Edward Johnston Vernon.

A guide to the Anglo-Saxon tongue : a grammar after Erasmus Rask ; extracts in prose and verse with notes, etc. for the use of learners and an appendix online

. (page 11 of 15)
Online LibraryEdward Johnston VernonA guide to the Anglo-Saxon tongue : a grammar after Erasmus Rask ; extracts in prose and verse with notes, etc. for the use of learners and an appendix → online text (page 11 of 15)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


wenden.

(') To spring (a mine), blow up or open.



d by Google



itPPENDIX — U8T III. 179

Wise (I. 8.) wise, manner; Q, weise, D. wijze.
wisa wise man^ guide ; G. weiser, D. wijzer.
witan (anom.) to knew &c. : see L above.
ge«witan to depart.
witian to decide.

wite (III. 1.) punishment ; O. wite.
wita counsellor ; hence witena-ge-m6t parliament.
wrsed wrathj anger.
wr&d wroth, angry »

])incan (1.3.) to seem; O. dunken, D. danken.
|>encaQ (I. 3.) to thinh^ mahe seem to oneself; 6. and
D. denken. (')

(*; Coiup. doKtut 1 ifdtikf iHrn, doKU /lo* m§'thmku



d by Google



180



IV, — Additional Notes.



Page 1.— i£ h not a diphthong, but a modification of a in the other
dialects, for which it is substituted in certain cases, as before a mute, or a
consonant followed by e; thus dsBg, d8ege,but plur. dagas, dagum ;
so also fsBt, 88Bd, &e. : i& answering to Qoth. 6, is not changed.

The A. &• wrote i without a dot, y with one.

p probably gave rise to the O. abbre?iations ye for the ()>)e), yt for
that {\>t), 800.



Page 2.— ♦ was also written for o'**|e or, 96^^ for s6i5-lfce truly,
verily. Examples of the use of n are f^a for |>am to'JheScc., ]pon for
|7onne then,io?ien.

In later times 3 occurs for g, originally most likely a guttural, after-
wards =s y ! hence the O. z still retained in some 9. names, as Dalzell,
Menzies, pronounced Dalyell, Menyies.

A long vowel is sometimes written double without the accent ; as,
wild, good, gees, for wid, g6d, g6s, like D. wijd &e.; in G. also
the vowel is sometimes doubled in like manner. Where A. S. vowels
are made long by contraction the dropt consonant sometimes appears,
sometimes not in the modern Teutonic dialects ; as, (sleahan) sledn,
O. schlagen, D. slaan; gangan, gdn, G. gehen, D. gaan ; hangan,
h6n, G. and D. hangen. N* has been often dropt and the vowel length-
ened before other consonants, above all before s, ('Note 1.) while it
remains in kindred tongues; as, 6st (love, favour), Goth, ansts ; gos,
G. gans, L. ans-er; 68 (god, hero) G. ans; s6ft, G. sanft; ftis
(prompt), Goth, funs; iis, Goth, and G. uns, L. nos, &c. This seems
the case in Greek too, where ns is in like manner avoided ; as, Sovct
iov<Ta (L. dans), <rrac, trr&ffa (L. stans), St/iocec, and many other
words, in some of which the circumflex, as elsewhere, marks the con*
traction ; the v appears as soon as the o- is removed : neut. dov, trrav ;
gen. ^ovTo^f <iravroQ, :2ifjLotvTog &c. In A. S. i, f, 6, and d before iS,



d by Google



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 181

'Often answer to a cognate short Towel followed by nd, nt, or nth, in the
"Other languages; as, HiSe, (lithe, wft) G. linde; sfiS (time) Goth,
sinths, Dan. sinde; swi%, Gothw swintht; hr;^$er, G. rind. D.rund ;
f^f L. anda; 6iSer, Goth, anthars, G. ander; te6iSe (tenth), G.
sehnte; e^9, G. kand ; g6^ (^oar), Goth, gunths, O. G. knnd.

