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Edward Mitchell Blanding.

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NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES



3 3433 07954272




p> tilic Library



THE CITY OF BANGOR

The Industries, Resources, Attractions and Business
Life of Bangor and Its Environs

Manufacturing: Advantages, Commercial Relations, Trans*

portation Facilities, Business Resources, Educational

Opportunities, and Social Features of the

Metropolis of the Northeast




COMPIXiED AND PUBLISHED BY

Edward Mitchell Blanding

SECRETARY OF THE BANGOR BOARD OF TRADE

AND

EDITOR OF THE IXDUSTRIAL JOURNAL



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BANGOR, MAINE




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4840-


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ISSUED

UNDER THE AUSPICES

OF THE

BANGOR BOARD OF TRADE



INTRODUCTORY



DUEING the twenty-seven years the Bauoor Board of Trade has
been in existence there have been brought out under its auspices
_ several publications setting forth the industries and resources of

Bangor, a city universally recognized as the business centre of
Eastern Maine, and rapidly coming to the front as the metropolis of the
Northeast. The first of these pamphlet publications appeared in 1873
and others were issued in 1883 and 1888.

More than a decade of years have elapsed since the appearance of the
last of these elaborate business reviews, and as these years have been
characterized by a notable advancement in the realms of trade, com-
merce and industry, especially fitting it is that something now be brought
out descriptive of the Bangor of to-day and worthy of the proud city at
the head of navigation on the noble Penobscot. The object in view is
to set forth in attractive and convenient form the industries, resources,
attractions and business life of the City of Bangor and its environs. In
the present day illustrations play a prominent part in all of the higher
class of publications and these pages are eral)ellished with the fi^nest
half-tone engravings obtainable.

Desirous of enlisting the aid of lovers of the camera the Secretary of
the Bangor Board of Trade invited all amateur photographers — both
ladies and gentlemen — to submit photographs taken in this vicinity, the
views to represent either scenery, public buildings, business blocks
manufacturing plants or residences, and for the three best photographs
prizes were offered. The committee on award was composed of Charles
S. Pearl, Esq., President of the Bangor Board of Trade; Hon. Henry
Lord, President of the State Board of Trade : and Mrs. L. M. B. Thomp-
son, Chairman of the Art Committee, Athene Club. Widespread inter-
est was taken in this competition and a very large number of views
submitted. The contest closed June 27th and prizes were awarded as
follows: 1st, VV. E. Spear, "Falls on the Kenduskeag ; "' 2nd, Mrs.
Katherine E. P. Stewart, " Bird's Eye View of Bangor from the Stand-
pipe; " and 3rd, Louis R. Boyd, " Residence of Hon. Franklin A. Wil-
son.'' The prize views, together with many others submitted by the
contestants, will be found in " Bangor and Vicinity Illustrated."'



HISTORICAL SKETCH

f^HE history of Bangor begins nith the coming of one Jacob Bus-
I well, of Salisbury, Mass., with his wife and nine children, in 1769,
to the junction of the Penobscot river and Kenduslieag stream,
where he built for himself and family a rude log house. The site
of this first Bangor home was near the spot where now stands St«




THE BUSINKb? CLMEU FKOil STATE STREET.

John's Catholic Church, — a place chosen because of the near proximity
of a spring of cold water, and its commanding view of the uoble river
"and valley below. Jacob Buswell had been a soldier in the King of
England's forces during the French and Indian war, was in straightened
circumstances, and came to the heuit of the Maine forests because there
he fcund piomise of the easiest and surest means of subsistence or him-
self and his family. As a squatter, his homestead cost him no liing, the




CITY HALL



BANGOR AND VICINITY ILLUSTRATED t

forest timber promised him warmth and shelter, while an abundance of
fish and game provided him with sure and unfailing supplies of food.
The fact that this neighborhood had then long been the camping ground
of the Tarratines, a famous Indian tribe, shows that the first white
settler on the site of Bangor chose his dwelling pbice with excellent
judgment.

But the pioneer Buswell was not the first white man to visit or note
the advantages of settlement at the confluence of Kenduskeag stream
and the Penobscot river. As earlv as 1605 the French had visited the




INTO THE city's IIKAUT 1'U< iM HAMMOND ST. CHURCH.

locality, and in 1613 the .Jesuits had contemplated planting a mission
here, but finally determined on Mount Desert. About 1670 Baron de
Castiue of Canada came into the region, gained great influence with the
Tarratine Indians by means of marriage with the daughter of Chief
Modockawando and established a trading place where now stands the
historic town of Castine. As a conse(iuence,for almost a century before
the first settlement on Bangor's present site, the Peuol scot river was a
highway of communication between Canada and the French trading
posts established in the Penobscot region. And it w.is not till the fall



BANGOE AND VICINITY ILLUSTPvATED 9

of Quebec and the final crushing of French power in America in 1759
that this region became inviting to settlers from England or the colonies
to the southward.

