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Anglo-Saxon Tongue, 336.

Angola, 387, 390.

Annam, 383.

Anne, Queen of England, 254.

VAnuce Terrible, 211.

Annual Register, 94.

Antwerp, 358, 460, 475.

Apprentices, 46.

Arabi Pasha, 375.

Arabian Nights, 435.

Argand, 44.

Argonne Forest, 493, 494.

Aristocracy, 54-6.

Aristotle, 336.

Arkwright, Richard, 46.

Armentieres, 490.

Armies, in earlier times, 123, 124;
in the nineteenth century, 124-7;
growth of in Europe, 425.

Armistice (1918), 495.



557



558



INDEX



"Army of Maneuver," 492.

Army System, reformed in FVance, 215.

Arras, 490.

Article 10, 513.

Article 23, 513.

Artificial Lighting, 9.

Asia, in 1920, 522, 523.

Asiatic Russia, 285.

Asiatic Turkey, 434, 435.

Asquith, H. H., 249, 261.

Association Cultuelle, 229.

Association of the Congo, 370.

Association of Worship, 229.

Astronomy, 69.

Ateliers Nationaux, 77, 78.

Athenians, 34.

.\tlantic Ocean, passage across, 10.

Atlantis, 371.

Augsburg, 15.

Ausgleich, 27, 33, 108; terms of, 109;
difficulties attending renewals of,
306, 307.

Australia, 380.

Austria, abolition of serfdom in, 25;
Revolution of 1848 in, 27, 106; con-
stitution proclaimed in, 27; suf-
frage in, 32, 33; position of in the
first half of the nineteenth cen-
tury, 106; in earlier times, 108;
peoples of, 108; defeated by France
and by Prussia, 109; rules part
of Italy, 113, 114; takes part in
the war about Schleswig-Holstein,
128, 129; army of in the Austro-
Prussian War, 130; beginning of,
193, 433; decline of, 211; in the
seventeenth and eighteenth cen-
turies, 304; becomes part of the
Dual Monarchy, 304; industrial de-
velopment in, 306, 307; provinces
of, 310; peoples of, 311; fate of,
517, 521.

Austria-Hungary, establishment of,
108, 304, 305; rivalry of with Rus-
sia, 175, 176, 178; makes an agree-
ment with the German Empire and
Russia, 175; alliance of with the
German Empire, 179, 313; helps to
form the Triple Alliance, 179-185;
relations of with the German Em-
pire, 197, 198; diversity of races in,
284; relations of with Russia, 293,
313; policy of, 304, 305; history of,
305-15; parts of, 310-12; character
of, 312; foreign policy of, 312-15;
relations of with Servia, 315; pro-
tects Turkey from Russian ag-
gression, 318; acquires Bosnia and



Herzegovina, 324, 333, 405-8, 436;
in the Balkan Crisis of 1912-13,
416, 417; desires to attack Servia
in 1913, 418; outlets of, 428; ulti-
matum of to Servia, 440; makes
war on Servia, 442, 444; surrenders
to the Allies, 494; dissolution of,
516; socialism in, 534.

Austrian Empire, 105.

Austrian Note to Servia, 400, 440,
441.

Austrians, defeated in Poland, 467;
lose Przemysl, 468; help to defeat
the Russians at the Dunajec, 468;
help to conquer Servia, 469, 470;
invade Italy, 477; defeat the Italians
at Caporetto, 484; overwhelmed by
the Italians, 493, 494.

Austro-Italian Frontier, 483.

Austro-Prussian War, 107, 114, 130,
131, 308.

Azov, Sea oU 317.

Babeuf, 75.

Bacon, Roger, 40.

Baden, government in, 165.

Bagdad Railway, 195, 196, 207, 313,
435, 436.

Bakunin, Mikhail, 279, 280; on
equality, 529; career of, 530.

Balance of Power, 95.

Balkan Crisis of 1912-13, 416, 417.

Balkan League, 326.

Balkan States, relations of with Aus-
tria-Hungary, 314, 315; growth of,
324; intrigues of in Macedonia, 325,
326; unite against Turkey, 326; de-
velopment of, 331-41.

Balkan Wars, 313, 315, 327-31, 416,
417.