In the imperfects 8 t6d, br6hte, bdhte* ^^hte, n is likewise dropt^
and the vowel made long, g or c in the three last becoming h, as often
else; ennnan and unnan also make cdtSe, ti^e instead of cande
(G. konnte), nnde: bobte bought should most likely be short, not
being so contracted. Something like these changes now and then ap-
pearr in L.; as, fundp, fudi, fusus; tando, tusus, where the vowel in
the present Is long for prosodical parpose^ only. On the whole, though
the Or. and L. quantity sometimes agrees with the A. S.) and the D.
and G. very often, the Gothic is the only sure guide, or falling that, the
Icelandic^ or other old kindred duilects.



Page 4. — Sometimes too g is added before e, as ge6 w for eow, with
little or no change of sound (see p. 41 ) ; with a soft vowel before or
after it, g seems to have been but lightly sounded, as y, or as a fine
guttural.



Page 5. — Other changes are io fur eo, and 16 for e6 ; se o fon, sio fo n,
he 6, hi6 * u for o, and u for 6, especially after g,e, which sotnetimes
becomes i; geong, (giung) iung j ge6, (giu)iii, io; Iotas, Ititas
Jutea: ie fory^ gyld. gield payrnent, tax &ce. U occurs medievally
for V in foreign names, as Dauid David; hence al^o for f, as luuian
for lufian to love* Same of these spellin^^s and those p. 5. are the
variations of different times, some of different dialects, of which us yet
but little is known with certainty.



Page 8.— A. S. d has sometimes become £. th (soft), often G. t ;
fmder father , G. vater. p and S usually answer to G. aind D. d;
Jireo, G. drei, D. drie; broker, G. bruder, D. broeder^ ^ sometimes
to G. and D. t; fortS, G. fort, D. vuort. See also p. 2 and addition
tliereto. The loss of these letters in £. and the substitution of the one
unmeaning combination th for both the hard and soft sound Is much
to be regretted. The A. S. had seemingly no rule but custom for the

R



d by Google



182 aKglo^saxon GUiixe.

use of tliese two iefters and toands* as we for the latter, -i^speetiv^^
but as I? is found oftenest at the beginnlDg, aad.^ «l the end of%ByU
lable, they are here so printed throughout.



Page 8— 9«— The following


are likewise exceptioos to


the general mk


that the A. 8. gender agreca with the German:




Neut. clif


G. klippe (f.)


^^ffi '^^


— l£c


G: leiche (f.)


. Wfpttm


— ssd


G. saat (f.)


BeetU


— sceorp


G. Qcharpe (f.)


tCiUlf,


— big-spel


G. bei-spiel (m.)


€XQVHpl€m


— toll


O, |M>11 (m.)


ioU.


Masc. uses


G. nase (f.)


npse, NMf.


— s41


G. seU (n.)


cord*


— tear


G. zahre (f.)


tear.


— an-(ge-)weald


G. ge-walt (f.)


power.


Fern, bleed


G. blatt (n.)


fruit, Ucf.


- nyt


G. nutz (m.)


tMtf,


L. has clivus masc. and clivnm nent. ; nasus Is mase.




Page 9.— Swefen dream is fem. IL 3., and neut. Ill,


.1.


Sc|e6 shoe (O. schnh masc)


is masc. II. 2. (plur. •ce6t), or fem. 1. 3.


(plur. sce6n 0. shoon), or ril. 3. (plur. (ge-)8C^.)





Page 10.— -But few certain rules can be given fbr the genders, espe-
daily from the terminations, of which several, as -e, -u, -el, -en, -er,
contain nouns of all three. To some of the rules given above the fol-
lowing are exceptions and there may be more : setl seat, and wered
host are masc; -o% and -u% are interchangeable, and when from an
adjective, fem, j as, ge6go8(-ui5) youihy from geong: -< after a con-
sonant is fem. chiefly when from an adjective, as, ttreng^ from
Strang; otherwise sometimes neut. as, moriS fnttrdSer« ormascas
moniS (m on a IS) month.

