Acts —


When there was no regular high priest — True sense of St. Paul's
words before the council 1 1 8 — 1 1 9

History of the succession of high priests — Ananias, son of
Nebedaeus — Jonathan, son of Annas or Ananus — Ishmael — Jona-
than, high priest between the twelfth of Claudius, and the first of
Nero — Assassination of Jonathan, in the first of Nero — Removal
of Felix, not later than the fifth of Nero — Appointment of
Ishmael, not earlier than the first of Nero, nor later than the
fourth 11 9 — 1 2 1

Further limitation of the period between the death of Jonathan and
the appointment of Ishmael — -Appointment of Ishmael, in the first
half of the third of Nero — Confirmed by the misstatement of
Josephus, Ant. hi. xv. 3 — High priests under Claudius — High
priest during the famine, under Claudius — Frequency of famines at
this period — Nomination of the high priests vested in Agrippa
the younger — History of Agrippa, from the last of Claudius to the
second of Nero — Expedition of Corbulo against the Parthians —
Assassination of Jonathan at the feast of Tabernacles, or Passover,
in the second of Nero — Appointment of Ishmael at or before the
feast of Tabernacles, next ensuing — Time, when there was no
regular high priest, and St. Paul arrived in Jerusalem, the Pen-
tecost between 1 21 — 1 24

Circumstantial confirmation of the above conclusion — Rise of the
Sicarii — Ananias, vicar of Jonathan — The Egyptian false prophet
— Accounts of Josephus, consistent with those of the Acts — Ac-
counts of Josephus in the Antiquities, and in the War — Time of
the ultimate defeat of this impostor, when St. Paul was at
Csesarea — Services of Felix — Eleazar, the dpx&rjvTrjs — Time of
the appointment of Felix — Date of the administration of Cuma-
nus — War of the Jews and Samaritans — 'Eoprf), or 17 ioprfi, abso-
lutely, the feast of Tabernacles — Quadratus — Ananias and Jonathan
sent to Rome — Procuratorship procured for Felix — Drusilla, wife
of Felix — Perishes, in the eruption of Vesuvius — Interval, since
St. Paul's last visit— Sedition at Csesarea— Ishmael, high priest
when Paul was tried before Festus — Death of Ananias, in the Jew-
ish war — Ananias, distinct from Ananus the younger . . 1 24 — 1 29

Discrepancy between Josephus and Tacitus — Inaccuracy of Tacitus
on Jewish affairs — Quadratus — Cassius Longinus — Vibius Marsus


— Meherdates — Jurisdiction of Felix, probably coordinate from the
first, with that of Cumanus — Marriage of Claudius and Agrippina
— General agreement of the two accounts — Adoption of Nero —
Suetonius and Tacitus at variance — Appointment of Seneca to be
the tutor of Nero 1 29 — 133

Determination of the second of the proposed points of time — Meeting
of Paul and Aquila at Corinth — Expulsion of the Jews from Rome
by Claudius — Number of the Jews at Rome — Testimony of
Suetonius — Confusion of Christus with Chrestus — Date of the
expulsion, the time of the Parthian embassy to ask for Meherdates
— Date of Apollinarius of Laodicea, for the rupture of the Jews
and Romans in the reign of Claudius — Confirmed by Orosius —
Causes of the expulsion, in the facts which had recently occurred
in Judaea — Danger of a serious breach with the Romans, at this
time — Wars and rumours of wars, in the prophecy on the mount
— Probable date of the decree of expulsion — Consequent time of
the arrival of Aquila at Corinth 133 — 137