Balkans, slight progress of industrial-
ism in, 54; changes in, 206; ambi-
tions of Austria-Hungary in, 312;
the German Empire and Austria-
Hungary strive for predominance
in, 3\3; conquered by the Turks,
316; Turkish ride in, 316, 317;
rivalry of the Great Powers in, 318,
435, 436; the danger spot of Eu-
rope, 325; political situation in, in
1912-13, 417, 418; the German Em-
pire desires to control, 434, 435.

Ball, John, 74.

"Baltic Barons," 286.

Baltic Provinces, 286, 288, 522, 543.

Baltic Sea, 13; under Swedish control,
363; Russia and Germany on, 428.

Baluchistan, 378.



INDEX



559



Bapaume, 476.

Barcelona, 5iJ3

Bathing, 43.

Bavaria, government in, 165.

Bazaine, I'Sii.

Beaconsfield, Earl of, 240.

Bebei, August, 533, 534.

Belfort, 138,458,4()1.

Belgians, re.si.st the German invaders,
459, 4(50; help to break the Hinden-
burg Line, 493, 494.

Belgium, suffrage in, 82; Indu.strial
Revolution in, 54, 58; neutraliza-
tion of, 118, 359; separation of from
Holland, 118; in 1870, 119; joined
with Holland, 355, 358, 359, 374;
becomes independent, 8,56, 359;
earlier history of, 358; conditions
in, 359, 3()0; obtains the Congo
country, 392; violation of the neu-
trality of, 440; invasion of by the
Germans, 459, 4(K); German meth-
ods in, 485; war relief for, 485; in
1920, 519.

Benedict XIV, Pope, 346.

Berchtold, Count, 421, 442.

Berlin, voting in, 147; growth of, 153

Berlin Conference, 376, 391.

Bernhardi, General von, 438.

Bessarabia, 337. 338, 522.

Bethmann-IIollweg, von, 446.

Bhutan, 379.

Bible, 70, 72, 88.

Bieberstein, von, 407, 408.

Birtli Rate, in France, 231; decline of,
231; in Italy, 348, 431; in European
countries, 430, 431.

Biscay, Bay of, 12.

Bismarck, Count Otto von, 32;
speech of, 94; enters the Prussian
ministry, 126; plans to obtain
Schleswig and Holstein, 128. 129;
diplomacy of before the Austro-
Prussian War, 129; opposes Napo-
leon III, 132; diplomacy of before
the Franco-German War, 132-4;
in the Franco-German War, 138;
fiscal policy of, 155; contest of with
the Roman Catholics, 159, 160;
with the .social i.st.s, 101, 162; insti-
tutes state s(X'ialism in the German
Empire, 102, 163; on the position
of the German Empire, 173; tasks
of, 173, 174; diplomacy of, 175-87;
at the Congress of Berlin, 178; great
success of the foreign policy of,
184, 185; pa.sses from power, 188;
great achievements of, 188, 189;



methods of, 189; failure of, 190; on
another war with France, 234, 235;
the passing of, 235; reveals intri-
gues of Nap<jle<jn III lonceraing
Belgium. '{59; encourages French
colcjiiiul enterprioc, 383; friend of
La.s.salle, 533.

Bjijrko, Secret Treaty of. 402.

"Black Hundreds," iUM.

Black Sea, 11,12, 14,428.

Blanc, Ixjuis, 77, 78, 79.

Blan(|ui, Adolphe. 40, 40.

Bloc, 219.

"Blood and Iron." 189.

" Board Schmls," 248

Boer War, 201, 377.

Boers, 376.

Bohemia, 306, 310, 507.

lidnheiiki, 22; hatred of for the
bourgeoisie, 56; in the (Jreat War,
482. 537; origin of, 540; ideas of,
540, 541; assisted by the Germans,
541; accept the Treaty of Brest-
Litovsk, 542, 543; system of in
Russia. 543, 544; regarded with
suspicion in other countries, 544;
at war with Poland, 544; defeat
counter-revolut ionary attempts,
544, 545; strength of, 545, 546.

Bolshevist Propaganda in Germany,
495.

Bordeaux, 461.

Borneo, 391.

Bosnia, acquired by Austria-Hungary,
178, 313, 315, 323, 324; annexed
by Austria-Hungary, 324, 333. 405-
8, 435; lost by Austria and Hun-
gary, 510.

