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accept what had been done. In 1912 she helped to form
the Balkan Alliance which dismembered Turkey. She
overcame all opposition and even obtained the long-desired
outlet on the sea, at Durazzo. But Austria -Hungary,
unwilling that Servia should grow great or have a



Servia,
Austria-
Hungary,
and Russia



Servia in
the Balkan
wars



334



EUROPE SINCE 1870



Domestic
affairs



Greece,
1829-1832



port on the Adriatic, compelled her to withdraw from
Albania. She did, indeed, at this time yield to Servia the
saujak (province) of Novi-Bazar, which lay between
Servia and Montenegro, and which she had undertaken
to administer when she got possession of Bosnia. But the
Serbs, deprived of the fruits of their victory, turned for
compensation to the east, and this helped to bring on
the Second Balkan War. In this struggle Servia and
Greece defeated Bulgaria, and, as a result of the Treaty
of Bucharest, Servia, although terribly weakened, was
left with greatly increased possessions and prestige. In
1915, during the Great War, she was destroyed by her
enemies, but part of her army escaped and afterward
assisted the Allies in their final triumph. As a result
of this war Servia became the leader of a great federation
of South Slavs, based upon the eastern Adriatic Sea.

The domestic history of the country records the long,
slow rise of the peasants to better economic conditions.
The principal occupations of the people were agriculture
and the raising of cattle. Generally speaking, the land
was in the hands of small peasant proprietors, who lived a
rude, hard life, but enjoyed more economic independence
than most of the peasants outside of France, and of Ireland
after the Land Purchase Acts. The government was
vested in a prince, until 1882, when the title of king was
assumed. There was a legislature, the Skupshtina, and
for some years before the war a considerable measure of
constitutional self-government had been developing. The
religion of the people is the Greek Catholic faith.

For ages the fate of Greece has been closely associated
with that of Turkey and the Balkans. The Greeks ob-
tained their freedom in 1829, about the time that the Serbs
won theirs. When Turkey had abandoned her claims, there
was some delay about fixing the status of the country. Rus-
sia desired that Servia should have self-government but re-
main tributary to the sultan; but since it was believed that



AUSTRIA, TURKEY, BALKANS 335



this would make her really dependent on Russia, Austria
and England opposed it. Metternieh was unwilling for
any assistance to be given to the Greeks; he greatly wished
to prevent the break-up of the Ottoman dominions, and
hence some part of the existing arrangement in Europe;
but since that had already occurred, he joined England
in helping to establish Greece as a sovereign and indepen-
dent state. This was done in 1832 as the result of an in-
ternational conference in London.

In her foreign relations Greece was generally fortunate.
England and France occupied Pira'us in IHoO to pnvent
Greece attacking Turkey during the Crimean War; hut in
1862 the British Government gave her the Ionian Islands,
which lay just off the west coast, and which England had
acquired during the Napoleonic wars. By the Congress of
Berlin the northern boundaries of Greece were extended,
and five years later, after some pressure by the powers,
she received parts of Thessaly and Epirus. In 1897,
during a rebellion in the large Greek-inhabited island of
Crete, Greece declared war on Turkey, but was at once
overwhelmed and would have lost some of her territory
in the north but for prompt intervention by the powers.
None the less, the Cretans, who had repeatedly risen in
rebellions since the time of the Greek War of Indepen-
dence, were now given autonomy under Turkey. In
1905, under their leader, Venizelos, the ablest Greek of his
generation, they declared for union with Greece, and five
years later the Treaty of London, at the end of the First
Balkan War, brought this about. In the First Balkan War
the Greeks got connnand of the sea, and occupied such
islands in the .Egean as Italy had not taken the year be-
fore, and, defeating the Turkish armies opposed to them,
got the long-coveted city of Salonica. In the second war,
she helped Servia to defeat Bulgaria, and kept what she
had won. In the Great W^ar Venizelos would have had
her join the Allies, but the sympathy of the sovereign was



Foreign
relations



Greece in
the Balkan
wars



336



EUROPE SINCE 1870



Domestic
affairs



Rumania,
1829-61-78



with Germany, and for a long time Greece remained neu-
tral. The Allies presently occupied Salonica, and in 1917 a
revolution drove King Constantine out, whereupon Greece
entered the war with England and France. In 1920,
during the settlement of European affairs, by the Treaty
of Sevres, Greece received considerable portions of Turk-
ish territory along the ^Egean and up beyond Adrianople,
and also in Asia INIinor.

