Edward Raymond Turner.

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SINCE 1870





"EUROPE, 1789-1920," ETC.



3] 61 9













The author has attempted an outline of the history of
Europe in the last fifty years, an era which began with the
victories of the Germans in 1870 and ended with the
destruction of their empire.

No period can be more interesting to the present student
of events. The history of Europe during this half century
was, indeed, the larger part of the history of all of the
world, for most of the world's population was controlled
by European powers or else associated with them and
directly affected by their fate. The events of this time
have touched the lives and the fortunes of most men and
women now living. Successive years were thronged wath
vast developments and crowded with a multitude of per-
sons and events, the story moving like some drama on to
its tragic end.

Whether we wish it or not, the present and the future
must be filled with great problems arising from this era,
to be understood only in connection with it. Into con-
sideration of these problems we here in the United States
are destined to be ever more nearly drawn.

Much of the writing was done in connection with the
author's Europe, 1789-1920; but considerable additions
have been made and some portions are entirely new.
If, in spite of the larger space available here, he can be
reproached with having left out a great many things, the
answer must be that he has tried very hard to do this. In
his own studies and reading he has never had any lasting
impression from a mere collection of details. He has.


tlierefore, striven to eliminate non-essential things wher-
ever he could, and elsewhere subordinate the less im-
portant matters to consideration of principal tendencies
and dominant ideas. It is his highest ambition that in his
pages ma 3' be had a glimpse of the reality of departed years
and something of the spirit that was in them. In respect
of this he hopes that some of the quotations at the chapter
heads may seem of more worth than ten times their space
filled with data and statistics; and that here and there a
student reading them may feel the mysterious call to seek
out the great books himself.

The author is indebted to the courtesy of Messrs. G. P.
Putnam's Sons for permission to quote at the beginning
of the seventeenth chapter lines written by the late
Lieutenant-Colonel John McCrae.