Bosnia-Herzegovina, 310.

Bosnia-Herzegovina Crisis, 405-8.

Bosporus, 12.

Boulanger, General, 224, 225.

Boulanger Affair, 235.

Bourbons, restoration of in France, 24;
rule of in France, 104; family of, 217;
rule of in Italy, 346; in Spain, 350.

Bourgeoi.m; in the old Regime, 8;
become an industrial aristocracy in
the nineteenth century, 10; in
France, 20, 105; in the French
Revolution, 22; rise of, 55; pre-
dominance of after the Industrial
Revolution, 55, 56; triumph of in
France in 1848, 78; Marx and
Engels on, 81; in Russia, 110; sup-
press the Commune in Paris, 214;
overthrow of desired by the Bol-
shetnki. 541, 543.



560



INDEX



Boxer Outbreak, 294.

Boyen, 125.

Brazil, slavery in, 25, 271; independ-
ence of, 353'; held by the Dutch, 390.

Breach of Contract, in Russia, 282.

Brest-Litovsk, 469.

Briey Basin, 153.

British, defeated in Belgium, 4G0;
help to defeat the Germans at the
Marne, 461; help to defend the
Channel Ports, 464; failure of at
the Dardanelles, 470-72; keep con-
trol of the sea, 472-4; defeat the
German fleet off Jutland, 473; in
the Battle of the Somme, 470, 477
capture Vimy and Messines, 480
fail to break the German lines, 481
great defeat of in Picardy, 490
break the Hindenburg Line, 493,
494.

British East Africa, 376.

British Empire, formation of, 95
government of, 97, 98, 380-82
extent of, 371; growth of, 371-9
civil war in, 373; character of, 379,
380; greatness of, 379, 380; weak-
ness of, 380; peoples of, 380; in
1920, 523.

British Grand Fleet, 473, 474, 479.

British Labor Committee, 251.

British North America, 374.

British People, sympathy of for
France, 174; attitude of toward
the German people, 174, 175.

British South Africa Company, 370,
377.

Brockdorff-Rantzau, Count von, 498.

Brusilov, General, 477.

Brussels, 460.

Bryce, Viscount, 498.

Budapest, 305.

Buddhists, in the British Empire,
380.

Buffon, 70.

Building, 42.

Bukowina, 310, 314.

Bulgaria, relations of with Russia,
315; with the Teutonic Powers, 315;
conquered by the Turks, 316; re-
bellion in against the Turks, 321;
Turkish atrocities in, 323; freed
from the Turks, 323, 324; complete
independence of, 324; in the Balkan
Wars, 327-31, 340; history of, 339,
341; joins the Teutonic Powers in
the Great War, 470; surrenders to
the Allies, 493; losses of, 517.

"Bulgarian Atrocities," 339.



Bulgarian Exarchate, 341.

Bulgar.s, early history cf, 339; origin
of, 341; join the Teutonic Powers in
tke Great War, 470; help to con-
quer Servia, 470.

Bulow, von, 143, 183.

Bundesrath, 145, 146.

Bureaucracy in Rus?ia, 300.

Burma, 394.

Butt, Isaac, 261.

Byron, Lord, 13, 320.

Cabet, Etienne, 79.

Cabinet Government, 97, 144.

Cables, Submarine, 11.

"Cadets," 300.

Calais, 464.

Calvin, 80.

Calvinists, 18, 28.

Cambodia, 383.

Cambrai, 476.

Cambridge, 247.

Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry, 249.

Canada, 380.

Canada Government Act of 1840, 97.

Canning, Stratford, 117.

Canossa, 160.

Canterbury Cathedral, 14. .

Cantons, Swiss, 360, 361.

Cape Colony, 374, 376.

Cape of Good Hope, 375.

Capitalism, in the older industrial
system, 47; in the Industrial Rev-
olution, 48; abolition of desired by
socialists, 81 ; syndicalist war against,
532.

Caporetto, Battle of, 484.

"Capping the Line," 297.

Carbonari, 114, 320.

Carinthia, 310.

Carlyle, Thomas, 193.

Carniola, 310, 510.

Carpathian Mountains, 12, 13, 15,
16; struggle for the passes of, 468.

Carso Plateau, 483.