Compounds in -16c are neut., in -r^den feminine.

Nouns of the 1st declension are called Simple from the simplicity of
their inflection, having but four endings for the eight cases of the two
numbers, and also from the close likeness of the three genders ; the 3nd
and 3rd declensions are termed Complex, as having in general more



d by Google



•ADDITIONAL NQTES. 183

«ase-dndings, and wider distfnctions of gender. The former kind answer
to the Gr. nonns making thehr dative plural in -^i, and the L. in -bas,
the latter to the Or. which form it in -occ or -ate, i^nd the L. In -is. The
terms Weak and Strong for Simple and Complex have greater seeming
propriety when applied to other Gothic tongues, Gr. and L. for instance,
than to A. S., since in the former case they in general need the help of
another syllable to form their inflection, while A. S. needs only -n, and
in the latter they ha?e oftener the power of forming their cases withont
an additional syllable, than the A. S« has. Gr. and L. synonyms
sometimes correspond with the A. S. in declension as well as in mean-
ing and etymon ; thns, simple: oic, aur-is, e&r-e; d-vofi-a, nom-eo,
n a m-a ; hom-o, g n m-a -, complex : Ipyov, w e o r c ; irvpy-o^y b n r h ;
via, w e g ^ vir, w er. Some nonns have both forms without a change of
meaning; as,heofon, heofone keaven^ tnann, manna man, pe6w,
|ye6wa slave; some with; as» mii% month (animate), mtitSa mouth
(inanimate), see list III. above; lufa and lufe are sometimes used
indifl^rently, but usually the former stands for Zdv)?, affection (amor),
the latter for lovef sake (gratia); Godes lufu loveo/God; for sumes
g6des lufan for the sake of some good.



Page II.^The neuter is placed first in the decleosion of nonns, at^ec*
tives, and prcmoons, as the simplest and purest form of the word, the
masculine next as agreeing with it usually in three or four cases out of
the five, and the feminine last as generally unlike both. The accusative
stands next after the nominative as agreeing with it always in the neut.,
and sometimes in the masc.> while in the fern, it is derived from it; the
ablative next as in some words derived from the accus. ; and the genitive
after the dative as sometimes derived from it, and last of all, as being in
neuters and masculines in general most chansced from the nominative.
This applies more or less to 6r., L., G. &c. : in A. S. it is more apparent
in complex than in simple nouns, more still in the indefinite infiection
of adjectives, and most of all in demonstrative pronouns. As regards the
genders, tw&, hi, and )>reo are noticeable exceptions.



Page 13. — ^The plural ending -an (G. -en) became in time -en which
-in ox-en (oX'tLU) is yet rightly used; Jios-en (h6s-a), and P, hnus-en
'(hiis), and furz-en (fyrs-as) are wrong. To brethr-en (br6^r-u),



d by Google



184 AKGLO-SAXON GUIDE.

and chUdr''en (cildr^a) too it hat beeo wrongly ' added ; Q. mm
child-er still in P. use : see p. 18, n. 3. Chick-en (6. kucb*en} whencte
chick is shortened, is no more a plural than maiid-^n or tna^^n; Mm
p. 66.

Proper names in -a whether A. S. or fbreign are thns declined ; as
GotaCro^^ Be da, Anna: Eurofa follows the L. making accus.
£ u r o p a m ; dat. and gen. Europe (the medieval form of Europse) ;
D n u a Dantibe (G. Donau ; well called by Milton J>onaw)f and
sometimes S i c i I i a and the like are not declined. Thene are no A. S^
fem. names in >a ; all nouns in -a being masc, those now so written
end either in a consonant or in-u, (11. S, or Ill.a.); 9fi, M Rt(-hild,
£ 4 d-g i f u, since latinised to Mathilda, Edgioa, Other £weign names
sometimes take the L. cases except the yocattyev «S> He ge-<sedb
Simon em he taw Simon. Fram Decapoli from DeeapoliSf
lacobus Zebedei James (son) of Zehedte* Laiarus g4 At{
Lazarus come forth ! Masculines ending in a consonant often follow II.
2, as, Salomon, Salomones, Salomoncj Petrus« Petr^
and the like. . ...•...•• ^

