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for an official majority; (3) colonies possessing a
partly elected legislative council, the constitution
of which provides for an official majority, e.g.
Fiji, Leeward Islands, Jamaica, and Malta;
(4) colonies and protectorates in which there are
legislative councils appointed by the crown, e.g.
British Honduras, Ceylon, East Africa Pro-
tectorate, Falkland Islands, St. Lucia, St. Vin-
cent, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Southern Nigeria,
Straits Settlement, and Trinidad; and (5)
colonies and protectorates in which there are no
legislative councils or representative institutions,
e.g. Ashanti, Basutoland, Bechuanaland, Northern
Nigeria, the northern territories of the Gold
Coast, St. Helena, Uganda, Weihaiwei, and the
islands under the protectorate of the Western
Pacific High Commission.

Great Britain, at an early stage in the new Attitude
colonial era the era that may be dated from g rl ^ at
1840 determined that the development of towards
these crown colonies, most of them tropical a ? w

' colonies

possessions in which there can never be a pre-
ponderant white population, was a necessity to the
British Empire. It was then realized that such a
development could come only through a partner-
ship between the white and the colored races.

Different methods have been adopted in work-
ing towards the development of these colonies. 1

1 "Beyond anything, such success as has attended our
people in dealing with colored races has been the result of
practical good sense, which has not attempted to drill alien



General These methods represent a variety of means to a

policy single end. They represent stages of constitu-

crown tional and social development adapted to differing

colonies stages of civilization. The general policy is to

adapt to every administrative unit of the empire

the principles that have long been applied in

working out the political, social, and economic

welfare of the British nation, and to establish in

each of the crown colonies the order, stability,

freedom, and justice that are characteristics of

British political civilization. 1

Relations Grants in aid are sometimes made to crown
*. colonies by the British parliament. Higher civil


office with servants, as well as governors, are sent out from
London; and the supervision by the colonial

peoples on one uniform pattern or to stamp out diversity,
but has utilized the men and the things native to the soil and
familiar to the peoples the sultan, the headman, the village
community; respecting customs and creeds, letting the peoples
live their own lives in their own way, provided that they abide
by the general rules which distinguish humanity from bar-
barism; gradually leavening them with the British spirit of
freedom rather than inculcating a sense of British domination.
By eschewing uniformity, by adapting methods to diverse
peoples of diverse lands in preference to recasting the peoples
in a strange mold, by ensuring life and property and even-
handed justice, by letting conditions grow instead of forcing
them, the English control many millions in singular content-
ment and goodwill." C. P. Lucas, "The Crown Colonies
and Protectorates," Manchester Guardian, March 30, 1917.
Cf. Josiah Royce, "Race Questions, Provincialism, and
other American Problems," 22-25.

1 Cf. Sir Charles Bruce, "The Broad Stone of Empire:
Problems of Crown Colony Administration," I, 34-35.



office of these oversea possessions most of
them colonies in which the white population is
largely outnumbered by natives is usually
close and continuous.

The establishment of representative and re- Deveiop-
sponsible government in the dominions the ment of
creation of these autonomous states of the British sibie

Empire was a gradual process. It went on
most quickly and most obviously from 1840,
when the provinces of Quebec and Ontario were
united, until 1893. It did not stop in 1893 when
responsible government was granted to Natal.
Other concessions, all tending to autonomy and
sovereignty, were made after the last of the
dominions became self-governing.

The process, going on almost continuously influence
since 1840, has been one in which the United
States, quite unconsciously to most Americans, British
has had a large and easily traceable influence.
This influence has been due to the political
development of the United States since 1783,
and also to the fact that the old British North
American provinces of Nova Scotia, Prince
Edward Island, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario,
and British Columbia, in their formative period,
were neighbors of the United States, which
greatly influenced their social, political, and
economic life, as since 1867 the United States has
influenced the life of the Dominion of Canada.

