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SCRIBNEKS



MAGAZINE



PUBLISHED MONTHLY

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS



VOLUME VII JANUARY - JUNE




CHARLES SCRBNER3 SONS NEW YORK*
•F-WARNE-oCS LONDON*



Copyright, 1890, by Chaeles Sckibner's Sons.



'$./^, 9^.fs~^



PRINTINQ AND BOOKBINOINQ COMPANY)



CONTENTS



SCRIBNER'S MAGAZINE



Volume VII.



January- Juke, 1890.



AFRICA. See Life among the Congo Savages ; Tripoli of
Barbanj ; The Emin Pasha Belief Expedition; see also
in former volumes, Slavery in Africa, Vol. V., 660;
How I Crossed Masai-Land, Vol. VI., 387; Where
Emin is, Vol. VI., 515.

AMATEUR TRACK AND FIELD ATHLETICS, . Charles P. Sawyer, ... 775

ARCH^OLOGICAL DISCOVERY IN IDAHO, AN, . G. Frederick Wright, ... 235

With drawings from the object.

ART OF DINING OUT, THE, 658

" AS HAGGARDS OF THE ROCK," .... Mart Tappan Wright, . . . 556

AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS, THE, 659

BARBIZON AND JEAN-FRANQOIS MILLET— L, IL, T. H. Bartlett, . . .531, 735
With frontispiece— "Portrait of Jean- Francois Millet "
drawn by Carroll Beckwith, and with illustrations by
Will H. Low, Theodore Robinson, Harry Fenn, J. D.
Woodward, and J. Carroll Beckwith.

BARYE EXHIBITION, THE, 129

BROWNING, 261

BEAUTY OF SPANISH WOMEN, THE, . . . Henrt T. Finck, .... 67
Illustrations from photographs, and from drawings by
V. Perard.

BLACKPELLOW AND HIS BOOMERANG, THE, , Horace Baker, . . . .374

Illustrated.

CITY HOUSE, THE— [The East and South], . , Russell Sturgis, .... 698
Drawings by O. H. Bacher, W. C. Fitler, Hughson
Hawley, and J. D. Woodward.

COLLEGE MEN IN THE WORLD, .263

CONGO. See Life among the Congo Savages.

CO-OPERATIVE HOME WINNING— Some Practical

Results of Building and Loan Associations, . W. A. Linn, 569

With illustrations of houses built by Building and Loan

Associations, drawn by Carroll Beckwith, O. H.

Bacher, Harry Fenn, and A. Schilling. See Building

and Loan Associations, Vol. V., 700. *■



iv CONTENTS.

PAQK

"CORINNE," ■ . Eugene Schuyleb, . . . 644

DEEDLESS DRAMA, A, George A. Hibbard, . . . 878

EDUCATION OP SPINSTERS, 395

ELECTRIC RAILWAY OP TO-DAY, THE, . . , Joseph Wetzlbb, .... 425
Illustrations by J. D. Woodward, V. Perard, M. J.
Bums, and A. P. Leicht. — For other articles on Elec-
tricity see Electricity in the Service of 'Man, Vol. V.,
643; 'Telegraph of To-day, Vol. VL, 3; Electricity
in Lighting, VoL VI., 17b ; Electricity in War (In
Naval Warfare), Vol. VL, 415 (In Land Warfare),
424 • Electricity in Relation to the Human Body, Vol.
VI., 589.

ELECTRICITY IN THE HOUSEHOLD, . A. E. IfsNUELLT, .... 102

Illustrations from drawings by Chester Loomis, Frank Chief Electrician, Edison Laboratory.
Fowler, M. J. Bums, and W. C. Fitler.

EMIN PASHA RELIEF EXPEDITION, THE, . . Henry M. Stanley, ... 662
With frontispiece — " Henry M. Stanley " from a photo-
graph taken in Cairo, Egypt, in March, 1890, and with
Slustrations from photographs and sketches made by
the expedition, and drawn by J. D. Woodward. Frank .

Fowler, E. W. Deming, W. L. Metcalfe, E. Riou, G.
Montbard, A. Forestier, Dodge and Bridgman, and
Miss Langdon.