The now anomalous genitives in -ens of some G. simple i^ouns, at
herz-ens, nam-ens, will- ens, lieb-en8(-wiirdig), are derived from the
Goth, gen., hairt-ins, nam-ins (L. nom-inis) wilj-ins&c. A. S. heart-
an, nam-an, will-an, luf-an. Glaub-ens is the only gen. of thia
kind which had a nom. in -en, glauben, (complex) Goth, ga-liubeins^
A. S. (simple) ge-ledfa. Herz-e (Goth, hahrto, A. 8. heorte)i»
still in P. and poetical use: other G. simple nouns, as hen (A S.
hearra) have lost the final vowel. Feminines have in general losit
the oblique -n in the singular, except in some phrases, M auf erdeu
(on earth), vor freuden (for joy) &c. Many feminines and a few
masculines properly complex now form the plural in -n, and in general
the two orders have come to be much mixed.



Page 15.— Nouns in -e (II. 2.) sometimes keep the e in the plural ;
as,end-eas, end-enm &c.

Fre6nd and fe6nd being originally participials, derived, the
former from fre6gan (G. freien) to court, honour^ the latter from
a lo8t verb akin to fah hostile (whence foe), properly made the nom.
and accus. sing, and plur. alike, but in time came to be inflected as II. ^•



d by Google



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 1^5

• It is only in monosyllables before one consonant that qb is changed to
a; otherwise not; as, wcestm, pi. wsestmas (fruit) SBcer, pi.
eeceras, SBcras: thus too in adjectives; smsel, )>8Bt smale^
smalor, bat feest, \>edt fceste, fsestor and the like.

Fold and ford originally belonged to III. 2; feld-n, ford-u
like sun-a



Page 17.-»H and belongs to a lost class of complex feminines in -a '
band-iu



Page 80.— WsBdla poor hitherto called an adjective having the
definite inflection only, seems rather a noun (I. 2.) a beggar; wsed 1-
ian to beg f |>earfa poor is commonly if not always used as a
nuun — a poor man * w a n a wanting seems indeclinable.



; Page 24.— The comparative and superlative endings -or, -ost
(-0 St e), and -e r, -e s t (-e s t e) are sometimes used indifferently, but
it would seem that the former oftener follow a, o, and u, the latter e,
i, or y . see addit. note on p. 42



Page 25.— Several of these adjectives form adverbs regularly in -e and
•lice (p* 70.) as lang-e, lang-lice, strang-e,. strang-Hce,
hrsBd-Uce, hedg-e, hed-lice, ediS-e, e4^e-Hce, sceort-lice,
s6ft-ey yfel-e» lytl-e.



Page 26. — Letter for less is as wrong as least^est for least would be,
or as wors-er for %Dorte is. Lest is (}p ^-)I ae s(-^ e), t being added as in
againS'X &c. The ending -m e s t lias no connexion with m ^ s t most,
though it also has become -tnost : our upper-most, aftsT'most &c.
have arisen from the wrung notion that most was added to the compa-
rative.



Page 27. — Ye is therefore the true nom„ you the accus. &c. " If
any man say ought to you, ye shall say."



Pag^ 29.— ilftm? and fkine are therefore the older forms, from which
my and thy are shoi tened ; tlie former were long retained before vowels.

B 2



d by Google



186 ANGLO-SAXON Gl IDE.

Page 30.— piBsere and f^issera are older forms than ^itfte
and l^itsa.