Kadesquit was the first name by which Jacob Buswell knew the place
of his settlement. Later it became Condeskeag, and then Keuduskeag.
Mr. Buswell and family were lone settlers for a year, when a newly-
married son brought his wife to Kadesquit, and one Caleb Goodwin,
wife and eight children al.'o cast their lot with the new settlement.




lovers' leap, ox the kenduskeag.

More families came with each succeeding year, and when the Eevolu-
tionary war broke over the American colonies, Kenduskeag plantation
contained probably about seventy-five souls, and on both banks of the
Penobscot between Stillwater and Bald Hill Cove, in 1776, there were
seventy-eight heads of families.

As early as 1771, John Brewer of Worcester, Mass.. had come to this
region and built a mill on the east side of the Penobscot river where
the city of Brewer now stands, at the mouth of Segeundedunk stream.



BAXGOR AXD VICIXITY ILLUSTRATED



11



He, with twentj'-one other?, van out the first tract of timber hind, and
was the pioueer mill man of the reo;ion. In 1772 Solomon and Silas
Harthorn l)uilt a saw mill at the mouth of the Peujejawock near the
present site of Mount Hope cemetery. In the same year James Budge,
an enterprising lumberman, erected a saw mill on ISLintawassuck
stream, which enters the Penobscot midway between the Bangor Water
Works and Eddington Bend.

The period of the Revolutionary war was a hard and trying one for




EASTWARD FROM CITY HALL TOWER.

the people of Kenduskeag plantation. The British had control of the
Penobscot river and commanded the svibjection of all the inhabitants on
its banks. But the people of the little settlement were lieart and soul
for the cause of independence. A military baud of twentj' white men
and ten Indians was organized in 1776. Headquarters were established
at a rough barrack built near the present Mount Hope cemeterj\ These
men helped drive Sir John Collier from Machias, and it was thiough
their efforts that the i)0werful Penobscot Indians were held loyal friends
to the American cause throughout the war. The mouth of Kenduskeag
stream in the Penobscot was the final scene in August, 1779, of the ill-




THE STAND-PIPE AT SUMMIT PARK.



BAXGOR AXD VICrMTY ILLUSTRATED



13



starred expedition of Commodore Richard Saltoiistall and General Solo-
mon Lovell, sent out of Massachusetts ao:aiust the British who had
established themselves at Castine. A British fleet under Sir George
Collier made its appearance in Penobscot Bay and so frio;htened the
American fleet and forces that they fled before the British ships up the
Penobscot, and at the mouth of the Kendu,«keno' the Americans blew up
or burned their nine ships of one hundred and flfty-four guns and three
transports, and made their retreat through the pathless forests west-




RIVERWARD FROM THE UNIVERSALIST CHURCH.

ward. One of the cannon of these ships was raised from the river's
bottom in 1876, and is now to be seen in front of the Bangor post-ofiice
and custom house building.

jSlany of the settlers left the Penobscot after the disaster to the
Penobscot expedition, and of those few who remained many, with the
promise of safety and security from the British, took the oath of allegi-
ance to the crown. ]?ut it should be said that only those in direst cir-
cumstances and who were hampered by poverty or large and needy
families remained in the region to take the oath of allegiance, and con-



BAXGOR AND VICINITY ILLUSTRATED



15



quered aoainst their will, they were of the American opinion still, and
remained so till the close of hostilities two years later.

AVith the advent of peace between England and the United States,
came a revival of the settlement at Kenduskeag. Many who had left
the region because of British persecution returned. But this revival
and growth was slow, and the records of it very meagre. In 1786 the
general Government sent General Lincoln, General Putnam and Dr.
Thomas Rice to Condeskeag to purchase the title of Indians to the lands
on the Penobscot river. The chiefs witli wiiom thev gravelv treated




THE WEST SIDE, FROM AX EAST SIDE VANTAGE GROUND.

w-ere Orono, Orson, Neptune and Neptonbovitt. The Indians agreed to
quit their right to the land " six miles wide from the river " from a
point three miles above Oldtown, but were to retain Oldtown Islands
and Black Island and White Island in the bay, with lands " up the
river." And because of this agreement there are Indians on Oldtown
Island to-day.