The domestic history of the country during this period
has no great general interest. The people are descended
from the ancient Hellenes, though their forefathers
mingled with the Slavic intruders who came into the
peninsula in the early Middle Ages. Their language is a
modification of the Greek spoken by the countrymen of
Aristotle and Pericles. Indeed, modern Greek is much
more like the Greek of classical times than modern English
is like Anglo-Saxon. The people belong to the Greek
Catholic Church. The government is a constitutional
monarchy. The people have continued the traditions
of old Greece and developed much commerce and ship-
ping, but the country is poor and opportunity small, and
large numbers of emigrants have left the homeland. The
new possessions of Greece together with the advantages
of her geographical position will probably bring much
greater prosperity and expansion in the future.

Rumania dates from about the time when Greece was
established. By the Treaty of Adrianople in 1829 the
two Danubian principalities, Moldavia and Wallachia,
were left under the nominal sovereignty of the sultan, but
actually autonomous and largely dependent on Russia,
who had gained them their freedom. Russian control
of the country, which commanded the mouths of the
Danube, awakened the jealousy of Austria, and in 1856
at the Congress of Paris the principalities were formally
declared autonomous states under Turkish suzerainty and
the Russian protectorate abolished. At the same time



AUSTRIA, TURKEY, BALKANS 337

Bessarabia, formerly an eastern part of Moldavia, lying The

across the Danube, and taken by Russia from Turkey in Danubmn
. . 1 -> r 1 1 • rr«i • Principali-

1812, was joined to Moldavia once more, i he constitu- ^^^^ autono-
ent assemblies now called, in the two provinces, declared mous
for union in one state; but this was opposed by En^^land
who feared Russia, and by Austria who wanted no strong
Rumanian state right on the border of her province of
Transylvania which was peopled by Rumans. None the
less, the people of the two principalities proceeded to
elect the same prince, Alexander Couza, and supported
by Napoleon III, who shortly afterward made war
upon Austria to assist Italian nationality, they were
united. The union was sanctioned by Turkey in 1861.
The great reforms which Couza undertook raised enemies
who drove him from his throne five years later. He was
succeeded by a German prince, Charles of Hohenzollern-
Sigmaringen, in whose long reign the country went for-
ward in development and progress.

With Russia Rumania made war upon Turkey in 1877, Foreign
and her soldiers won great distinction; but she gained
nothing: for, in the settlement that followed, Russia took
back Bessarabia and gave the less valuable Dobrudja
to the south, which had just been taken from Turkey.
But the complete independence of Rumania was recog-
nized by the Treaty of Berlin, and in 1881 her ruler as-
sumed the title of king. Rumania took no part in the
First Balkan War, but intervened decisively in the Second,
and by the Treaty of Bucharest obtained a small portion of
Bulgarian territory. During the Great War, like Italy
and Greece, Rumania maintained neutrality for some time,
but in 1916 joined the Allies. After a brief struggle she
was overwhelmed, and presently forced to make an
ignominious peace and see her country stripped bare. Two
years later, however, her enemies were completely over-
thrown, and in the general settlement of European aflTairs,
in Paris, she obtained what she had so long hoped for : Tran-



affairs



338



EUROPE SINCE 1870



Domestic
affairs



Agrarian
reforms



sylvania, Romania Irredenta, and proceeded to take back
Bessarabia also.