ERICSSON, JOHN, THE ENGINEER-Jdly 31, 1803-

March 8, 1889— L-n., William Conant Chubch, . 169,386

With illustrations by J. Reich, V. Perard, M J. Bums,
J. D. Woodward, and A. P. Leicht.

EXPIATION Octave Thanbt, . 55, 239, 283, 443

Illustrations from drawings by A. B. Frost.

FRENCH AS ARTISTS, THE, 131

FIRST LOVES, 262

FORGOTTEN REMNANT, A, Kirk Munbob, .... 303

Illustrations by Kenyon Cox, J. D. Woodward, and V.
Perard, and from photographs by T. A. Hine and R.
Muuroe.

GENIUS AND ETHICS 792

HIDDEN SELF, THE, William Jambs, .... 361

HOUSEHOLDER, THE. See Rights of the Citizen.

HUNGARIAN CASTLES. See Through Three Civilizations.

HYPNOTISM. See Hidden Self.

IDAHO. See Archceological Discovery.

IN THE VALLEY— XV. -XXXIV. (^Begun in September,

1889— to be concluded in July, 1890.) .... Harold Pbbdbbic,
• Illustrations by Howard Pyle. 73, 221, 318, 497, 587. 757

ITALIAN OPERA. See Wagtierianism.

JAPAN. See Theatres of.

JAVAN HACKETT'S ILL-MENDED FORTUNES, . E. C. Martin 456

JERRY— Part First, Chapters I. -VI. (2b be continued

through the year.) 715

LAMB, CHARLES, IN THE FOOTPRINTS OP,— L-H. Benjamin Ellis Mabtin, . 267, 471
With frontispiece— "Charles Lamb" from an engraving
by W. G. Jackman. and with illustrations by Herbert
Railton and John Fulleylove.

LIFE AMONG THE CONGO SAVAGES, . . Herbert Ward, .... 186

With illustrations from drawings and photographs by
the author, and by V. Perard and J. Reich.

LITERARY MADRID, A DAY IN, .... WiLLiAM Hbnby Bishop, . . 187

With three portraits.



CONTENTS, y

PAGIS

LOST PLANT, THE,— A Consulab Experience, . . John Piebson, . . . .115

MARiA 657

MEN'S WOMEN, 262

MILLET, JBAN-FRANgOIS. See Barbizon.

MINNESOTA HEIR OP A SERBIAN KING, THE,— A

Consular Experience, Eugene Schuyler, . . .255

NAPOLEON IN 1804, GLIMPSES OF, ... . Clarence Deming, ... 620

NEW METHUSELAH, THE, Sarah Orne Jewett, . . .514

NEW YORK AS A CAPITAL, 396

ORIGIN OP ANTIPATHIES, TOO

PALMYRA. See Tadmor in the Wilderness.

PARADOX OP HUMOR, THE 527

PARIS EXPOSITION, THE,— Notes and Impbbssions. W. C. Brownell, .... 18

PERILS OP PURE FUN 893

PERNILLA— A Story of Swede Creek Karl Erickson, .... 632

POINT OP VIEW, THE.

Art of Dining Out, Tiie, 658. New York as a Capital, 396.

Author and His Works, The, 659. Origin of Antipathies, 790.

Barye Exhibition, The, 129. Paradox of Humor, The, 527.

Browning, 261. Perils of Pure Pun, The, 39a

College Men in the World, 263. Social Life in Print, 131.

Education of Spinsters, 395. Spring Philosophy, 526.

First Loves, 262. Style, 535.

French as Artists, The, 131. Thackeray's Life, 130.

Genius and Ethics, 792. Toiler and the World, The, 394.

Maria, 657. Travel Habit, The, 789.

Men's Women, 262. Treatment for a Defective Sense, 791.

RIGHTS OF THE CITIZEN, THE.

I. As A Householder, Frederick W. Whitridgb, . . 417

IL As A User of the Public Streets, . . . Francis Lynde Stetson, . . 6:^

III. As A User of Public Conveyances, . . President Seth Low, . . . 771

SEMINOLES. See Forgotten Remnant.

SOCIAL LIFE IN PRINT, 131

SPANISH NOVELISTS. See Literary Madrid.