Page 32. — The d- in d-w i b t &c. mu8t not be confounded with the
common prefix a- for on-, an- (p. 73) ; 4 is ever, aye, ^€t, Goth, diw-, G.
jp, whence aiutv, Goth. &iws, L. eeTum, aye, eternity. A'- or 6g« (p. 66)
gives a genera? sense lilce G. je, in je-mand some one ; d-h w sb r tome^^
any-, every-where, ^-hweenne iome time, any time, P. tome-when,
any-when: with the negative it becomes nd never, no; nd-h wider
no -whither: n6-wiht is more regular than ndn-wiht. A'w^er
and d^er (if true readings) are contractions of d-hwsetSer, and as
^g^er, £g-hw8BiSer: ndwter is nd*hw8B%er as L. ne-nter;
hence rightly comes O. and P. nother * neither has arisen from either.



Page 83. — Our one and a are both descended from 6 n ; in an before
a vowel the n has been restored ; most Inngoages use the same word in
both senses : in A. S. sum is commoner for the article than dn.



Page 37. — Verbs of the first conjugation are called Simple from the
simplicity of their inflection, and its likeness in the three classes, or
Week as needing the help of another syllable to form their imperfect;
those of the second and third are termed Complex from the various
changes of vowel &c. they undergo, and the greater diversity of their
classes, or Strong, as having in themselves the power of forming their
imperfect* The analogy of the A. 8. simple with the Gr. contracted
verbs, and the L. 1st, 2nd, and 4th conjugations, and of the A. 8. com-
plex with the Gr. regulars, and L. Srd conj. is worthy of attention.
Some of the Gr. and L. synonyms agree in conjugation, as well as in
meaning and etymology with the A. 8.; as, simple: ceall-ian.
Kok-ttiv, caKare to call; tem-ian, ^a/i-accv, dom-are to tame;
lix-an, L. luc-ere to thine: complex; graf-an, ypa^^ttv; to(en'')
grave, write; brec-an, piyy-ctv. frang-ere. fo &reaJI ; ter-an, riip-iiv,
ter-ere to tear ice*; fl6w-an, flu-ere to flow ; drag-an. trah-eie
to draw, drag. Simple verbs are now in £. and G. usually called regu-
lar, complex irregular ; in both many complex verbs have in course of
time become simple, and this change is still going on. Tlius bake, sleep,
leap, sweep, weep, fare, wield, fold, step, starve, creep, reek, lye



d by Google



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 187

ureakf dive, ahovet row, flow, swalloWf brook Sec from A. S. complex
forms baye become simple : others are in a fair way to do 80> retaining
only a complex imperf. or part, past, some of wbicb are either gone or
going out of use ; as; hiing, hove, stood, shove, clomb, glode, bet, shod ;
waxen, hewn, laden, graven, shapen, xoashen, strevm, holpen, hurstenf
foughten, swollen &c.

G. walten {to rule), wallen (to boil), sahen (to sow), krahen (to
crow), kauen (to cheto), wachen (to watch), wathen (to wade), reuen
(to rue), lachen (to laugh), as also most of the £. synonyms, have
become simple ; others, as backen (to bake), hauen (to hew), sieden
(to seethe) &c. are in the transition state. A few E. verbs from A^ S.
I. 2., and I. 3. have assumed imperfects (bat not participles past)
of a. seeming complex form; as, meet, met; lead, led; send, sent;
build, built; from m6tan, lifedan, sendan, byldan. A very
few A. S. verbs have both forms without change of meaning; as,
bringan; bringe, br6hte, broht, or bringe, brang,
b r u n g e u ; the latter however is rare.



Page 38.— Attention should be paid to the quantity of the complex
or strong imperfects, both as compared with that of the present, Und as
to whether it is long throughout, or short throughout, or short in the
first and third persons singular, and long in the 2nd, and the whole
plural, or long in the first and third pers., and 8hoi*t in the rest. Thus
II. 2. from presents some short, some long, and II. 3. from presents all
short, make it long throughout, except some doubtful in the former;
a9, healde; he6ld, he61de &c. drage; dr6b &c.- III. I.
bus the present short, and the imperf. short throughout with a change
uf vowel; biude; baud, bunde; band, bundon. II. 1. short
in the pres. has the imperf. short and long; brece; brsec,
brilbce, brsec, br^l^con; except the ffwinea; as, geaf, geafe
&c., together with com, come &c., and nam, name &c. which
are sh'^rt throughout. III. 2. and III. 3. with long pres. have the im-
perf. long and short with a change of vowel ; drffe; drdf, drife,
drdf, drifon ; clufe; cleaf, clufe, cledf, clufon. Com-
plex participles past are all short but some of II 2.