The domestic history of the country reveals steady
development and increase in material prosperity. Even
before her latest acquisitions Rumania was the largest
and most populous of the Balkan States; she was rich in
resources, one of the great wheat- and oil-producing dis-
tricts of Europe, and she had a trade almost as great as
that of all the other Balkan States combined. After the
Treaty of St. Germain (1919) and the taking of Bes-
sarabia her size was nearly doubled, and she became
greater and more important than her neighbors, Austria,
Hungary, or any of the Balkan States. Rumania w^as
free from the uprisings and violent overturns that inter-
fered with the development of neighboring states. Con-
stitutional monarchy was established but a restricted
franchise kept control in the hands of the upper classes.
Under their prince, Alexander (1859-1866), a series of
notable reforms was made; the property of the monaster-
ies was confiscated, and part of the holdings of the great
landowners was sold to the peasants, who at the same
time were relieved of the more onerous of the feudal or
manorial obligations. These changes, which were carried
through just about the time when Alexander II was mak-
ing his great reform for the Russian serfs, partly failed in
the end largely for the same reasons as in Russia. The
amount of land given to the peasants was small, and since
the population increased rapidly, after a while the amount
was altogether insufiicient. Furthermore, some of the
feudal obligations were left upon the peasants, such ob-
ligations lingering in Rumania longer than anywhere
else in Europe. The result was that while the wealth
and prosperity of the country increased, it was largely for
the upper classes. The mass of the people were poor,
and agrarian discontent was very great. During the
period of the Great War, however, large estates were



1878



AUSTRIA, TURKEY, BALKANS 339

divided among the peasants, and universal suffrage was
granted. Tlie people claim descent from Roman colonists
of the time of Trajan, and their language is an offspring of
the Latin; but most of the people arc Slavic, and most of
them adherents of the Greek Orthodox Church.

Youngest of the Balkan States was Bulgaria. The TheBulgars
Bulgars, hke the Serbs, have a long history. Both
of them were formidable enemies of the Eastern Roman
Empire in the days of the Empire's decline, and both
founded great states in the Balkan peninsula during the
Middle Ages. Both of them were afterward overwhelmed
by the Turks, and spent long ages in dumb and hopeless
subjection. Because of their rivalry and their disputes
the Turks found it easy to conquer them and afterward
play them off against each other.

In 1876, following the uprising of the people of Ilerze- ^^l^"^^'
govina, Bulgarian peasants rose against their Turkish
masters. The revolt was easily suppressed, but it was
suppressed with such crueltj^ that all Europe was
aroused. The "Bulgarian Atrocities," as the massacres
were called, awakened a storm of indignation in Europe.
In 1877 Russia declared war on Turkey. She was moved
partly by ambition to extend her influence toward Con-
stantinople, but she was aroused also because of the
sincere sympathy of the Russian people for their kinsmen
in the midst of the horrors which they were enduring.
Joined by Rumania, she quickly destroyed Turkey's
power, and by the Treaty of San Stefano stripped her of
nearly all her possessions in Europe. This territory was
mostly given to a new Bulgarian state, autonomous
though tributary to the sultan, which would now have
been the most powerful state in the Balkans. But
this arrangement was not allowed to stand. The entire
Balkan question was soon dealt with by a European
congress which met at Berlin. By the Treaty of Berlin
in 1878 the Bulgarian country was divided into three



340 EUROPE SINCE 1870

parts, the southernmost, Macedonia, wliich contained
many Bulgarians, was left to the Turks; the middle part.
Eastern Rumelia, was made an autonomous province
under a Christian governor, but was to be under the direct
authority of Turkey in mihtary and political matters;
the northern part was made into the autonomous prin-
cipality of Bulgaria tributary to the sultan. Part of this
enforced division of the Bulgarian people was soon undone.
In 1885 Eastern Rumelia joined Bulgaria. Greece and
Servia were unwilling to see their new rival strengthened,
and Servia suddenly attacked her. But the Bulgars
completely defeated their enemies at SHvnitsa, and the
union was then assured.
The King- The first ruler of the country was a German, Prince