About this time there came to Condeskeag one who should receive
mention, because to him the city of Bangor owes its name. This man
was Rev. Seth Noble, a native of Westfield, Mass. He was a patriot




MORSE-OLIVER BLOCK.



BANGOR AM) Vl( IXITY ILLLS Tlf ATKD



17



aud a chaplain in the Maine forces during the Eevohuionary war, and
was the first ins ailed pastor in Condeskeag, although he had no meet-
ing house in which to preach. He was a good speaker, but far from
ministerial in his habits and talk. He first taught the people of Con-
deskeag to call their settlement Sunbury. In 1791 the population of
Sunbury uuml cred one hundred and fifty people and the plantation
organization seemed to its people to be primitive and outgroAvn.
Accordingly it was decided to ask the Ge:ieral Court of Massachusetts
for an act of town incorporation aud Parson Xoble was delegated to
visit Boston aud secure the same. Supposedly the town was to be
incorporated as Sunbury, but at Boston Mr. Xoble. who was a great




TIIK AL'DITOKUM.

lover of music, asked thnt the town be incorporated Bangor, the name
of a favorite hymn, aud the General Court so incorporated it, Februarj'
25, 1791. Mr. Xoble"s constituents never expressed dissatisfaction, aud
so, the name of Bangor, — town and city.

In 1791 Roliert Treat began shipbuilding in Bangor and built the first
ship ever launched from Bangor ways. About this time the production
of lumber became an important industry in the region. As earlj' as
1786 VV^illiam Potter had built a small mill on the Kenduskeag at the
falls under Lovers' Leap. In 1795 William Hammond and John Smart
built a sawmill where Morse ct Company's mills now stand. Fish began
to be an important export of Bangor inhabitants at this time, and ves-



BANGOR AND VICINirY ILLUSTRATED



19



sels began to frequent the river for the purpose of securing cargoes of
both lumber and lisli.

Bangor entered upon the nineteenth century, thirty-one years after
its settlement, witli a population of 277. Its growth thus far had been
slow. Not till 1801 had a single settler a legal title to his land. In that
year the General Court of Massaclmsetts passed a resolve giving deeds
of land to the early settlers on most liberal terms, also providing for a
committee to survey lots and establish their bounds. The result of this
act and a legislative provision giving farms for the asking to bona fide
settlers had the effect of setting immigration from the more thickly set-
tled part of Massachusetts toward the Penobscot region. The admira-
ble situation of Bangor at the head of navigation on the Penobscot and




EXTRAXCE TO XIBEN CLUB BICYCLE PATH.

its central location in what was obviously to be a thriving community,
further conduced to increasing the population at the opening of the new
■century.

Proof of the growth of Bangor at the time is found in the fact that
in 1802 two taverns had become necessary to entertain travelers and
wayfarers ; that the town was divided by its selectmen into four school
districts, and that serious discussion of a toll bridge across Coudeskeag
stream near its mouth was entered into by the Inhabitants of Bangor.
The bridge was built six years later.

During the war of 1812 Bangor had sorry experience at the hands of
the British, as it had in the war of the revolution. In Septembei-, 1814,
the town was taken possession of by the British and for about 30 hours



20



BAXGOR AND VKIXITV ILLI STRATED



its stores, offices and deserted d\velliDo;s were pillaged, aud eight mer-
chant vessels at the wharves taken or burned. The town escaped being
burned only by the selectmen bonding it to fulfill certain hard condi-
tions with the British whose headquarters were at Castice. The occu-
pation of Bangor by the British was preceded by a fight at Hampden
between raw American recruits under General Blake of Brewer and
men from the I'nited States ship Adams commanded by Captain Mills,
who had anchored his vessel at Hampden for repairs, aud was there at-
tached in large force bj^ a British fleet and troops. In the skirmish at
Hampden eleven Americans were wounded and one killed : two British
were killed and seven wounded. The American raw recruits broke al-
most at the first fire and retreated in all direction*. General Blake was



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captured at his home in Brewer. Eighty prisoners were taken by the
British in Hampden, the United Stale? !«liip Adams was blown up by
her own men. but her twenty guns fell into the hands of the British,
and the town was sacked and bonded, like Bangor, to hard conditions.
In 1815 Bangor possessed its first newspaper, the Bangor A\'eekly
Register, edited by Peter Edes who came from Augusta, Me. The Ban-
gor Whig and Courier of today is the lineal descendant of this first Ban-
gor newspaper. The Register's editorial columns were used to endorse
strongly the separation of Maine from Massachusetts. This year, too,
saw the inauguration of the first Sabbath school in Bangor, and $700
was appropriated as a salary for Minister Loomis and .S600 for the



BAXGOR AND VICIXITY ILLL SrRATED



21



schools. The population of the town had grown to be about 1,000
souls.