Edward Raymond Turner.
Ann Arbor, Michigan
May 1, 1921



I. The Era of 1870 7

II. The French Revolution and After 17

III. New Inventions and the Industrial

Revolution 40

IV. Certain Intellectual and Social

Changes 67

V. The European States in 1870 ... 94
VI. The Military Triumphs of Germany,

1864-1871 122

VII. The Growth of the New German Em-
pire 143

VIII. The Leadership of Germany — The

Triple Alliance 173

IX. The Recovery of France — The Dual

Alliance 210

X. Democratic Britain 240

XI. Russia 269

XII. Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and the

Balkans 304

XIII. Italy, Spain, and the Lesser States . 344

XIV. Colonies and Imperial Expansion . . 369
XV. Triple Alliance and the Ententes . 398

XVI. The Causes of the Great War . . .421

XVII. The Great War 450

XVIII. The Settlement of 1920 498

XIX. Socialism, Syndicalism, and the

Russian Revolution ..... 529

Appendix 551

Index 557


On Map No. 5, following Page 100, for GERMAN



1. Relief Map of Europe . . . Following 20

2. Racial Map of Europe .... " 36

3. The Coal, Iron, and Oil Resources of

Europe Vullowimj 51

4. Europe: Showing Railroads, Canals, and

Principal Rivers Following 08

5. Europe in 1870 {In colors) . . " 100
G. Alsace-Lorraine 140

7. The German Empire in 1914 . . Following 1G4

8. The Treaty of San Stefano 177

9. France in 1920 216

10. The British Isles 244

11. Ireland: Showing the Sinn Fein Areas in

1918, and the Unionist Areas in Ulster. 262

12. Map to Illustrate the History of Poland 275

13. Racial Map of Russia 277

14. The Russian Empire in 1914 . . Following 292

15. The Russo-Japanese War 295

16. RACLA.L Map of Austria-Hungary . . . 309

17. The Balkans in 1878 .322

18. The Ottoman Dominions: Greatest Ex-

tent, Successive Losses, Present Ex-
tent Following 324

19. The Balkans in 1913 330

20. Asia in 1800 Following 356

21. Africa in 1800 " 372

22. Asia in 1914 " 388

23. Africa in 1914 " 404


xii MAPS


24. The British Empire in 1914 . . Following 420

25. Supposed Pan-German Plan . . " 436

26. The Western Front in the Great War . 465

27. The Eastern Front in the Great War. . 466

28. The Oceans of the World — Mercator's

Projection: Showing the Principal Sea
Lines of Communication in the Great

War Following 468

29. Gallipoli 471

30. The Austro-Italian Frontier 483

31. Africa in 1920 Following 500

32. Czecho-Slovakia 507

33. The Balkans in 1920 509

34. Jugo-Slavia 510

35. The British Empire in 1920 . . Following 516

36. Europe in 1920 {In colors) ... " 532



For additional general readinf!, especially for the perifxl before 1870:
C. M. Andrews, The Historical Development of Modern Europe from the
Congress of Vienna to the Present Time, 2 vols. (1^2^); Oscar Brown-
ing, History of the Modern World, 1815-1010, 2 vols. (1912); Antonin
Debidour, Histoire Diplomatique de V Europe, 1811^-1878, 2 vols. (1891);
E. Driault and G. Monod, Evolution du Monde Moderne: Histoire Poli-
tique et Sociale, 1815-1009 (1910); C. A. Fyffe, A History of Modern
Europe, 1702-1878 (189G); C. J. H. Hayes, A Political and Social His-
tory of Modem Europe, 1500-1015, 2 vols. (191(5-17); C. D. Hazen,
Europe Since 1815 (1910); W. A. Phillips, Modern Europe, 1815-1800
(2d ed., 1902); J. S. Schapiro, Modern and Contemporary European His-
tory (1918); C. Seignobos, A Political History of Europe Since 1814
(trans, by S. M. Macvane, 1900) ; also, J. H. Robinson and C. A. Beard,
Readings in Modern European History (1909).

Of longer works Alfred Stern, Geschichte Europas scit den Vertrdgen
von 1815 his zum Frankfurter Friedcn von 1871, exhaustive and based
largely on sources, is the best; volumes I-VII (1894-1910), covering
the years down to 1852, have appeared.

For the period after 1870: F. M. Anderson and A. S. Hershey,
Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1870—
ion (1918), a cooperative work which contains excellent summaries
and up-to-date bibliographical lists; C. M. Andrews, Contemporary
Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1871-1001 (1902); A. Debidour, Histoire
Diplomatique de i Europe depuis le Congres de Berlin jusqua Nos Jours,
2 vols. (191G), the best account of recent French diplomatic history;
W. M. Fullerton, Problems of Power: a Study of International Politics
from Sadoiva to Kirk-Kilisse (1913); H. A. Gibbons, The New Map of
Europe (1914); L. H. Holt and A. W. Chilton, The History of Europe
from 18G2 to 1014 (1917); J. H. Rose, The Development of the European
Nations, 1870-1014, 2 vols, in one (5th ed., 1916); Charles Seymour,
The Diplomatic Background of the War, 1870-1014 (1916).

More comprehensive are the great cooperative histories: The
Cambridge Modern History, ed. by A. W. Ward, G. W. Prothero, S.
Leathes, 14 vols. (1902-12), of which the volumes are bulky and the
contents seldom inspiring, but which are always instructive, and in
which the student who cares to turn to them will find a vast amount of
additional information about most of the important topics treated in this
volume; Histoire Genhale du IV Siecle a Nos Jours, ed. by E. Lavisse



and A. Rambaud, 1'2 vols. (1894-1901), less up-to-date but more attrac-
tive; Allgcmcine Gcschichte in Einzeldarstclhmgen, ed. by W. Oncken,
50 vols. (1879-93). For information about historical writing, Eduard
Fueter, Gcschichte der Ncueren Histcn-iographie (1911); G. P. Gooch,
History and Historians in the Nineteenth Century (1913).

For the treaties: P. Albin, Les Grands TraitSs Politiques: Recueil
des Principaux Textes Diplomatiques dcpuis 1815 jusqu'd Nos Jours
(ed. 1911); Sir Edward Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty, 18U-
1891, 4 vols. (1875-91); Baron Descamps and L. Renault, Recueil
des Traites du XIX' Siecle (1914-).

Notwithstanding that a great part of the most important diplomatic
papers remain unpublished and inaccessible in the various archives of
Europe, yet a large number have been published, and may be used
in such storehouses of information as Archives Diplomatiques, 129
vols. (1863-1914), covermg the period 1862 to 1913; and British
and Foreign State Papers, 108 vols. (1841-1918), covering the years
1812 to 1914.