dom of Alexander of Battenberg, but after a troublous reign of

Bulgaria, seven years he withdrew from the country. Presently

another German, Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg, was
chosen. For some years the country was directed by
the one great statesman whom Bulgaria has produced,
Stephen Stambulov, in whose time Bulgaria threw off the
tutelage of Russia and made herself truly independent.
The young nation constantly grew in strength and pres-
tige, and in 1908, at the time when Austria annexed the
two Turkish provinces, the Bulgarian prince cast off
all Turkish allegiance and proclaimed the mdependent
Kingdom of Bulgaria.
Misfortune Four years later Bulgaria was the principal member in

in war j-^e Balkan coalition which destroyed Turkish power, and

after her armies had everywhere gained great triumphs
she found herself in possession of the province of Thrace
down beyond Adrianople. But in the next year, unwilling
to compromise with her allies, she attacked Servia and
Greece. She did not succeed in defeating them, and
while they were driving her back the Rumanians suddenly
came down from the north, while the Turks took back
Adrianople. Bulgaria was forced to make abject sub-



AUSTRIA, TURKEY, BALKANS 341



mission, and by the Treaty of Bucharest yielded some of
her own territory to Rumania, and lost nearly all she had
gained in the First Balkan War. It was partly to get
revenge and partly to undo the settlement of Bucharest
that tlie Bulgarians joined the Teutonic powers in 1915 and
helped to destroy first Servia then Rumania. But in
1918 she was the first to surrender to the Allies, and the
war left her poverty-stricken, ruined, and bare.

The origin of the Bulgarians is not certainly known.
Like the Magyars and the Finns they are apparently
Asiatic intruders in Europe, but they are nmch mixed
with Slavic people, and speak a Slavic language. Their
religion is the Greek Catholic, but they have an inde-
pendent church, the Bulgarian Exarchate. The prin-
cipal industry is agriculture, and the Bulgars constitute
a state of small, sturdy, free, independent peasant pro-
prietors. The government is a constitutional monarchy,
under a king and a parliament, the Sohranjey elected by
the people.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Austria-Hungary, general: H. W. Steed, W. A. Phillips, and
D. A. Hannay, SJiort History of Ausiria-H ungary and Poland
(1914) ; H. W. Steed, The Ilapshurg Monarchy (2d ed. 1914), best,
by the Vienna correspondent of the London Times; J. A. von
Ilelfert, Geschichte Oesierreichs von Ausgange des Wiener October
Ausstandes 181^8, 4 vols. (1869-86), the best work on the period.

Biographies and memoirs: E. von Wertheimcr, Graf Julius
Andrassy, 3 vols. (1910-13); F. F. von Beust, Aus Drei Viertel-
jahrhnnderten, 2 vols. (1887).

The parts of the Dual Monarchy: Bertrand Auerbach, Les
Races et les Nationalitis en Aidriche-Hongrie (1898); A. R. and
Mrs. E. M. C. Colquhon, The Whirlpool of Europe, Austria-
Hungary and the Hapsburgs (1907); Geoffrey Drage, Austria-
Hungary (1909); R. W. Seton-Watson, Racial Problems in
Hungary (1908), Corruption and Reform in Hungary (1911),
The Southern Slav Question and the Hapsburg Monarchy (1911),
excellent; Josef Ulrich, Das Oesterreichischc Staatsrecht (3d ed.
1904), best on the subject; Alexandre de Bertha, La Hongrie



The Treaty
of Bucharest



Bulgaria a

peasant

state



342 EUROPE SINCE 1870

Moderne, 1849-1901 (IWl), La Constitution Hongroise (1898);
R. Sieghart, ZoUtrennung und Zolleinheit (1915), for the economic
relations between Austria and Hungary; E. Denis, La Boheme
depui.s la Moniagne-Blanche, 2 vols (1903).

Austria-Hungary and the Balkans: A. Beer, Die Orientalische
Politik Oesterreichs seit 1774. (1883); T. von Sosnosky, Die
Balkanpolitik Osterreich-Ungarns seit 1866, 2 vols. (1913); A.
Fournier, ]Vie Wir zu Bosnien Kamen (1909); D. S. Koyitch,
L' Annexion de la Bosnie-Herzegovine et le Droit International
Public (1912); Ferdinand Schmid, Bosnien und die Herzegovina
untcr der Verwaltung Oesterreich-Ungarns (1914).