There have been four eras in British colonial
policy and history since 1776-1783. The first



Four eras extended from 1783 to the Papineau and Macken-

wtatoi Sh zie rebemons in Lower and Upper Canada in

policy 1837. The second lasted from 1837 to the

Am^ric*^ confederation of the British North American

revolution provinces, which was accomplished between 1865

and 1873; and the third was from 1873 to tne

great war, from which began a fourth era in the

colonial history of the British Empire.

Conces- The process of establishing representative and

responsible government in the dominions so

IBS? to far at any rate as it depended on parliament at

Westminster and the colonial office did not

begin until the union of the provinces of Quebec

and Ontario, an experiment which was a direct

result of the Papineau and Mackenzie rebellions.

It was only as recently as 1907 that Great Britain,

in continuation of the process, finally and fully

conceded to the dominions the much valued

right to appoint their own plenipotentiaries to

make their commercial treaties with foreign


Demands In this gradual development of self-govern-
coioniai ment > statesmen of what are now the dominions
autonomy had the largest part. With them, and in par-
ticular with the statesmen of British North
America, originated the successive demands
between 1820 and 1907 for more autonomy and
for less control by parliament at Westminster
and by the colonial office.

Papineau and Mackenzie, in the years from
1820 to the union of the provinces, risked their


lives in pressing on the British government the
first of these demands. Gait, the most famous Men who
of the ministers of finance of the United Provinces, *^
pressed to success in 1859 the demand for the demands
right of the provinces to make their own tariffs
without regard to the industrial interests of
Great Britain.

John A. Macdonald, Alexander Gait, Charles
Tupper, George Brown, George Etienne Cartier,
Edward Blake, Wilfrid Laurier, Richard Cart-
wright, and William S. Fielding pressed other
demands from the negotiations which preceded
confederation in 1867 until the right of the
dominions to make their own immigration laws
and their own commercial treaties was conceded
in 1904 and 1907.

Quite sixty years had elapsed, and there had British
been the rebellions in Canada, before statesmen statei

men at

at Westminster really began to learn the lesson last leam
of the American revolution. Then they gradually ^*^"
conceded the demands that were made from the me-nss
colonies that are now of the dominions. They
themselves suggested little. They originated
few of the developments that have contributed
to the autonomy of the dominions. But after
1837 they became more receptive to demands
from colonial statesmen; and except for Gait's
demand of 1859, for the right of the provinces to
make their own tariffs, and some delay in fully
conceding the demand of the dominions to make
their own commercial treaties, there was no


grudging in conceding these demands after the
lesson of the American revolution had once been

New After it was realized that as concessions towards

autonom y were granted the links binding the
dominions to Great Britain became stronger
mstea d f weaker, there were no compromises
with the demands. As the result of the colonial
statesmanship that pressed these demands, and
the statesmanship at Westminster that conceded
them, responsible government for all the colonies
that are now of the dominions had been established
for at least two decades before 1914; and its
establishment, and the success which has attended
it in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South
Africa, and Newfoundland, is the greatest political
achievement of people under British rule in the
140 years between the American revolution and
the war between Great Britain and her allies and
the Teutonic powers.







N area and population Canada is the largest Areaof
of the dominions. Politically and economi- JJ e


cally it is, with the possible exception of India, ofCanada
the most interesting of the British oversea pos-
sessions. It embraces the northern half of the
North American continent, with its adjacent
islands in the Arctic Ocean, but exclusive of
Alaska in the extreme northwest, the island of
Newfoundland, and the small islands of St. Pierre
and Miquelon, which are colonies of the French
republic. The total area of the Dominion is
3,729,665 square miles. Of this, 309,000 square
miles are comprised in the arctic islands.

Newfoundland, the oldest of the British oversea Canada
possessions in the New World, has an area of Jj*^
42,000 square miles; and the aggregate area of foundiand
these two dominions Canada and Newfound-
land is 3,771,665 square miles. This is a little
more than the area of the United States; larger
by 640,333 square miles than the combined area of
the commonwealth of Australia and the dominion
of New Zealand, and not much smaller than the
aggregate area of all the countries of Europe.