Carthage, 370, 451.

CartvsTight, Edmund, 46.

Cartwright, John, 30.

Caspian Sea, 11, 12.

Castelar, Emilio, 344, 350.

Catalonia, 35.

Catherine II, Tsaritsa of Russia, 318.

Catholic Emancipation, 258.

Catholic Party in the German Empire,
160.

Caucasia, 286, 287, 321, 522.

Cavour, Count Camillo di, 114.

Celebes, 391.



INDEX



561



Celtic Language, 37.

Celtic People, -156, 257.

Center Party, IGO.

Central Europe, in the first half of
the nineteenth (enlury, 105-7.

Central Pcsition of the Teutonic
Powers in the Great ^Va^, 455, 450.

Cervantes, 38i.

Ceylon, 357, 374.

Chamber of Deputies, 312.

Champagne, battle in, 475.

Champlain, Samuel de, 384.

Channel Ports, 4G4, 475, 490, 492.

Charleroi, 460.

Charles, Prince of Hohenzollem-
Sigmaringen, 337.

Charles Albert, King of Sardinia, 345.

Charter, of France, 26, 31.

Chartism, 78.

Chartists, 76,78.

Chateau-Thierry, 491.

Chcmirt des Dames, 481, 491-

Child Labor, 50, 51.

Children in the Industrial Revolu-
tion. 50, 51.

China, decay of, 293; territory of
seized by other Powers, 293, 294;
in ancient times, 370; German rights
in, 515; Austrian rights in, 517.

Chinese, in the British Empire, 380.

Chinese-Japanese War, 293^

Christ, teachings of, 439.

Christianity, suppressed in France,
22; effects of upon the pcsition of
women, 62; communism in, 73, 74.

Christians, treatment of in the Turk-
ish Empire, 317.

Church, lands of confiscated in France
during the French Revolution, 21;
measures against in France, 22;
communism in, 73, 74; in the Mid-
dle Ages, 84, 226; during the Refor-
mation, 226; in Lutheran coun-
tries, 226; in England, 226; in
Catholic countries, 226.

Church and State, in the German Em-
pire, 158; in the Middle Ages, 226; in
modern times, 226; in France, 226,
227; separation of in France, 227-
30; in Italy, 345, 346; in Spain, 351;
in Portugal, 354.

Church of England, 90, 98.

Church of Ireland, 99, 260.

Cinema, 10.

Cities, increase of size and power of
after the Industrial Revolution, 60,
61; consequences of, 61, 62.

Citizen Armies, in France, 138, 139.



Civil Equality. 28

Civil War, American, 101.

Classes, Struggle of, 81.

Cleanlines.s, 43.

Clemeiueau, 481. 501, 511, 512.

Clericalism, in I'Vance, 227.

Coal, 41. 45. 153.

C()aliti(jn, First, again.st France, 35.

Cochin China, 383.

Code Napoleon, 23.

Colonial Empire, of Great Britain,
97, 98, 371-82, 523; of Spain, 115;
of France, 236, 237, 382-5; of Ger-
many, 385-9.

Colonial Populations, treatment of,
393, 394.

Colonies, of Great Britain, 371-82; of
France, .382-5; of the (ierman
Empire, 385-9; of Italy, 389, 390;
of Spain, 390; of Portugal, 390; of
Holland, 390, 391; of Belgium, 391,
392.

Command of the Sea, in the Great
War, 456, 472-4.

Commercial Development, in the
German Empire, 155.

Communal Ownership of Land, in
Russia, 272.

Commune of Paris, 80, 83, 105, 211,
212-14,279,530,534,535.

Communes, in the Middle Ages, 213; in
modern France, 213.

Communism, in earlier times, 73, 74;
in the French Revolution, 74, 75;
belief in advanced by the Industrial
Revolution, 75, 76; in England, 76;
in France, 70-8; development of by
Marx and Engels, 70-81; doctrines
of, 81-t.

Communist League, 79.

Communist Manifesto, 56, 60, 79, 80,
81, 82, 529.

Compulsory Military Service. in
France, 124, 215. 233; in Prussia,
125-7; in Austria-Hungary, 307.

Concordat of 1801, 23, 86, 226, 227, 229.

Conference of London, 418.

Congo Free State, 391. 392.