Distribution of intermediate particulars, from the Pentecost of U. C.
802, the date of St. Paul's second circuit, to the arrival at
Corinth, on this occasion — Residence at Thessalonica — Interval
between Pentecost, U. C. 797, the beginning of Paul's first
circuit, and Pentecost, U. C. 802, the beginning of his second,
and mode of filling it up — Time of the council at Jerusalem —
Arrival of St. Paul at Corinth, in the spring of U. C. 803 —
Confirmation of the above conclusions, by circumstantial coinci-
dences — Decree of Claudius, probably known at Philippi and
Thessalonica — Famine, in the ninth of Claudius — Prices of the
modius of com — Double supply of the wants of Paul from Philippi,
within this period — Time of the arrival at Corinth — Why St. Paul
might accept relief from the Philippians, while he declined it from
other churches 137 — 142

Course of events, from the time of the arrival at Corinth — Length of
the residence of St. Paul — Feast attended by him at Jerusalem —
Time, when he was passing through Ephesus — Vow of Aquila —
Doctrine of the Naziraeatus — Prosecution of Paul, before Gallio —
Province of Achaia — Proconsuls of Achaia — Proconsulship of
Gallio — Honours of Seneca and Gallio — Consulship of Se-
neca — Banishment and recall of Seneca — Pnetorship of Gal-
lio 142 — 148


Visit of Paul to Antioch — Meeting of Paul and Peter at Antioch —
Beginning of the residence at Ephesus — Length of time taken up
by it — Date of its close — 'Ayopaloi, fora, or conventus of antiquity
— Circuits of the governors of provinces — Ephesus, the Trpcarrj, or
metropolitan city — Privilege of the KardnXovs — Proconsuls of
Asia Proper — Office and title of ypap-parevs: — Proconsul of Asia
in the first of Nero — 'EkkA?7o-uu of antiquity, and times of holding
them — Neocoratus of Ephesus — The 'Aaidpxai— Olympia of Ephe-
sus — Ephesia, or games of Diana at Ephesus — Ephesia of Xeno-
phon at Scillus — Ephesia of Achilles Tatius 148 — 156

Course of events from the time of the departure from Ephesus —
Residence of Paul in Macedonia and Achaia — Date of the de-
parture from Philippi — Time of the arrival at Jerusalem — Coinci-
dence of this date with the former • 1 56

Confirmation of the above conclusions, by the dates of the Epistles of
St. Paul hitherto written — Date and place of the First Epistle to
the Thessalonians 1 56 — 1 60

Date and place of the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians .... 160

Date and place of the First Epistle to the Corinthians. . . . 160 — 165

Collection for the church of Jerusalem in Achaia — Gymnastic exer-
cises of the ancients 164 — 166

Date and place of the Second Epistle to the Corinthians — Collection
for the church of Achaia — Rapture of St. Paul 166 — 168

Date and place of the Epistle to the Romans — Via Egnatia through
Macedonia — Collections for the church of Jerusalem — Erastus —
Gaius — Narcissus — Aristobulus 169 — 173

Date and place of the Epistle to the Galatians — Barnabas, apostle of
the uncircumcision, as well as St. Paul — To npoTepov — St. Paul's
thorn in the flesh — Collections for the church of Judaea in
Galatia — Titus — St. Luke — Barnabas — Arrival of Titus and St.
Luke at Ephesus, during St. Paul's residence there — Sabbatic
year, U. C. 808 to 809 — Judaizing teachers, in Corinth and Galatia
— ' AiroKOTrreo-dai — Resemblance of Romans and Galatians — Thorn
in the flesh of St. Paul— SWy^ara of antiquity 173 — 189


Arrival of St. Paul at Jerusalem by the Pentecost of U. C. 809 — In-
terval between his arrival and the date of his examination before
Felix — Ceesarea — Antipatris — Date of the two years' imprison-
ment — Date of the arrival of Festus — Date of the defence before
Agrippa — Date of the departure to Rome 189 — 192