Coast- The Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United

lines of States are much straighter than those of the

Dominion Dominion. The Canadian coastline on both

oceans is much indented with gulfs and bays

particularly the Atlantic coast. These gulfs and

bays are good feeding and breeding grounds for

fish. They also afford many harbors and havens

for fishermen, thus giving Canada the most

extensive sea-fisheries in the world.

Hudson Hudson Bay a sea 800 miles from north to
south, and 600 miles in width is wholly within
the Dominion. For two centuries Hudson Bay
had great influence on exploration and trade in
Canada. With the enormous development of
grain growing in what are now the provinces of
Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, between
1898 and 1916, and with the construction by the
Dominion government in the years from 1910
to 1916 of a harbor, with wharfs and elevators
for the grain trade, at Port Nelson, and a railway
410 miles long from Le Pas, Manitoba, to this
new port, Hudson Bay is again of importance in
the trade and transport economy of the large
area of Canada that lies between the Great Lakes
and the Rocky Mountains.

Great Canada has a common use with the United

La ^* States of all the Great Lakes Ontario, Erie,

and tne

connect- Huron, Michigan, and Superior; and also a

ing canals common use o f the St. Lawrence from its source

in Lake Ontario to the Atlantic Ocean. Since

1854, when by treaty the United States conceded


the privilege of free navigation of Lake Michigan
to Canada, and Great Britain conceded to the
United States the navigation of the St. Lawrence,
both countries have had joint use of the series of
magnificent canals Canadian and American
that make navigation possible from Lake Superior
to tidewater below Montreal.

The St. Lawrence occupies an even larger st. Law-
place than Hudson Bay in the history of Canada, ^
particularly as regards exploration and trade,
and incidentally as regards diplomatic relations
with the United States. In the sixteenth century
it opened a route for exploration, colonization,
and trade. It led Cartier, the explorer, in 1535
to the sites now occupied by the cities of Quebec
and Montreal.

In the eighteenth century, after the creation its in-
of the province of Ontario by the Quebec act of flue ^ ce
1791, and in the nineteenth century, it was the deveiop-
St. Lawrence, with its importance in inland entof

. . . . Ontario

navigation, that brought into existence the
Ontario cities of Prescott, Kingston, Hamilton,
and Toronto; and with the opening of the
Canadian Pacific Railway from Montreal to
Vancouver, in 1886, there came into existence,
as the most western cities on the lakes and St.
Lawrence route, Port Arthur and Fort William,
also in Ontario, the largest grain ports in the
British Empire.

It is within the power of the Dominion parlia-
ment to organize territories into provinces. Three


Creation provinces have been so created since Confedera-
* new tion. They were carved out of the vast territory
inces lying between Lake Superior and the Rocky
Mountains, over which the Hudson Bay Com-
pany ruled from the reign of Charles II until
1869, when its rights were acquired by purchase
by the Dominion government. Manitoba was
created a province in 1870, Saskatchewan and
Alberta in 1905.

Political Since 1905 the Dominion has been politically
o'Tthe 118 divided mto nme provinces and two territories.
Dominion The territories are Yukon and the northwest
territories. Yukon is bounded on the west by
Alaska, on the south by British Columbia, on
the north by the Arctic Ocean, and on the east
by the northwest territories, which extend to
the western shore of Hudson Bay. Both terri-
tories lie north of the sixtieth parallel the
northern boundary of all provinces west of
Ontario. There were in 1916 fewer than 30,000
people in these territories.

Yukon Only in the Yukon is there any industry

Territory ^^ o f g^ m i n ing, of which Dawson, the political

capital, is the center. The Yukon is the only

territory that elects a representative to the house

of commons at Ottawa.