In 1820 Maine became a state and Bangor seemed to receive a new im-
pulse to growth from its share in statehood. Agriculture prospered,
the lumber interests increased and shipbuilding flourished. A bank had
been established and thi ived : the town possessed a court house and jail :
several churches were erected and the theological seminary had been
established.

In the early thirties Bangor made rapid growth, land valuations
materially advancing and the era being one of great speculation. From
1830 to 1S34 the population increased from 2808 to about 8000. It was
in the latter vear that Bangor became incorporated as a city. Hon.




THE AUCH. NIBEX ('LUB lUCYCLE PATH.

Allen Oilman being the flrst mayor. It was in the fall of the tollowing
year, 18.{5, that Daniel \Vebstei-. who was then in the zenith of his
power, and who, in his young manhood, came near locating in this city,
was tendered a banquet at the Bangoi- House, then recently built. Mr.
Webster expressed the current oiiinion regarding Bangor in the open-
ing remarks of his address on that occasion, when he said :

''Having occasion to come into the state on professional business, I
have gladly availed myself of the opportunity to visit this city, the
growing magnitude and importance of which have recently attracted
so much general notice. I am happy to say that I see around me ample
proofs of the correctness of those favoral)le representations which have
gone abroad. Your city, gentlemen, has undoul)tedly experienced an



■ '5 - \ ».




















BANGOR AXD VICINITY ILLUSTltATED



•23



extraordinary growth ; and it is a growth, I thiuli, which there is rea-
son to hope is not unnatural, or greath^ disproportionate to the eminent
advantages of the place. It so happened that, at an early period of
my life, I caine to this spot, attracted by that favorable position which
the slightest glance on the map must satisfy evervoue that it occupies."
Among the events that have left their imprint on the history of this
region was the famous Aroostook war. In 1826 arose the northeastern
boundarj^ dispute, and it was not till the early forties that the contro-
versy was finally settled. Until 1812 there was no question raised
regarding the boundary, the St. C'l'oix being agreed u])on as the correct
division; but beyond the uionument marking the head of the river all




ON THE KENDUSKEAG, ABOVE BULL'S EYE BUIDGE.

was undetermined. After the treaty of Ghent a commission of Engli>;h
and American engineers was appointed to run the boundary line. It
was to extend north to the highlands, from which the Avaters flow to
the Atlantic and to the St. Lawrence. Xo difference of opinion arose
among the engineers until Mars Hill was reached; then the English
engineers claimed they had reached the "highlands." while the Ameri-
cans dissented, and both parties reported to their respective govern-
ments. To be ready in case of an emergency the United States sent a
detachment of troops to Iloulton. and they remained in barracks there
until 1842, when the boundary settlement was finally reached. In 1828
Congress made provision for a military road from Bangor to Iloulton,



24



BAXGOK AND VIC IX IT V ILT^l'S I'iJ ATED



and this was comiileted in 1830, this great hig-hway beino; an inipditnut
factor in openiuii- up to development the fertile lauds of that reirion.
The claim of the British was a large one and meant that Maine would be
robbed of aliout a third of its territory. In 1830 it was reported to the
state autlioiities that New Brunswick hinil)ermen were cairying on
extensive lumbering- operaii )iis on the disputed territory. The shei'iff
of Penobscot County was then ordered to Aroostook, and took with him
a posses of two hundred men. the trespassers retiriug iuto New Bruns-
wick : but breaking iuto the government arsenal at Woodstock they




HOX. FRAXKLIX A. WILSOX'S lU-.Sl DEXC K.

returned armed and ready to meet the sheritl". in the meantime li;iving
captured the M.aine land agent. Tlie Maine legislature im:i;e<li;itely
appropriated .SSOO.OOO to defend thejuiblic land? and the governor c.-illed
out 10,000 militia, while the United States Congress api)ropi-i;ited
.$10,000,000 to meet probable expenses and authorized the President to
raise .50.000 volunteers. In due time the iroubU- was settled by a mutual
withdrawal of tioops and the prnteciinn of the lumber liy a civil posse
of Maine. Tlius ended the bloodless Aroostook w.w: liut tliose Avere
stii-ring times iu tlie vicinity of B.angor. The boundary question was
permanently settled in 1842 by Lord Ashburton and tiie American



BANGOR AND VICINITY ILLUSTRATED



25



Secretarj^ of State. Dauiel Webster, together with the commissiouers
appointed by Maine.