SPANISH WOMEN. See Beauty of.

SPRING PHILOSOPHY, 526

STANLEY, HENRY M. ^e Emin Pasha Relief Expedition.

STYLE, 525

TADMOR IN THE WILDERNESS, .... Frederick Jones Bliss, . . 400

Illustrations by J. D. Woodward and Harry Perm, and
from photographs.

THACKERAY'S LIFE, 130

THEATRES OF JAPAN, THE T. J. Nakagawa 603

Illustrations by Tankei and Kiyokichi, and from Nen-
dai-ld and the Gaku-ya ZukaL

THROUGH THE GATE OP DREAMS T. R. Sullivan, . . . .157



THROUGH THREE CIVILIZATIONS W. H. Mallock, .... 204

With frontispiece — " In a Hungarian Village," and with
illustrations from photographs by the author, drawn
by J. D. Woodward, Harry Fenn, V. Perard, and W.
C. Fitter.



CONTENTS.



TODDVILLE RAFFLE, THE Edgar Mathew Bacon, . 133

TOILER AND THE WORLD, THE, , 394

TRAVEL HABIT, THE, 789

TREATMENT FOR A DEFECTIVE SENSE, 791

TRIPOLI OP BARBARY— (African Studies. L) . A. F. Jacasst, . . . . 37

Illustrations from drawings by Mr. Jacassy.

WAGNERIANISM AND THE ITALIAN OPERA. . William F. Apthobp. ... 487

WATER-STORAGE IN THE WEST Walter Gillette Bates. . . 3

With frontispiece — " Dam across the Bear Valley, San
Bemadino County, Cal.," and with illustrations from
photographs, and from drawings by Harry Fenn, J.
D. Woodward, and V. Perard.



POETRY.



ATONEMENT,

BACKLOG DREAMS

BALLAD OF TONIO MANZI. THE.
BALLAD OF THE WILLOW POOL.

BIRDS AND THE TELEGRAPH WIRES, THE,

Illustration from a drawing by Mr. Cranch.

DATED " FEBRUARY THE 14TH,"
DAWN AND DUSK AT KARNAK,

DEAD CITIES,

DISTICHS

HAUNTED ROOM, A,



Edith M. Thomas,
Frank Dempster Sherman.
Graham R. Tomson,
Graham R. Tomson,
C. P. Cranch. .

Edward S. Martin,
Charles Henry Luders,
A. Lampman, .
John Hat,
John Hay,



36

568

53

201

218



455

624



255



HORACE, BOOK L, ODE IV.— To Sestics, .
(Archdeacon Wrangham's Translation, 1821.)
With frontispiece — '* Now Chaplets Bind," by J. R.
Weguelin.

INSCIENS,

MAGIC HOUSE, THE

MEETING, A

MOON-PATH, THE,

OLD-FASHIONED LOVE-SONG, AN, . . . .

ROSAMOND,

THE VANISHED YEAR,



W. G. VAN Tassel Sutphen, .


. 317


Duncan Campbell Scott, .


. 713


Charles Edwin Markham, .


. 513


Archibald Lampman, .


. 219


H. C. Bunner,


. 17


Barrett Wendell,


. 783


John Vance Chenbt, .


. 803




THE BEAR VALLEY, SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. CAL.



SCRIBNER'S MAGAZINE.



Vol. Vn.



JANUARY, 1890.



No. 1.






tly Finished-



Allowed to be Partially Filled. Walnut Grove, Ariz.



WATER-STORAGE IN THE WEST.

By Walter Gillette Bates.



FOR various purposes, scientific and
historical, we find writers treating
of the United States under the three
great divisions of the Eastern Highlands,
the Central Plain, and the Western Pla-
teau. This rough natural division is also
useful from an agricultural stand-point.
These three sections show certain gen-
eral differences in climate, in the lay of
the land, in the fertility of the soil, in
the presence or absence of forests, and in
the water-supply, which, in turn, lead to
a marked diversity in crops, in the size
of farms, and in the methods of working
them.