For information about governments : W. F. Dodd, Modern Constitu-
tions, 2 vols. (1909); F. A. Ogg, TJie Governments of Europe (1913);
Percy Ashley, Local and Central Government: a Comparative Study of
England, France, Prussia, and the United States (1906); Handbuch des
Offentlichen Rechts der Gegenwart in Monographien (ed. by Heinrich
Marquardsen and others, 1883-); W. B. Munro, The Government
of European Cities (1909).

For the miscellaneous things, about which ready information is
often got with much difficulty, the best source is the Encyclopcedia
Britannica, 11th ed., 29 vols. (1910-11), in which not a few of the
articles are contributions by the best authorities.

For additional biographical information: the Dictionary of National
Biography, 72 vols. (1885-1913); Nouvelle Biographie Generale, 46 vols.
(1855-66); Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 54 vols. (1875-).

If possible, students should sometimes consult the principal historical
reviews, where they will not only find much rare and interesting infor-
mation but be brought into contact with the best modern scholarship
and research: Tlie American Historical Review; The English Historical
Review; Historische Zeitschrift; La Revue Historique; La Revue des
Questions Historiques; and, for the more elementary student. The History
Teacher's Magazine, now The Historical Outlook.

No text book ever contained too many maps, and the student will
find it well to use an atlas as much as possible: E. W. Dow, Atlas of
European History (1907); Ra.msay Muir, Hammond's New Historical
Atlas for Students (2d ed. 1915); W-R-Qhepherd, Historical Atlas {1911);
Cambridge Modern History, vol XIV; and H. B. George, The Relations
of Geography and History (1910).

For military affairs: General A. von Horsetzky, A Short History of the
Chief Campaigns in Europe Since 1792 (trans, by Lieut. K. B. Ferguson^


International law: L. F. W. Oppenheim, International Law, 2 vols,
(1905-G); H. J. F. X. Bonfils, Manuel du Droit International Public
{Droit des Gens), 7th ed. (1914).

For current information the following annual publications: The
Annual Register (1758-); VAnnee Politique (1874-1905), continued as
La Vie Politique dans les Deux Mondes (190G-); Europdischer Geschickts-
kalender (18(51-); The Statesman s Year Book (1864-); The New In-
ternational Year Book (1907-).

The student with a taste for recent history will find a fascinating
field for exploration in the volumes of the more important periodicals,
such as The (London) Nation, The National Review, The Quarterly
Renew, The (New York) Weekli/ Revieiv, Revue des Deux Mondes, and
many others. He will also find much instruction and amusement in
the cartoons of such publications as Jugend and Punch.


Europe is the smallest in extent of the four great continents, and yet
we may pronounce it the most important of all the divisions of the
globe. Asia, indeed, was the cradle of civilization and knowledge;
but her emi)ires soon became, and have ever since continued,
stationary; while Europe has carried the sciences, arts, and re-
finements, with almost uninterrupted progress, to the compara-
tively elevated state at which they have now arrived. All the
branches of industry are conducted with a skill and to an extent
unattained in any other part of the earth.

Hugh Murray, and others, The Encyclopaedia of Geography
(1855), i. 288, 289.

The beginning of this period of European history, far
away as it seems now, is not remote tlirough number of
years. Some can still remember 1870, and many fathers and
mothers of the generation now living were of the genera-
tion then in its prime. But passing years have brought
about mighty changes. The men of that time, so be-
wliiskered, as they peer from out of tlie engravings, with
tall hats, loose trousers, long coats; the women, with wide
skirts, crinoline, and shawls; the artisans, the laborers,
the women workers, the peasants, seen in the prints or
cruder pictures of then; all of these people of the era of our
fathers or grandfathers lived amidst changes which have
since made their life and surroundings appear strange and
old-fashioned to us.