Congress of Berlin, 178, 181, 265, 313,
319, 323, 324, 332, 333, 335, 339, 374.

Congress of Paris (1856). 265, 336.

Congress of Paris (1919), public inter-
est in, 499; assembling of, 502, 503;
procedure at, 503, 504; questions
to be discussed at, 504-11; business
of, 511, 512.

Congress of Vienna, 24. 86, 102¬ї 113,
360.



562



INDEX



Conservatives, 248.

Constantinople, 12, 14; captured by

the Turks, 116, 316; desired by

Russia, 292; controlling position of,

428; question of, 511; left to the

Turks, 518.
Constitution of 1791 (France), 20, 30.
Constitution of the Year I (France),

362.
Constitution of the Year III (France),

22, 31.
Constitution of the Y'ear VIII

(France), 23, 31.
Constitution of 1812 (Spain), 26, 27.
Constitution of 1814 (Norway), 33,

364.
Constitution of 1831 (Belgium), 32,

359.
Constitution of 1848 (Switzerland),

33, 362
Constitution of 1848 (Holland), 357.
Constitution of 1849 (Denmark), 366.
Constitution of 1850 (Prussia), 27.
Constitution of 1863 (Sweden), 365.
Constitution of 1875 (France), 217.
Constitution of the United States, 30.
"Constitutional Democrats," 300.
Constitutional Progress in Europe,

25-7.
Constitutions and Government, 220.
Control of the Sea, in the Great War,

472-4.
Convention of Gastein, 129.
"Conversations" between Germany

and France, 412.
Copernicus, 68.
Corn Laws, 57, 98, 152.
Corrupt Practices Act, 241.
Cortes, in Spain, 351; in Portugal, 353.
Cossacks, 270.
Council of State, in Russia, 299; in

Switzerland, 361.
Council of Trent, 90.
Council of the Vatican, 90.
Counter-Reformation, 158.
Counter-revolutionary Movements in

Russia, 544, 545.
Courland, 286.
Covenant of the League of Nations,

512-14.
Cracow, 468.
Creation. 69, 70, 72.
Crete, 335.
Crimea, 545.

Crimean War, 103, 111, 118, 318, 404.
Crinoline, 7.
Crises in Recent European history,

399, 400.



Crispi, Francesco, 344.

Croatia, 510.

Croatia-Slavonia, 310, 313.

Crompton, Samuel, 46.

Crown Prince, of the German Empire,

492.
Cuba, 390.
Cyprus, 374.
Cyrenaica, 390.
Czecho-Slovak Troops, 508.
Czecho-Slovakia, 515, 516, 521, 522.
Czechs, 310, 311, 507, 508.

Dahomey, 384.

Dalmatia, 310. 313, 349, 510.

Danes, 256.

Danish War, 127-9.

Danish West Indies, 366.

Dannevirke, 128.

Dante, 16, 68.

Danton, 22.

Danube River, 14, 428.

Danubian Principalities, 321, 336, 337.

Danzig, 48, 508, 514.

Dardanelles, 12; attack upon, 470-2.

Darwin, Charles, 71, 80, 81, 87.

De Natura Rerum, 70.

De Orbium Ccelestium Revdutionibus,
68.

Declaration of Independence, 30.

Declaration of London, 409.

Declaration of the Rights of Man
(French), 17, 28.

Degeneracy, 51.

Delcasse, Theophile, 400, 403.

"Delegations," 305.

Democracy, in Europe, 9; ideas of
in the French Revolution, 21;
among the Greeks, 28; little idea
of in the eighteenth century, 28; in
ancient times, 28; in the .' even-
teen th century, 28; at the end of the
eighteenth century, 29, 30; during
the French Revolution, 30; ad-
vanced by the Industrial Revolution,
60, 61; slow progress of in the
German Empire, 164-6; making
the world safe for, 498, 499.

"Democratic Control" of Industry,
251.

Denikine, General, 544, 545.

Denmark, suffrage in, 33; troubles of
concerning Schleswig and Holstein,
127-9; in earlier times, 362, 363;
in the nineteenth century, 365, 366.

Descent of Man, 71.

Deut^ches Reich, 144.

Deutscfdand und der Nachste Krieg, 438.



INDEX



563



Diderot. 20. 228.