Take, for instance, the problem of the
water-supply, which is probablj', little as



Eastern farmers realize it, the most im-
portant factor in agriculture. Along
the Atlantic coast there is an abun-
dance, in some places an over - abun-
dance, of rain. Heavy snows fall in
winter, and are retained by the forests
covering the hills. The streams do not
run dry in summer, and a drought of a
month is a rare occurrence.

In the Mississippi Plain the rainfall
is in most places lighter. The smaller
streams at times dry up in summer, and
a drought of over a month is not un-
common. Still, the lack of rain has
never yet caused a failure of crops over
any extended area.

As we approach the one-hundredth



Copyright, 1889, by Charles Scribner's Sons. All rights reserved.



IVATER-STORAGE IN THE [VEST.




View of Lake Basin, Walnut Grove, Ariz., Before Building of Dam.



meridian, however, we discover a new
phase of the water-supply. The one-
hundredth meridian cuts into two parts
Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Indian Ter-
ritory, and Texas. Somewhere in the
western half of these States there runs
an irregular, shifting line, across which
the unaided natural rainfall is not suf-
ficient to raise a crop every year. To
the west of this line lie about one mill-
ion two hundred thousand square miles
of land, over two-fifths of the entire
United States. Of course, this vast ter-
ritory is not all arid. One block of
magnificent land, including northern
California, western Oregon and Wash-
ington, has an ample rainfall. And
scattered everywhere, on rich bottom-
lands close to rivers, on high mesas
partly covered with forests, or in narrow
mountain-valleys, lie many farms which
depend for water on the rainfall and
the natural humidity of the soil.

Nevertheless this great territory is
properly called the arid region of the
United States. The annual rainfall is not
only small, ranging from about twenty
inches in the north to a little over two



inches in southwestern Arizona, but is
exceedingly variable. Signal-service re-
ports that show a rainfall of forty inches
in one year will show perhaps not more
than ten inches the following year.
The greater part of the rain falls at one
time, in the winter, when it cannot be
used. A large portion of the country is
overdrained. The streams do not flow
on the surface of the ground, but have
cut their way deep into the bed-rock —
in the case of some of the larger rivers,
like the Colorado, thousands of feet.
The country is completely overlaid with
a net-work of these artificial drains.
Whenever a heavy rain happens to faU
in summer the water at once rushes off
the thin soil into these washes or canons,
which for a few hours or days are raging
torrents, but before a week is past are
entirely dry. The water that has fallen,
perhaps several inches, has disappeared
without doing the slightest good to the
soil. In the Southwest, where the
streams flow through sandy rather than
rocky beds, many of them reverse the
natural conditions, being largest at their
source and gradually dwindling to noth-



U^ATER-STORAGE IN THE WEST.




Walnut Grove after Partial Filling of the Artificial Lake



ing as they sink beneath the sand. In
short, the rainfall of the arid region is
not only small and variable but it comes
at unseasonable times and drains away
almost as soon as it falls.

Until very recently the people of the
United States have not been much in-
terested in this section, from an agri-
cultural stand-point. Up to this time
there has been an abundance of good
land unoccupied in the Mississippi Val-
ley. The far West has been the land of
mines and ranches — a desert terrible in
its vastness and barrenness. But near-
ly all the good farming-land of the Cen-
tral Plain has now been taken up. The
Dakotas, which have been recei\'ing and
absorbing the mass of immigrants since
the lands of Nebraska, Kansas, and Min-
nesota have been appropriated, are now
well -settled States. When Oklahoma
was recently opened, twice as many set-
tlers stood ready as there was land for
them to occupy. Still the great stream
of European immigration rolls in upon
us. The Eastern States still send their
young men west. Where are all these
new farmers to find the farms to work?
In their search for them they are making



their way into every part of the Western
Plateau. They are at last, by necessity,
forced to turn to the arid region, hith-
erto unthought of as a field for agricul-
ture.

As these pioneers press on into this
unknown land, they find the common
picture of it misleading. They find that,
if the country be a desert, it is so only
from lack of water and not from the
sterility of the soil. Wherever water is
found in sufficient quantity, they see
crops in nowise inferior to the best
grown in the Eastern or Central States.
In the Southwest they find many produc-
tions which cannot be grown anywhere
else in the country. Most important of
all, they find that the rainfall, though
small, is almost everywhere sufficient for
farming, if it did not mass itself in un-
favorable times of the year and disap-
pear so rapidly.