A proiuiuent place in the city's histoiy was tilled by the great flood
of 184C. The conditions that winter were exceptional, and the entire
bed of the river, except the channel, seemed to have become an almost
solid body of ice. AVith the approach of spring the river began to break
up for thirty miles above the city, while it continued firmly bound for
twelve miles below. At different points above the city there were jams




HOX. IIANMKAL HAM 1. IX.

or ice dams, the two most formidal)le being seven miles above the city,
in the vicinity of the two largest and most important ranges of saw
mills. Tliese mill* were raised from their foundation bj- the high
waters, and as the jam gave way they were swept down the river. Tlie
jams giadually worked their way down, carrying destruction to bridges
and Iniildings along the banks, until they were all concentrated in one
immense mass four miles in length, of great height and depth, filling
the river, whil- above the jam the water was twentv to thirtv feet above



BAXGOR AXD VICIXITY ILLUSTKATP:D



27



its usual height, maliing a dead level of the falls. The first iujury to
the city was by the breakiug away of a section of the daui, resulting in
the inundation of a score of houses on the west bank and the sweeping
of buildings and lumber on the wharves. Meanwhile another auxiliary
to the fearful work had been preparing by the breaking up of the ice in
the Kenduskeag river, which flows through the heart of tlie city. The
whole flat on the margin of the river is covered with stores and public




HuN. CHAULE8 A. BOUTELLE.

buildings. At midnight the bells were rung to announce the giving
way of the ice. The streets were thronged with people, wlio gathered
to behold the ice avalanche. The jam passed on to High Head, but in
the narrows it came to a halt, and quickly the water commenced to
roll back upon the fated city. So quick was the revulsion that it seemed
but a moment before the entire flat comprising the business section was
deluged, and it required the utmost sjieed on the part of the people to
escape the rising water. The following day, Sunday, was the saddest
and most serious ever passed in Bangor. In the early evening the alarm
was again rung, and the citizens came out to witness tlie climax of this



BAXGOE AND Vl( iXITY I I.LISTKATED



29



unpaniUeled disaster. Darkness soon shrouded Ihe scene, but the ter-
rific uproar beat upon the ear, and amid the roaring of the waters and
crash of buildings, bridges and lumber, the eye could trace the mam-
moth ice jam of four miles long, which passed on majestically but with
lightning-like velocity, bearing the contents of both rivers on its bosom.
The great covered bridge across tbe Penobscot, two bridges across
the Kenduskeag, the new market and the two long ranges of saw mills,
besides other mills, houses, shops, logs and lumber enough to build a




GEN. SAMUEL F. HKRSEV,

town, all swept on toward the sea. Fortunately the disaster was not
accompanied with loss of life, but the loss amounted to about $200,000.
Bangor's citizens in the early days were ready to undertake large
enterprises, and back in the thirties they built and operated the fii'st
steam passenger and freight railroad in Maine, and one of the first in
the country. The road was built by the Bangor and Piscataquis Canal
and Railroad Company, which was subsequently changed to the Ban-
gor, Oldtowu and Milford Railroad Company. Prominent among its
promoters were Messrs. E. and S. Smith, two brothers activelj- inter-




'^':' ; *»!^



BAXGOE AND YK IMTY ILLU^TEATED



31



ested iu real estate and timber lands. Later General Samuel Veazie,
one of the wealthiest business men of the Penobscot Valley, secured
control of the line, and it subsequently became known as the Veazie
Railroad. The railroad was started in 1835 and begun operation during
1836, the formal opening being a red letter day throughout this section
of the state, people flocking from miles away to Join in the celebra-
tion. The road was originally twelve miles long, but afterward was
extended to Milford, the cost of the railway and equipment being .$600,-
000. At first there were two engines, the -'Pioneer " and " Xo. 6." a
third, the "Elliott," being later secured iu Boston. The two original
locomotives were of the Stevenson make and came from England.




LOCOM OT 1 V E " PIOXE ER . ' "

They had no cabs when sent here, but were afterwards provided with
rude contrivances called cabs. The old engines weighed, including the
tender, about ten tons each. They burned wood and were provided
with bells somewhat resembling a cow bell. The original cars were
also of English manufacture and were in style decidely unique, especi-


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Online LibraryEdward Mitchell BlandingThe city of Bangor; the industries, resources, attractions and business life of Bangor and its environs.. → online text (page 1 of 10)