Harvest in Egypt — Corn-ships of Alexandria — Tabellaria? or pack-
ets — Route of the corn-ships — Etesian winds — Delays in sailing
anciently — St. Paul delayed by the Etesian winds — Dates of the
Etesian winds — N^oreta, or fast of the tenth of Tisri — Shutting
of the sea, at the autumnal equinox — St. Paul proposing to winter
in Crete — Stonns at the nXeinfiwi/ dvais — Dates of the Vergilia-
rum occasus — Storm encountered by Aristides — Opening of the
sea in spring — Rising of the Pleiades — Date of the shipwreck of
St. Paul — Date of the departure from Malta — Date of the arrival
at Rome 192 — 199

STpaTOTreSdpxrjs at Rome — Burrus — Captains of the Praetorian guard
— 2ireipa 2e/3ao-n), a cohors Pretoria — Character of the reign of
Nero for the first five years — Murder of Agrippina — Epistles of
Paul and Seneca 199 — 201

Epistles written from Rome during St. Paul's first imprisonment;
and their order and dates — Epaphras or Epaphroditus — Abbre-
viation of names anciently — Ephesians, written before Colossians
and Philemon — Colossians and Philemon, before Philippians — Ar-
rival of Timothy at Rome — Imprisonment of Timothy at Rome
— Sickness of Epaphras or Epaphroditus — Sickliness of Rome in
the autumnal season — Rising of the dog-star — Sacrum Cana-
rium — No Epistles written by St. Paul, in the first year of his im-
prisonment 201 — 208

Epistle to the Ephesians, whether written to the church of Ephesus
or not — Words 'Ev 'Ecpeaw, whether part of the Epistle originally
— Testimony of Basil — Testimony of Jerome — Illustration of the
use of tois ovaiv, absolutely — Testimony of Ignatius, misunder-
stood — Distinction between omne and totum — Doctrine of the ar-
ticle — Proper sense and construction of Ephesians ii. 21. — Epistle
to Laodicea — The Presbyter Caius — Marcion — Apocryphal Epistle
to Laodicea — Laodicea, Colossse, Hierapolis, contiguous — Gospel
not preached by St. Paul on the first occasion, out of Ephesus — •
Philemon and Onesimus, both converted at Rome — Testimony of


Polycarp in the Epistle to the Philippians — Tychicus, whether an
Ephesian — Ephesians, whether a circular Epistle — Laodicea over-
thrown by an earthquake 208 — 217

Date and place of the Epistle to the Hebrews — Ascribed to various
authors — The composition of St. Paul in Hebrew, and probably
translated by St. Luke — Circumstances under which it was written
— Imprisonment and liberation of Timothy — The future, imperfectly
known to the apostles — Language of St. Paul to the Ephesian
elders, Acts xx. 25 — Persecution, and rise of false teachers in the
church of Ephesus 217 — 224

Visit of St. Paul to Spain — Testimony to the fact of that visit — Caius
the Presbyter — Clemens Romanus — Boundary of the west an-
ciently, Spain or the Straits of Gibraltar — Non-extant Epistle of
St. Paul — Supposed visit of St. Paul to Britain — Probable length
of the residence in Spain — Inscription in Gruter — Date of the
Epistle to the Hebrews — 'Hyoifievot of the Hebrew church, and
their exode or death — Martyrdom of James, the first bishop of
Jerusalem — Hegesippus — Josephus — Supposed interpolation of the
text of Josephus — Procuratorship of Albinus — History of Jesus,
son of Ananus — High priesthood of Ananus — Resulting date of
the martyrdom of James — Mission of the high priest Ishmael to
Rome — Poppsea, wife of Nero — Divorce of Octavia — Festus —
Albinus — Florus — Death of Poppsea — Neronea of Nero — Resulting
confirmation of the date of the Epistle 224 — 236

Date and place of remaining Epistles of St. Paul — Second to Timothy
written from Rome, during St. Paul's second imprisonment there —
Relative place and order of the First of Timothy, and Titus — Ni-

Online LibraryEdward GreswellDissertations upon the principles and arrangement of a harmony of the Gospels (Volume 4) → online text (page 1 of 48)