The problem is so to regulate, increase,
or store this small water-supply as to
make fruitful this rich but idle soil. It
is a problem full of interest to every
farmer in the great West, but, on a larger
scale, a problem of the utmost moment
to the whole United States, if not to the



6



[VATER-STORAGE IN THE WEST.



world. All land in the East is either in
the hands of private owners or covered
with forests on mountain-sides which
are almost untillable. Nearly all the
land of the Central Plain that can be



ing this has yet been suggested. In prac-
tice, the search is first of all for a subter-
ranean supply of water. Wells are sunk,
and if, by any peculiar formation of the
soil, water is found near the sui'face,




Consiruction OT tne Walnut Grove Dam.



cultivated by the natural water-supply
is already appropriated, and every acre
will be taken up -within a decade. In
the West lies this immense territory —
two-fifths of the whole — the greater part
of whose soil is capable of rich return
but which now lies unproductive. Can
this land, in any way, be covered with
farms, and these millions of acres made
productive? What a problem is this,
both for the present and, still more, for
the future of our country and the over-
crowded world. It is the problem of
the reclamation of an empire.

The people of the West, in their rest-
less, American way, are attacking this
problem from every side. The simjDlest
theoretical solution would be to increase
the rainfall or to shift it from the win-
ter to the spring and summer months,
but no practical method of accomplish-



windmiUs are used to irrigate small
farms. Artesian water is sought for
persistently everywhere, in some places
with great success, in many more with
blank failure. Private companies are
boring holes in every level, unwatered
mesa. Territorial legislatures offer re-
wards for the first artesian well flowing
so many gallons an hour. Again, a
trial-well may be driven in the bed of a
dry wash and disclose a stream of water
flowing below. If so, a tight dam sunk
to bed-rock brings this to the surface,
to be drawn away in the irrigating ditch.
A deep, narrow trench dug directly
across a narrow valley will often fill with
a good-sized stream.

Water " developed " from any of these
subterranean sources is applied to the
soil by the well-known method of irriga-
tion. But these methods are unimpor-



WATER-STORAGE IN THE WEST. 7

tant compared with irrigation from such Hving streams as exist. These living
streams are either small creeks, high in mountain-valleys, or the larger rivers
which do not run dry at any time of the year. The corresponding system of ir-




Flume across the Santa Ana River, Riverside Water Company, Cal.

rigation is either on a small or a large scale. The settler in the mountain-valley
throws a rude dam of sand or brush across the little creek that flows through his
land, digs a ditch a few feet wide along the hill-side as far as his farm runs,
turns the water out of it across his land as he needs it, and, as long as the stream
flows, raises his crops independent of the cloudless sky. The dam very likely
washes out every year and the ditch must be redug each spring, but this work
is slight compared with the certainty of a good crop.

But this is not the system of irrigation whose fame by much advertisement
is spread everywhere. This is irrigation on the characteristically large scale of



8



WATER-STORAGE IN THE [VEST.



the West. Its genesis is simple. The
laws of the Western States and Territo-
ries everywhere recognize and protect
the rights of the first or " pi-ior appro-
priator " of water. If the first settler on
the banks of a stream draws off, in his
ditch, one half or the whole of the cus-
tomary flow to irrigate his farm, he has
the right to take this one-half or the
whole flow forever, to the entire exclu-
sion of any subsequent settler. But the
same rule applies to rivers of large size.
As the quick-witted Westerner stands
by the side of one of the great rivers
and looks over thousands of acres of
desert land along its banks, he sees a
fortune in the situation. Only get cap-
ital enough together, organize a great
company, dig an immense canal which
will " appropriate " all the water in the
river, and you command the whole val-
ley. It is the position of the Western
railroads repeated. Instead of waiting
for settlers to come and dig little ditches



as they need them, an immense capital
digs one huge canal watering thousands
of farms, and then draws settlers by ad-
vertisement and boom. So all over the
West, throughout Colorado, in central
and southern California, in Montana
and Idaho, on the Salt and Gila Eivers
in southern Arizona, there are great
companies, with capitals running into
the millions, putting this idea into
effect. The canals they dig are twenty,
thirty, or even fifty miles long. The
largest are a hundred feet wide and ten
feet deep, very rivers in themselves.
They follow the contour of the country,
running back farther and farther from
the river as the latter falls away. The
main canal gives off lateral branches at
frequent intervals, and by an ingenious
system of gates, crossings, and ditches
sends water to every foot of arable
ground between it and the river. The
land belongs to the Government, and is
taken up by individual settlers at mere-



■^-l-^^^^




r^^.