The Ottoman Empire: W. Miller, The Ottoman Empire, 1801-
191S (1913), for a good introductory account; W. E. D. Allen,
The Turks in Europe (1919); B. G. Baker, The Passing of the
Turkish Empire in Europe (1913); B, Bareilles, Les Turcs, Ce
Que Fut Leur Empire, Leurs ComSdies Politiques (1917); V. Be-
rard, Le Sultan, l' Islam, et les Puissances (1907) ; W. E. Curtis,
The Turk and His Lost Provinces (1903); S. Goriainov, Le Bos-
phore et les Dardanelles (1910), based on studies in the Russian
archives; A. Vicomte de la Jonquiere, Ilistoire de V Empire Otto-
man, 2 vols, (3d ed. 1914), the second volume contains the fullest
account of Turkey since 1870; "Odysseus" [Sir C. N. E. Eliot],
Turkey in Europe (1908), excellent and suggestive; R. Pinon,
L'Europe et VEmpire Ottoman (1913). For accounts of life in
Constantinople: H. S. Edwards, Sir W. White, Ambassador at
Constantinople, 1885-1891 (1908); Sir E. Pears, Fortij Years
in Constantinople (1916), excellent. Life of Abdul Hamid (1917).
For the Turkish revolution: G. F. Abbott, Turkey in Trans-
ition (1909); C. R. Buxton, Turkey in Revolution (1909).

The Eastern Question: Edouard Driault, La Question d'Orient
depuis Ses Origines jusqua Nos Jours (1898, 7th ed. 1917), best;
Die Balkanfrage, ed. by M. J. Bonn (1914) ; M. Choublier, La
Question d'Orient depuis le TraitS de Berlin (1897); S. P. H.
Duggan, The Eastern Question — a Study in Diplomacy (1902) ; T.
E, Holland, The European Concert in the Eastern Question (1885) ;
J. A. R. Marriott, The Eastern Question (1917) ; M. I. Newbegin,
Geographical Aspects of Balkan Problems in Their Relation to
the Great European War (1915); R. Wyon, The Balkans from
Within (1904); R. W. Seton-Watson, The Balkans, Italy, and
the Adriatic (1915).

The Balkan Wars: V. Berard, La Macedmne (2d ed. 1900)
H. M. Brailsford, Macedonia: Its Races and Their Future (1906)
Andre Cheradame, Douze Ans de Propagande, 1900-1912 (1913)



AUSTRIA, TURKEY, BALKANS 343

L. E. Gueschoff, U Alliance Balkaniqnc (1015), trans. The /Bal-
kan League (191.5), contains important documents and first-
hand information; G. Younj^, Nationalism and War in the Xcar
East (1915). For the mihtary operations: J. G. Schurman,
The Balkan Wars, 1912^-1913 (1914); nej)ort oj the International
Commission to Inquire info the Causes and Conduct oj the Balkan
Wars (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1914j;
ElHs Ashmcad-Bartlett, With the Turks in Thrace (1913);
Hermengild Wagner, With the Victorious Bulgars (1913); D. J.
Cassavetti, Hellas and the Balkan Wars (1914); K. Nicolaides,
Griechenlands Ariteil an den Balkankriegen, 1912-13 (1914).

Greece: Sir R. C. Jebb, Modern Greece (2d ed. 1901); Ivcwis
Sergeant, Greece in the Nineteenth Century (1897); George Fin-
lay, History of the Greek Revolution (1877), best on the subject;
P. F. Martin, Greece of the Twentieth Century (1913); R. A. H.
Bickford-Smith, Greece Under King George (1893); X. Nicolaides,
Les Grecs et la Turquie (1910); C. Kerofilas, Eleutherios Venizelos
(trans, by B. Barstow, 1915); V. E. Berard, Les Affaires de
Crete (2d ed. 1900).

The Balkan States: W. S. Murray, The Making of the Balkan
States (Columbia University Studies, XXXIX, no. 1, 1910),
scholarly; William Miller, The Balkans: Roumania, Bulgaria,
Servia, and Montenegro (2d ed. 1908).