Page 41. — Verbs in *i g a n (for -i a n) are ot\en conjugpatedl regularly



d by Google



18ft ANGLO-SAXON GUIDE.

like I. 2. ; as, fyllgan to folhto, imper. fyligde, imper. fyligr.
but part past fyligd: see p. 42.



Page 42. — ^There seem to have been originally two distinct classes of
?erb« in -ian, both now included in 1. 1.^ the one forming its iinperl.
and part, past in -6de, -6d, the other in -ede, -ed; the former
answering closely to the Or. contracted verbs, and the L. in -avi. -atuF,
eviy et-us, and -Tvi, Tt-us, the latter to the L. in -ui, it-us &c. In time
*6 d e^ 6 d were shortened, and then came to be confounded with -e d e,
«>e d, many yerbs being found wiih both forms ; -ode, -o d however
seems to occur oftenest when the root-vowel Is a, o, or u, -p d e, e d
when it is e, i, or y ; see addit. note on p. 25 : -a de» -ad is a modifi-
cation of -ode, -od. The -de, -ed (-d) of 1. 2. 3. is contracteil
from -ed e, -ed, 1. 1.; when the d is thus brought next a hard coiiso*
nant it becomes t.

The characteristic c is not changed if 1, n, or s stand before it ; as,
e 1 c e (delay) imperf. elcte; drence (drench) drencte; wisce
(trish) w i s c t p ; unless flie n be dropt, as in [» i n c e, I? ti h t e, and
the like: it else commonly (in simple verbs) becomes b, as in Kb ce,
p. 42. &tc.

Page 43 — ^The original form of the 2nd and drd persons sing, of I. 2,
3. II. and III. was Ii;^ rest, h^re%. tellest, telleiS, breeesi,
brece^, healdest, healde^, dragest, drage^y bindest,
bindeiS, drffest, drifeS, cidfest, cldfeiS and the like, which
oJten occur, especially in poetry : the shortened and modiftfd forms
h^rst, h^riS, telst, bricst &c. given in the grammar are mure
modem, and commonest in prose.



Page 44. — All verbs seem at first to have formed their 1st pers. pre5^
in -o or -u ; comp. -ia and L. 'O : haf-o sa L. hab-eo.



Pa^e 50.-^Most of the verbs in II. 2., and some in II. 3. are derived
fVom the Goth, reduplicative verbs, which repeat the long sellable ; the
,A. S. has kept only what may be called the literal augment, and that
in but a few verbs ; ms, h6ht, leolc, reord, from hdtan, lacan
(to play, deceive)) r ^ d a n (O. reden to discourse)^ where the Gutii,



d by Google



ADDITIONAL NOTES. IBf)

haa h&i-b4it, ]di*ldik, rdi-r6d from hditan &c. Some only altt r
the ?ewel. Maceape. 8ee6p, where the Ooth. haa aiki-skdp.



. Page 64.— Verbs In -dn form their part. pres. in -dnde; aledn,
alednde.



Page 58. — ^WrliSan is an exception to the general rule that com-
plex verbs change iS into d in the 2nd pers. sing., and in the plaral
of the imperf., and in the past part. : see cweiSan p. 60, weortSan
p. 57, and s e 6 tS a n p. 60, wtiich are all regular.



Page 63. — Complex participles past sometimes agree like atyectives
with a noun, sometimes do not; as, pa Jying ^e him ge-sende
w^ron the things that were sent him. Se6 69r^ naman wseTs
Tate hdten who by another name was hight Tate,

The part, past in the pluperfect is sometimes governed in the accds.
* by the auxiliary h 86 b b a n , as, pd big hsefdon hyra lof-sang
ge-snngenne when they had sung their song of praise.