Diplomatic Revolution of 1904-7,
201. 202.

"Direct Action." 251.

Directory, 75.

Dincourse Conceniitig Inequality among
Men, 74.

Dissenters, 31. 98.

Divina Cammedia, 08.

Divine Right. 9, 20. 147, 148. 151.

Dobrudja, 3JJ7.

Dbllinger. 159.

Domestic System of Manufacturing.
46, 47, 48.

Donnersmarck, Count von, 402, 403.

Drang nach Osten, 194.

Dreadnaught, 203.

Dreikaiserbuud, 175.

Dreyfus Affair, 225, 226.

"Dropping the Pilot," 188.

Dual Alliance (Frame and Russia),
197; terms of, 210; formation of,
235, 236, 291; relations of Great
Britain to, 266; position of, 398;
weakened, 402.

Dual Alliance (German Empire and
Austria-Hungary), 179; treaties of.
182.

Dual Control, of Egypt, 375.

Dual Monarchy, founded, 108, 304,
305; career of, 305-15; parts of,
310-12; character of, 312; foreign
policy of, 312-15; end of, 521 .

"Dualism," in Austria-Hungary, 305.

Dublin, rebellion in, 203, 264; indus-
trial disorders in, 533.

Dulcigno, 332.

Duma, First Imperial, 299, 300;
Second. 301; Third, 301, 539.

Dumas (Councils), 273, 282.

Dunajec River, 408.

Dunkirk, 464.

Durazzo, 327, 333, 416, 417.

Dutch, rise of, 354. 355.

Dutch Colonial Administration, 357.

Dutch Colonie.s, 390, 391.

Dutch East India Company, 370.

Dutch Guiana, 391.

Earth, Age of, 71.
East India Company, 372, 374.
East Prussia, 145.
Eastern Roman Empire, 316.
Eastern Rumelia, 340.
Ebert, President of the German Re-
public, 520.
Ecclesiastics, Appointment of, 227.
Education, spread of in the nineteenth



ctiitury, 30; advanced by the In-
dustrial Revolution, <MJ, 01; re-
form of in I'riiiicf, ii'il, 'i-ii; clerical
influence iipcin in IVunce, 227;
partly controlled by religious orders,
228; partly controlled by the
Church in Great Rritain, 247; im-
provement of in Great Britain, 247,
248; lack of in Russia. 288; in
Au-stria-Hungarv, 300.

Education Act of 1870, 247, 248.

Edward VII. King of Great Britain
and Ireland. 202. 401.

Egypt, 370, 374; acquired by the
British, 374. 375; condition of the
jx'ople in. 394.

Einkreinung, 160, 205.

Electoral Law, in Russia, 301.

Electoral Reform, in the Vnited King-
dom. 31, 32, 240, 241.

Electoral Reform Law of 1832, 96; of
1807, 96. 101, 240; of 1884, 241;
of 1918. 246.

Electricity. 41.

Elizabeth. Empress of Austria. 308.

Emancipation of the Serfs in Russia.
270. 271. 272; results of. 272, 273.

Emigration, from Ireland, 259; from
Italy, 348.

Empire of .\ustria, 310; see Austria.

Ems Dispatch. 133, 189.

Engels, Friedrich, 79, 80.

England, geographical position of,
13; nationality in, 34; increase of
population in, 56; agriculture in,
57; changes caused by the Indus-
trial Revolution in, 58; position
of women in, 63; in earlier times.
94; united with Scotland. 95; for-
eign policy of, 95; the Church in,
226; conquered by the Danes, 363.

English, The, build up a great empire.
371-9.

English Channel, 13, 428.

English Soldiers, in the Middle Ages.
95.

English-speaking Peoples, civil wars
among, 100; relations between. 100.
101; solidarity of, 524; duty of. 524.

An Englishman's Home, 203. 204.

Entente, between Russia and France,
235.

Entente Cordiale, formation of. 202.
384. 399. 400, 401, 432; settlement
of the Egyptian question by, 375;
strengthened, 403.

Epirus, 335.

Erin. 256.



564



INDEX



Esthonia, 286.

Etats Generaux, 19.

Eton, 247.