Beginning of a Flume at Walnut Grove.



[VATER-STORAGE IN THE WEST.




Completed Dam at Walnut Grove, rear



(410 feet across, at top; 110 feet high).



ly nominal jDrices under the " Desert Land Act." But the water belongs to the
canal company, and it is this water that the settler really pays for. He sows his
one hundred and sixty acres with grain or alfalfa, or plants his twenty acres with
grapes, oranges, or olives, and under a cloudless sky in a few years has a farm
producing as no Eastern farm ever does. A dozen or a hundred square miles of
desert are transformed in five years into a wonder of blooming fruitfulness.

Yet even this meagre description of the marvellous development of the power



^^Ci?^fe




Two 25-inch Delivery Pipes Running through the Walnut Grove Dam.



10



IVATER-STORAGE IN THE IV EST.



of water through irrigation shows its
limitations. It is of necessity confined
to those streams that never run dry,
and is confined to a comparatively nar-
row strip of level land along such rivers.
Even the largest canals seldom run
more than ten miles away from the
stream and, of course, irrigate only on



that can be cultivated from subterranean
water is limited, so the amount that can
be irrigated from living streams is also
limited ; and, at the present rate, that
limit will be reached in a comparatively
short time. The problem of making the
great arid region productive must be
attacked upon some other side.




Irrigating Orange Grove, Riverside, Cal,



one side, toward the river. It is not too
much to say that this system of irriga-
tion from living streams is already ap-
proaching its limit. The first large
canals were built only a few years ago ;
yet so fast does enterprise move in the
West that it is probable that every
available river of any size either has its
canals already in operation, or all of the
water appropriated and the canals laid
out. The Southern Pacific Railroad was
built across southern Arizona in 1880,
practically opening up a new country.
There are now over two hundred and
fifty miles of main canal in the Salt and
Gila VaUeys of that region, and many
more under way. Colorado in 1886 had
nearly one thousand miles of irrigating
canal.

In short, just as the amount of land



The latest solution of the problem is
that of water-storage. Its idea is this.
Although not many of the streams carrj^
water throughout the year, they all run
full at some time within the year. As
described before, many of them are rag-
ing torrents in the early spring or for
a few days in summer after a " cloud-
burst " in the mountains. This water is
now wasted or worse than wasted, de-
nuding the land of its soil and carry-
ing destruction to dams and irrigating
canals. The plan of water-storage is to
impound this water as it runs to waste
in the season of flood and use it in the
season of drought. Select the proper
valleys for water-basins, close their out-
lets with dams, store great lakes of
water when the mountain-snows melt,
and then let it out slowly and at will



IVATER-STORAGE IN THE IVEST.



11



through flumes and ditches to the lands
below — this is the essence of the new
idea. It is to this solution of the prob-
lem of aridity that all eyes are now
turning in the West. Governors are
urging its importance in their messages,
and legislatures are memorializing Con-
gress to turn their attention to the un-
rivalled fitness of their particular State
or Territory for its trial. The Govern-
ment is investigating its feasibility, both
through a Congressional commission and
by a hydrographic survey. Private com-
panies are locating dam-sites, laying out
colonies and towns, and building enor-
mous dams.

The main essentials of successful wa-
ter-storage on a large scale are three :
a water-basin, a lake-site, and the land
to be irrigated, in proper relation to one
another. The water-supply must be
sufficient to fill the dam every year ; if
possible, twice a year. The " catchment
basin " or area drained by the stream to



Online LibraryEdward L. (Edward Livermore) BurlingameScribner's magazine (Volume 7) → online text (page 1 of 108)