Page 63. — Un- sometimes, as in O., is not merely negative, but
implies badness ; uti-)7edw bad habits on-wed er (O. un-ge-witter)
storm, bad weather.

The prefix to- must be carefully distinguished fVom the preposition
t6 in composition; as, to-gdn to go asunder, separate, t6-gdn lo
go to; G. zer-gehen, zu-gehen : to- implies ^vision, dispersion iff
parts, and hence often destruction*



Page 64. — For- gives in general a negative or bad sense. or is intent
aive, much like Kara- ; d 6 m a n to judge, f o r-d d m a n to condemn,
Kpivsiv, Kara'KpivtiVf G. ur>theilen, ver-urtheilen ; bernan to
bum, for-bernan to bum up, consume, xautv, Kara-Kauiv, O.
brennen, ver-brennen; d6n to do, make, for-d6n to un-do, ruin,
destroy ; scyppan to form, f o r-s c y p p a n to transform, de-form ;
f o r-f e 1 a very many. This prefix must not be confounded with the
prepositions f o r and f o r e ; (probably of the same origin, s=t L. pro) ;
thus for^se6n is to over-look, despise, G. ver-seben; for-seun,
f r e-s e6 n to forc'see, G. vur-sehen ; f o r-g d n ^o for-go, do without.



d by Google



190 ANGLO-SAXON GUTD^.

perUk, G. ?er-gehen, L.p€jp-ire; fore-gdn to fore-'go, go hrfbre,G.
vur-gehen, L. preB-ire. It is as wrong' to write fore-fso for forego, as
/ore-give for/or-give.

And- answers closely to dvri', denoting opposition, reciprocity See, ;
and-saca denier; and-wyrdan, and-swarian, ivr-iptiv to an'
swer ; and-wlltan, Avri pXenav, to gaze at, look in the face.

Tlie prefix ge* is in A. S. nsed oftener and more indiscriminately
than in any kindred langaage old or new* Though originally convey-
ing no notion of past time, it seems gradually to have acquired it,
and to have becope a kind of syllabic augment to imperfects, but
especially to participles past, as in Dutch and German. In the forma-
tion of English it was by degrees dropt before ail but participles psst,
where it first became i- or y-, and has since been lost altogether, sur-
viving only as a- in some P. words. In G. and D. it is still in use before
nouns, adjectives &c., but in general with a distinct effect on tlielr
meaning, referible to its original collective force. A. S. g e- sotnetitnos
denotes the rendt of doing a thing; as, Ge-sl6h J^ii: f aider
f^hiSa milBSte thy father by striking avenged the greatest of feuds.
His feorh ge-faran o^tSe ge-irnan to save his life by going
cr running (to a sanctuary).



Page 65.-T-The prefix or- (left out in the right place) denotes want
of a thing | as, o r- m se t e im-menset measure-less, o r-t r ii w 1 a n to
despair, or-sorh care^less, se^cvre : it must not be confounded with
or- in or-eald very old, (G. ur*alt), from or, ord beginning, point,
connected with L. or-ior, or-igo &c.

The ending -e 1, -ol, answers sometimes to L. -ul-um; gyrd-el, L.
cing-ulnm, girdle.

The primary meaning of -i n g is young, and hence it forms patrrv
nymics, and terms of contempt &c. : -ling has been supposed to be
derived from -i n g.

Page 66. — Other feminines in -en are menn-en from man. O.
mann, roannin ; g y d-e n from god, G. gott, gott-in, D. god, god'in :
in -e ; f y 1-e, filly, from f o 1-a foal ; w a 1-e from w e a 1 h or w a 1-a,
Celt, stranger; webb-e (orwebb-estre webster), from webb-a
weaver*



d by Google



ADDITIOiJAL NOTES. 191


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 13 14 15

Online LibraryEdward Johnston VernonA guide to the Anglo-Saxon tongue : a grammar after Erasmus Rask ; extracts in prose and verse with notes, etc. for the use of learners and an appendix → online text (page 11 of 15)