Montenegro: P. Coquelle, Histoire de Montenegro et de la
Bosnie depuis les Origines (1895) ; F. S. Stevenson, A History of
Montenegro (1912).

Servia: H. W. V. Temperley, History of Serbia (1917), best in
English; V. Georgevitch, Die Serhische Frage (1909); Prince and
Princess Lazarovich-Hrebelianovich, The Servian People, Their
Past Glory and Their Destiny, 2 vols. (1910); W. M. Petrovitch,
Serbia, Her People, History, and Aspirations (1915) ; V. Ratchich,
Le Royaume de Serbie: Etude d'llistoire Diplomatique (1901);
Gregoire Yakschitch, L^Europe et la Resurrection de la Serbie,
lS0-hl83J^ (1907).

Rumania: Oscar Brilliant, /?o?/7na?H'a (1915); Nicolae Jorga,
Geschichte des Rumdnischen Volkes, 2 vols. (1905); D. Mitrany,
Roumania, Her History and Politics (1915); Andre Bellesort,
La Roumanie Contemporaine (1905).

Bulgaria: A. Chaunier, La Bulgarie (1909); Edward Dicey,
The Peasant State: an Account of Bulgaria in 1S94 (1894) ; Guerin
Songeon, Histoire de la Bulgarie depuis les Origines jusqud Nos
Jours (1913); A. H. Beaman, M. Stambuloff (1895).



CHAPTER XIII



Rome and
the comple-
tion of
Italian unity,
1870



ITALY, SPAIN, AND THE LESSER
STATES

Sono celebri le parole pronunziate da Bismarck al 1879, che I'ltalia
non era una potenza milltare temibile . . . Oggi tutto e
mutato in nostro vantaggio ed io non permettero che I'ltalia
ritorni in quello stato di umiliazione. . . .

Francesco Crispi to Commendatore Ressman, September 2,

1890.

El partido liberal espanol, sin culpa suya, por culpa de otros, es el
partido liberal mas avanzado que hay en toda Europa.
Es necesario, completamente necesario, que la monarquia his-
torica espanola se una, se confunda, se aligue con el partido de-
mocratico historico espanol.

Speech of Emilio Castelar, July 12, 1883.

If this is the day of great Empires it is also preeminently the day of
little nations. . . . Their destiny is interwoven with that of
humanity.

Speech of Mr. Lloyd George, September 6, 1917.

The unification of Italy was completed with the tak-
ing of Rome in 1870. This acquisition was one of the con-
sequences of the Franco-German War. Napoleon HI,
who had had so much to do with making possible the
establishment of the ItaHan nation, by the help which
he gave to Sardinia against the Austrians in 1859, had not
expected the work to be carried as far as it was, and viewed
with displeasure the appearance of a new great state on
the southern border of France. Moreover, the powerful
Catholic party in France, then very active and aggressive,
was deeply offended at the taking by the new state of
most of the territories of the pope in 1860. Partly to
appease them and gain their good will, Napoleon HI

344



ITALY, SPAIN, LESSER STATES 345

occupied Rome, still in the pope's possession, with French

troops. Soon after the beginning of the war with the

Germans these troops were withdrawn, Rome was occupied

by Italian forces, and the capital of the Kingdom of

Italy, which had first been at Turin, then in 1805 had been

removed to Florence, was now brought to Rome.

The government of the state was based on the Htaiido The govern-

fondamentale del Regno, which had been granted l)y '"^"^ °^ ^®
^,, , 4 ,, p ,, I- • /TT I 1 • 1 • •" Kingdom of

Charles Albert oi hardmia (1 ledmont) to his subjects m j^^^jy

1848, and later extended to the other districts as they
were added to Sardinia to make the new kingdom. In
course of time the Statuto, while not changed or amended,
was enlarged and overlaid by much supplementary legisla-
tion and with custom having the force of law. By virtue
of this constitution Italy became a monarchy, with a
government of the model of England or Fr;nK-c, where
the authority was vested in a parliament, of two houses,
with an executive, the ministry, responsible to it. The



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