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Franz Josef, Emperor-King of .\ustria-
Hunpary, 808.

Fraternity, 88, 84.

Frederick III, (icrnian Emperor, M!).

Frederick the Creaf, IS!).

Free Negroes, 271.

"Freedom of the Seas," 501, /502,
,'304.

Freeman, E. A., 193.

French, The, in the Great War, await
the Ccrman attack, 4.W, 4.'"j9;
defeated in Al.sacc and in Lorraine,
4.';9; defeated in ncl<,'ium, 4(i0;
retreat of, 400, 4(il; defeat tlie
Germans at the Marnc, 4G1-8;
drive the Germans hack to the
Aisne, 408; Iielp to defend tJie Chan-
nel Ports, 4(i4; faihire of at tlie Dar-
danelles, 470-72; help to keep con-
trol of the sea.s, 478; fail in the Cham-
pagne, 475; defend Verdun, 475,
470; in the Battle of tlie Somme,
470, 477; fail to break the (Jcrman
line, 481; great defeat of at Cheinin
des Dames. 490, 491.

French Army, increased, 419.

French Cochin China, 883.

French Colonial Empire, 382-5; ex-
tent of, 884, 885; character of, 385.

French Congo, 884, 415.

French Culture, in the eighteenth
eenturj', 19.

French (iuiana, 382.

French Revolution, 17, 20-2; causes
of, 19, 20; results of, 28-7; develop-
ment of nationalism during, 35;
retards the Industrial Revolution
on the Continent, 58; affects the
position of women only indirectlv,
62, 03; affects the Church, 8(1;
effects of in England, 90; slight
effect of in Russia, 110; effects of in
Sl)ain, 115; agrarian consequences
of in France, 231; women's move-
ment in, 242.

French Somaliland, 383.

French Yellow Rook about the Dual
Alliance, 230.

"Fright fulness," 480.

Fulton, Robert, 42.

"Fundamental Laws" in Russia, 300.



Gaelic Language, 108.

Gaelic League, 208.

Galicia, 810, Lill, 407, 408.

Galileo, 10, 487.

Gallipoli, 470-2.

Garibaldi, 85, 114.

Gas, used for illuniinalion, 43.

(Jcncral Strike, in Russia, 298; in
Hclgiuiii, 800.

General \\orkingmen's Association,
538.

Clinc.sis, 70.

Geneva, 29, 80S.

(k'ographical Factors, a cau.se of tlie
Great War, 427-80.

Geology. 71.

(Jeorge II, King of Great Britain and
of Ireland, 870.

George 111, King of Great Britain
an.l of Ireland, 258, 370.

George, Ll.jyd, 108. 249, 252, 253,
201, 201; on small nations, 344; at
the Congress of Paris. 504, 512.

German Army, in 1918, 1,87; increa.sed,
419; at the beginning of the Great
War, 451-4; limited, 515.

German Colonial Empire, 385-9.

(Jcrnian Colonies, question of, 505,

Cierman Conmianders, 452, 453.

German East Africa, 380.

German Empire, increase of popu-
lation in, 57, 59, 232; military
.strength of increa.sed by the In-
dustrial Revolution, 59; founding of,
141; the grand age of, 143-4;
government of, 144-0; rulers of,
148-50; system of government in,
150-2; immense economic devclo|>-
ment in, 152-7; growth of pojjula-
tion in, 157, 158; domestic prol>-
lems in, 158-02; state socialism in,
102-4; slow progress of democracy
in, 1G4-7; militarism in, 167.
108; treatment of subject races in,
lOS-71; position of after 1871, 173;
alliance of with .\ustria-IIungary,
179; helj)s to make the Triple .-Vlli-
ance, 179-85; renews good relations
Milh Russia, IS.), ISO; new genera-
lion rising in, 187; new policy takes
shaj)e in, 191, 192; relations of with
Great Britain, 193, 198-207, 206,
481-3; with Turkey, 198, 194, 818;
with Au.stria-Hungary, 197, 198,
318; nuiritime (leveloi)ment of, 199;
naval ambitions of, 200; naval ex-
pansion of, 200; naval program of
accelerated, 203; policy of affected



yG6



INDEX



by changes in the Balkans, 206;
education in, m; higher education
in, 2ii, 223; rehitions of with Rus-
sia, 292, 293; preeminence of in
Europe, 398, 399; imposing posi-
tion of in 1909-11, 408, 409; yields
in the Morocco Crisis of 1911, 413-
15; bitterness in against Great
Ikitain, 416; opposed to disarma-
ment, 427; promises support to
Austria-Hungary, 442; negotiations
of with Russia, 443; declares war
on Russia, 444; on France, 444;
violates the neutrality of Luxem-
burg and of Belgium, 445, 446;
revolution in, 495; losses of by the
Treaty of Versailles, 514, 515;
end of, 519, 520; revolutions in,
520; socialism in, 533, 534; weakened
by Bolshevism, 544.

German High Seas Fleet, 473, 474;
sinking of, 518.

German Methods in the Great War,
485, 486.

German Naval Laws, 431, 432.

German Officers, 452.

German People, expansion of east
and southward, 193, 194.

German Railway System, 454, 455.

German Republic, 520.

German Southwest Africa, 386.