Yet, compared with what had been a century previous,
before 1789, in the Old Regime, these men and women
lived in the midst of conditions much like our own. A
hundred years before, in the eighteenth century, almost all
the people in Europe had made their living by working the


Two genera-
tions ago

The Old
Regime very
from the
period about



Lowly con-
dition of the
people in the


land. A much smaller number sought their livelihood in
manufacturing, commerce, and trade. They worked long
hours with simple tools, and with much labor of muscle
and hands. Few of them could read and write. Most
of them made up a lower class, without political power
or rights, ruled by a small upper class and sovereigns,
whom they obeyed and supported. The great mass of men
and women were serfs, partly unfree. Between the throng
of laborers, peasants, and serfs on the one hand, and the
great men of the nobility or the Church on the other, was
a middle class, the bourgeoisie, rising in importance, but
in most countries still with small part in controlling affairs.
Generally government was in the hands of sovereigns,
who had power complete and despotic, ruling of them-
selves and through officials whom they appointed or re-
moved at their pleasure. In no great country then did an
important representative assembly exist, save in Great
Britain; and the British parliament, though it was repre-
sentative and endowed with real power, represented only
the upper classes and very often worked in their interests.
Nowhere, except among the followers of such men as
Rousseau, was there any idea that all men, not to speak
of women, should vote and be represented in parliaments,
which should make the laws and grant taxes. There was
much unbelief and religious decadence, but this had been
confined mostly to the upper intellectual class. The
great body of the people everywhere followed the teaching
of their priests without question. Enlightened sceptics
might deride the dogmas of the Church, but the masses,
simple and pious, accepted the Scriptures, with the story
of creation and the fall of man, with the derivative con-
ceptions of heaven, earth, purgatory, and hell, literally,
with no reservation. In most of the countries of Europe
national feeling was dormant or weak.

At this time most people travelled seldom and little.
By land they must go on foot, on horseback, or in cumber-


some coaches, over poor roads, ill made and ill kept. On
the rivers they might go down with the current toward
the coast. On the sea they would voyage slowly in small
sailing ships driven forward by the wind. Not many
letters could be sent; lliey went slow and might not be
delivj|^d.'|^&B|Espapcrs were few and small and contained
little nfews. ^here was no way of getting news from other
places quickly. Most houses were not well heated, and
there was no way for most people to get enough inex-
pensive fuel. Artificial lighting was scanty and poor;
and after sundown there was such darkness as is not
known to most people now. There was not much ma-
chinery. Manufacturing was mostly carried on in the
laborers' homes. The work was done largely by hand,
with simple tools and devices. The steam engine was
only just beginning to be used. There w^ere not yet any
railroads, no steamboats, no telegraphs, no telephones,
and no electrical apparatus. Only a little had the forces
of nature been reduced to the service of man.

By 1870 an immense transformation had come. Divine
right of kings and their absolute power had been over-
thrown in western Europe In many countries constitu-
tions had appeared, and governments had come to be
limited and responsible to representatives elected. Most
people still did not accept any idea of complete democracy
or universal suffrage, and would have laughed to scorn the
suggestion that women should have any control over the
governments which ruled them. None the less the con-
dition of women was slowly but constantly improving, and
in one country after another the electorate was being
widened and democracy enhanced and extended. By
this time nationalism had come to be one of the strongest
political forces in the world. In western Europe the power
of nobles and great churchmen had been broken, and an
aristocracy of blood no longer lorded over the mass of the
people. The place of the old nobility now was largely

in the time
of the Old

about 1870



and capi-

conditions in

held by an industrial aristocracy, the great manufacturers,
capitalists, and traders, much increased in numbers, in
wealth, and in power. They were masters of men em-
ployed in factories and working at the machines of em-
ployers for wages. More and more they dominated the
conduct of affairs. But the workers, so helpless and
oppressed in the early days of the Industrial Revolution,
were slowly gathering power to win better conditions.
Already they were beginning to form industrial trade
unions, while the socialist doctrines of St. Simon and Marx
proclaimed new hopes for the masses of mankind. At
the same time, immense and brilliant scientific investiga-
tion was establishing new ideas which conflicted with the
older teachings of the Church. Men were beginning to
believe that the world was very old, and that things al-
ways had developed by slow change or evolution.