Order in The provinces in the order in which they came
prices * nto Confederation are: Quebec, Ontario, Nova
entered Scotia, and New Brunswick, 1867; Manitoba,
era'tion" l8 ? ; British Columbia, 1871; Prince Edward
Island, 1873; and Saskatchewan and Alberta,


1905. Quebec is the capital of the old French
province; Toronto of Ontario; Halifax of Nova
Scotia; Fredericton of New Brunswick; Winnipeg
of Manitoba; Victoria, on Vancouver Island, of
British Columbia Charlottetown of Prince
Edward Island; Regina of Saskatchewan; and
Edmonton of Alberta.

These are the political divisions which are Repre-
under provincial or territorial government for j
domestic concerns; each, with the exception of pariia-
the northwest territories, with its quota of Q^**
senators and commoners in the Dominion parlia-
ment a quota that as regards the house of
commons is determined by act of parliament after
each decennial census.

The area of each of the nine provinces and of Popu-
the Yukon and northwest territories, the popula- 1 r *p and
tion of each at the census of 191 1, and the number sentation
of senators and members of the house of com-
mons allotted to each province and to the Yukon
by the redistribution act of the Dominion parlia-
ment of 1914 and as regards the senate by the
amendment to the British North America act
of 1915 l are stated in the accompanying table. 2

As the Dominion embraces almost half the climate
North American continent, it has a diversified Canada
climate. On the Pacific coast, with the ocean on beyond
one side and lofty mountain ranges on the other, ^^ reat
the climate is moist and temperate. East of the

1 British Statutes 5 and 6, George V, c. 45.

2 Canada Year Book, 1914, 41, 43.






Lakes to






In the




sq. m.



Sen. H.C.






2 4









Nova Scotia

New Brunswick

British Columbia

Prince Edward Island.


Yukon Territory

Northwest Territories .






Rocky Mountains, on the high level plateaus of
Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and the north-
west territories, the climate is characterized by
extremes of temperature, but is bright, dry,
bracing, and healthy.

East of Manitoba the extremes of heat and
cold are modified by the Great Lakes. In the
valleys of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence a cold
but bright and exhilarating winter is followed
by a long and warm summer. The Maritime
Provinces, lying between the same parallels of
latitude as France, and with shores washed by
the Atlantic, are equally favored in climate.

The opening of spring in the Maritime Prov-
inces is usually a little later than in Ontario
or in the prairie provinces, and a little earlier
than in the lower St. Lawrence valley. On the
other hand summer lingers longer, especially in
the Annapolis valley. Summer in the Maritime
Provinces is not as a rule quite so warm as in



western Canada. Great heat is seldom ex-
perienced, except very occasionally at inland
places in New Brunswick.

From Alberta to the Maritime Provinces there snowand
is in the winter much snow. It lies deep over J^van-
this area from November or December until tages
March. But the value of this covering of snow
cannot be overestimated. It protects the roots
of trees and herbage during the severe weather,
and east of the Great Lakes it also greatly facili-
tates the lumber industry.

The Great Lakes never freeze over, but ice ice-
closes the harbors from the middle of December clo !f d


until the beginning of April. The average date
of the closing of navigation on the St. Lawrence
at Montreal is December 16, and of its opening
April 21. Harbors in the Gulf of St. Lawrence are
likewise closed by ice during the winter months.

On the Bay of Fundy and the coast of Nova winter
Scotia, harbors are open all the year round. J^^*
Halifax and St. John, by this freedom from ice, Canada
obtain their importance as the Atlantic winter
ports of the Dominion. In particular they owe to
this great advantage over the St. Lawrence ports
their constantly increasing importance on the
national grain route lake, canal, and rail
which stretches from Port Arthur and Fort
William on Lake Superior to the Atlantic sea-

The coal fields and coal deposits of the Domin-
ion are the most extensive and best known of its



Coal mineral resources. The known area underlain
DomMon ^Y workable coal beds is nearly 30,0x30 square


Coal Notwithstanding the vastness of these deposits,

andtiie t ^ ie tota ^ quantity of coal annually mined in
distri- Canada is less than half of the country's con-
uon of sum ption. The coal fields are found principally
lation in the coast provinces Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick, and British Columbia and in
Alberta. The central provinces, Ontario and
Quebec, in which in 1916 four sevenths of the
total population was concentrated, are without
coal. They are nearer to Pennsylvania, Ohio,
and Indiana than to any of the coal-producing
provinces; and consequently they find it more
economical to draw their supplies of coal
bituminous as well as anthracite from these
American coal fields. American coal in large
quantities is also imported by the prairie prov-
inces. Anthracite, and some special bituminous
coals from Pennsylvania, are used as far west of
Lake Superior as Winnipeg and Brandon.