Europe, importance of, 7; in the Old
Regime, 7-9; conditions in in 1870,
7, 9, 10; geography of, 11-14;
great plain of, 12; rivers of, 12; old
buildings and remains in, 14, 15;
historical associations of, 15, 16;
conditions in before the French
Revolution, 17-20; growth of the
power of, 369-71; divided between
great rival combinations, 399;
great crises in, 399, 400, 401-19,
440-4; just before the Great War,
419.

Evolution, 70-3.

Exhaustion, of the combatants in the
Great War, 489, 490.

Fabian Society, 535, 536.

Factory Legislation in Great Britain,

249.
Falk Laws, 159.
Falkland Islands, 373; battle near,

473.
Fashoda, 237, 376, 384.
Fashoda Dispute, 194.
Fathers and Sons, 279.
Federal Assembly, Swiss, 361.
Fenians, 99, 261.
Ferdinand, Prince of Saxe-Coburg,

340.
Feudal System, 34, 54.
"Financial Mobilization," 415.
Finland, acquired by Russia, 118,

285, 364; lost to Russia, 287, 522,

543; privileges withdrawn from,

288; constitution restored to, 299.
First Balkan War, 315, 319; causes of,

326, 327; course of, 327-9; effects

of, 416.
Fiume, 428, 506.
Flanders, 58, 481.
Florence, 15, 345.
Flottenrerein, 200, 204.
Foch, General, afterwards Marshal,

462, 491, 493.
Folkething, 366.

Foreign Affairs, Control of, 501.
Forstner, Lieutenant von, 108.
42-Centimeter Guns, 460.
Fourier, 77, 78.
"Fourteen Points," 500-2.
Francs-tirevrs, 139.
France, Greek and Roman remains

in, 14; conditions in during the

Old Regime, 19; constitutions of.



26; development of democracy in,
29, 30; franchise in, 30, 31 ; national-
ism in, 34, 35; Industrial Revolution
in, 53, 104; land in bought by the
peasants, 75; growth of socialism in,
76-8, 104, 105; in 1870, 101-4,
134, 135; earlier history of, 102-4;
relations of with Prussia, 103, 104;
social progress in, 104, 105; na-
tional armies of in the French
Revolution, 124; army of in 1870,
134, 135; in the Franco-German
War, 136-9; accepts the Treaty
of Frankfort, 139-41; downfall of in
1870, 210; disasters suffered by in
1870-1, 211; inherent greatness of,
211, 212; recovery of, 212; com-
munard attempt in, 212-14; re-
public proclaimed in, 212, 215;
republic established in, 215, 217;
government of, 217-19; develop-
ment of self-government in, 219,
220; reform of education in, 221,
222; higher education in, 222, 223;
material progress in, 223; plottings
of the Monarchists in, 224; domes-
tic crises in, 224-6; Church and
State in, 226, 227; separation of
Church and State in, 227-30; na-
tional wealth in, 230; standard of
living and birth rate in, 231-3;
high civilization in, 233; foreign
relations of, 233-7; becomes a
partner in the Dual Alliance, 235;
relations of with Great Britain, 236,
237, 265, 266, 400, 401; interest
of in Egypt, 375; colonial empire of,
382-5; relations of with Germany,
400; assurance of strengthened,
410; does not yield to Germany in
1911, 412, 413; nearly overwhelmed
by the Germans in 1914, 460, 461;
German practices in, 485; in 1920,
519; syndicalism in, 532; socialism
in, 534.

Franchise, in France in 1791, 20;
in the United States, SO; in France,
30, 31; in Great Britain, 30; exten-
sion of in central and southern
Europe, 32, 33; in northern Europe,
33; extension of in the United King-
dom, 96; in Russia, 299, 301; in
Austria, 310, 311; in Hungary, 312;
in Italy, 345; in Spain, 356; in Hol-
land, 357; in Belgium, 359, 360;
in Norway, 364, 365; in Denmark,
366, 367.

Franco-German War, causes of, 131-4;



INDEX



5G5



course of, 131-f); rosults of, 139-41;
immediate cause of, '.I'A).

Franco-l'russian War, xce Franco-
German War.

Fraukfort Parliament, 27, 107.

Franz Ferdinand, Archduke, 308,
814, 422, 440.



Online LibraryEdward Raymond TurnerEurope since 1870 → online text (page 46 of 49)