During the period just preceding, the advance in dis-
covery and mechanical invention had been far greater
than in any epoch before. In 1870, it is true, in Europe
as elsewhere, there were no airplanes, no submarines, no
automobiles, no combustion gas engines, and no tram cars
in the cities. The phonograph, the cinema, and wireless
telegraphy had not yet appeared. But some of the great-
est things which we have now men were possessed of then.
The immense liners and huge freight ships which cross
every ocean in our day had not yet appeared, but steam-
ships had revolutionized sea-borne traffic. The passage
over the Atlantic, which had formerly taken a month or
six or seven weeks, now sometimes took less than a fort-
night. Maritime facilities were being extended, and
vast changes and improvements made. The Isthmus of
Panama was still the narrow but insuperable obstacle be-
tween the Atlantic and the Pacific that it was in the days
when Balboa toiled slowly from one shore to the other.
But a still greater obstacle to the world's trade had just.
been removed. In 1869 the Suez Canal was opened amidst'


ma^ificent festivities, memorable for the first perform-
ance of Verdi's Aula. Tlie splendid railroad systems of
Europe, which before the Great War linked all its im-
portant cities together, and formed a network of high-
ways in the more advanced countries of the west, were far
less developed fifty years before; but railways had long
been increasingly important. Already the Prussians were
arranging their railways for war, in "strategic systems."

Partly in consequence of better transportation, partly
because of certain great mechanical inventions, an in-
dustrial system had been rising, which made it easy
to produce more necessaries and luxuries than had ever
been possible before in the history of mankind. The
telegraph was everywhere bringing rapid communication
on land, while telegraphs carried in submarine cables were
being laid beneath various seas. In 1866 such a cable had
been stretched across the bottom of the Atlantic. It was
now possible for news to be got quickly from a distance,
and with the development of the power printing-press,
large newspapers containing much fresh news were cir-
culated widely without delay. Illiteracy was still preva-
lent in eastern and southern Europe, and much of it
remained in all countries except Prussia and a few smaller
states. Yet, it had much diminished since the beginning
of the nineteenth century, and there were constantly more
readers of newspapers, periodicals, and books.

The lands of these people, the mountains, the rivers,
the seas round about — all were very much as they had been
for a hundred past generations. In mass and in area
Europe seemed small enough, for it was least among the
continents, less than either of the Americas, only an
extension of Asia, to the east, and small beside the giant
Africa southward. From Asia Europe was marked off
on the east by the low-lying Ural Mountains; southward
by the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, and by the Cau-
casus Mountains between them. At two points, the

and com-

The Con-
tinent of


Bosporus and the Dardanelles, where Constantinople
stood and where ancient Troy once had been, Asia and
Europe were separated by less than the breadth of a river.
Between Europe and Africa lay the Mediterranean, high-
way of commerce and once the very cradle of European
culture. Past the sunlit shores of Greece and Italy
and France, this sea stretched on resplendent and broad,
until narrowing down by the Spanish coast it ended at the
Strait of Gibraltar.
The Euro- Of this Europe the greater part was a vast and exten-

pean plain sive low plain, which embraced all the eastern half of the
continent. From the sunken stretches by the Caspian
and the great wheat lands above the Black Sea, up across
the steppes, the forests, the marshes of Russia, to the
barren tundras of the north, and eastward from the Urals
to the Carpathian Mountains, stretched the mighty ex-
panses of this plain, which was here the home of the
Russian people and mother of the races of the Slavs.
Huge, monotonous, unbroken, it was traversed by broad,
slowly moving rivers, Ural, Volga, Dnieper, and Don,
flowing to the south, and by others less known and less
used flowing northward. Stretching west, to the north
of the Carpathians and lesser mountains, a narrower part
of this plain extended, across the Prussian and northern
German lands, over Belgium and Holland, across the north-
ern part of France and the western part, down to the
Pyrenees Mountains. And farther north and westward,
beyond the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, beyond lands
long since sunken and drowned, portions of this plain
ended in Sweden and England. Across parts of this
western extension ran the most renowned rivers of Europe,
Vistula, Oder, Elbe, Weser, Rhine, Seine, Loire, Garonne,
and Thames. In this great plain, from the Russian
mountains to the Bay of Biscay and Ireland, lived most
of Europe's inhabitants, and there now were assembled
most of her wealth and grandeur and power.


Elsewhere mountain and upland held sway over low- Mountain
land and plain. Most of Norway, most of Switzerland, '^^ "P^*°^
all the north half of Scotland, most of Wales, and much
of the Balkan country, were mountainous, and parts of
them backward, sparsely peopled, and poor. Between
Italians, Germans, and Frenchmen the heights of the
Alps rose like a towering rampart, distinctly separating

Online LibraryEdward Raymond TurnerEurope since 1870 → online text (page 1 of 49)