IT has been customary since Confederation to Foar
group the provinces geographically and eco- ^"^
nomically. There have been, since the prairie and
provinces were organized, four of these geographic ^k^s
and economic divisions. All of them are well
marked, and generally accepted in political and
economic understanding.

I. The Maritime Provinces

In one group, the oldest and a group that is Provinces
tenacious of its British traditions and its local b y
political history, are the Maritime Provinces sea"
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward
Island. These three provinces are often collo-
quially described in parliament and in the press
as the provinces "down by the sea."

Before Confederation these provinces had Mart-
many common interests, so many in fact that j^^^g
in 1864 there was a movement for a legislative before
union. This movement culminated in an inter- ^^n"
provincial conference at Charlottetown, which had
the effect of greatly facilitating Confederation.

Before Confederation the Maritime Provinces



ow free- had tariffs exclusively for revenue. They had

provtaces not ^ owec ^ tne example of the united provinces

of Ontario and Quebec in adopting protective

tariffs in 1859, chiefly because they drew their

manufactured goods from England, and there

were no factories in the Maritime Provinces to be

aided by protection. For thirty years after

Confederation the people of these provinces were

opposed to the protectionist policy of the Ottawa

government, and also to the large expenditures

on the canals of Quebec and Ontario, from which

they then derived no direct advantage.

Common In later years their common interests have

5ihe Sta keen shipping and fishing, lumber and coal

provinces industries, agriculture, and the general economic

by d thT interests of a long-settled and sparsely distributed

sea" maritime population, much less affected by the

cosmopolitan immigration of the years from 1898

to 1914 than any other division of the Dominion.

II. Central Canada

Char- Quebec and Ontario form the second of the

tetics'of geographic and economic groups. These prov-

peopieof inces constitute what is known as central

Quebec Canada. In general each is inhabited by people

Ontario of a different race, language, and religion and of

differing philosophies of life. Quebec is peopled

by French-Canadians, who are Roman Catholics,

and unambitious and content with the domestic

joys afforded by their homes, their occupations,

their religion, and their province.



Ontario is inhabited by people of English or
Scotch origin, speaking English, of the Protestant
religion, energetic and ambitious, and nearer in
temperament and character to Americans of
New England or of the middle west than to
their eastern neighbors in Quebec, or the present
generation of people in England or Scotland.

There is more or less antagonism between these Economic
two peoples an antagonism which can be traced j^ terests
back almost to the American revolution. Despite common
these differences in race, language, religion, and
outlook on life, and despite the antagonism
which not infrequently manifests itself at Ottawa,
and at the provincial capitals of Toronto and
Quebec, no other provinces in the Dominion
have achieved so much in common politically,
or have so much in common economically, as
Ontario and Quebec.

It was these provinces that made most of the Ontario
constitutional history of Canada from the Quebec ^ ebec
act of 1791 to Confederation in 1867. In this and the
respect no other provinces in any of the dominions JJ^JjJ^
have more beneficently affected the colonial colonial
policy of Great Britain. The modern era of policy
colonial policy, the fruits of which were the
loyal, unstinting, and whole-hearted support of
Great Britain in the war with Germany, had its
beginnings between 1837 and 1845 in what are
today the central provinces of the Dominion.

Ottawa, the Dominion capital since Confedera- Ottawa
tion, is situated just within the eastern boundary



Online LibraryEdward PorrittEvolution of the Dominion of Canada; its government and its politics → online text (page 2 of 34)