German System of Government, 150,

151, 165, 160; character of, 151,

152, 164, 166, 167.
German Trade, 155, 156.
Germanic Confederation, 106, 129,

131.
Germans, military triumphs of, 122-
41; military reputation of, 123, 134;
conduct of in France in 1870-1, 139;
in Russia, 280, 287; in Austria, 300,
310; rivalry of with the British in
Africa, 387; disappointment of
about colonial acquisitions, 386,
387; character and ambitions of,
436, 437; belief of in their racial
superiority, 437; glorification of
war by, 437, 438; arrogance and
ambition of, 438; doctrines of, 439;
advantages of in the Great War,
451-6; defeat the French in Alsace
and in Lorraine, 459; invade Bel-
gium, 459; advance into France,
460, 461; defeated at the Marne,
401-3; great success of, 463, 404;
fail to take the Channel Ports,
464; defeat the Russians at Tannen-
berg, 467; defeat the Russians at



the Dunajec, 468; Invade Russia,
468, 469; conquer Servia, 469, 470;
defeated at Jutland, 473; fail at
Ypres, 475; at Verdun, 475, 476;
in the Battle of the Somme, 476,
477; check the Russians, 477, 478;
submarine warfare of, 478-80; re-
treat of, 480; hold their lines, 481;
help to defeat the Italians at Cap-
oretto, 484; grand offensive of, 490,
491; fail to destroy the Allies, 491;
overwhelmed by the Allies, 493,
494; surrender, 495; assist the
Bolsheviki, 541.
Germany, end of serfdom in, 25;
unification of, 36; Industrial Revo-
lution in, 54; in 1920, 520, 521.
Gibraltar, 12, 373.
Giovine Italia, 114.
Girondists, 74.

Gladstone, W. E., 247, 261, 323, 369.
Glasgow, 252.
Gneisenau, 125.
"God-fearing" Men, 29.
Godwin, Mary, 242.
Goidels, 256.
Gold Coast, 372.
Gorizia, 477.
Gortchakov, 179.

Government, in the eighteenth cen-
tury, 8; in the nineteenth century,
9; in Europe before the French
Revolution, 18.
Government of National Defence

(France), proclamation of, 210.
"Governments," 273.
Grand Army, 235.
Gravelotte— St. Privat, 136.
Great Britain, government in in the
eighteenth century, 18, 19; consti-
tution of, 25, 26; franchise in, 30;
Industrial Revolution begins in,
44-6; course of in, 40-53; growth of
socialism in, 76; formation of, 95;
relations of with the United States,
100; attitude of toward the German
Empire, 174; relations of with the
Triple Alliance, 183; with the Ger-
man Empire, 193, 198-207, 431-3;
enters the Entente Cordiale with
France, 202; makes agreement with
Russia, 202; seeks a good under-
standing with the German Empire,
205-7, 432, 433; growth of popula-
tion in, 232; attitude of in the Affair
of 1875, 234; relations of with
France, 236, 237, 400, 401; electoral
reform in, 240, 241; women's suf-



INDEX



567



frage movement in, 2n-fi; posi-
tion of women in, 24'2; nforiii of
cdiiration in, 247, 24S; social and
economic reforms in, 24H, 24!);
trade unions in, 24!), 2.'J0; Lalior
Party in, 250, 251; power of ],al)or
in, 251; distribution of weallii in,
252; ownership of land in, 252, 25.'5;
constitutional reform in, 2515-0;
relations of with lrelan<l, 25(»-(i5;
foreif,'n relations of, 205, 2(i(); rela-
tions of with Hnssia, 2!).'{, 404; liclps
to preserve tlie 'J'lirkisli I'lnipire,
^IS; makes treaties ahoiil tlic neu-
trality of Iklf^'ium, aaO; purchases
conlrollinK interest in the Suez
Canal, ^75; obtains sj)here of in-
fluence in Persia, ^7!); rivalry of
with Germany in Africa, ;!S7;
fear of the (!erman Kmi)ire in, 410,
4;52; sui)i)orts France in 1!)11, 41.'5;
dominant position of, 428, 42!);
naval conslruetion in, 4152; polic-y
of concerning France, 4.'{.'5; desires
to prevent the Great War, 443;
wishes to stay out, 445; promises
assistance to France, 445; declares
war on the German Empire, 440;
socialism in, 5.'}5-7; chance for
Holshevism being established in,
536.

Great Famine, in Ireland, 99, 259.

Great General Staff, German, 444,
445.

Great Powers, note of concerning the
status quo in Kuropean Turkey,
327; propose mediation in the First
Balkan War, 32.S; seize spheres of
influence in China, 378; in the Bal-
kan Crisis of 1912-13, 410, 417.

Great Russians, 284, 289.

Great War, industrial power in, 59,
60; women of Great Britain in, 240;
possibility of, 421, 422; general
causes of 440-4; immediate causes
of, 440-4; lieginning of, 444-0;
declarations of hostilities in, 450;
<lestructiveness of, 451; opposing
forces in, 451-7; German plan in,
457, 458; early French failures in,
459; Germans invade Belgium, 459,
400; Germans invade France, 401;
Battle of the IMarne, 401-3; strug-
gle for the Channel Ports, 4(>4;
successes of the Russians, 407;
Russians defeated in East l^ussia,
467; fighting in the east, 407, 408;
Russians defeated at the Dunajee,



408; their disastrous retreat, 408,
4(;9; Sirvia coiK|ucred, 40!), 470;
(iallij)oli, 470-2; Allies k<'C[) control
of the sea, 472-4; lialtlc of Julland,
473; fighting on the vest front,
474, 475; \erdun, 475, 470; Battle
of the Somme, 470, 477; fighting
on the Auslro-Italian front, 477;
llussian offensive, 477, 478; con-
C|ucst of Rumania, 478; work of the
German subinariiies, 47H-80; fail-
ures of the Allies in 1!)17, 4f^0, 481;
Russia withdraws from the War,
482; Cai)oretto, 482, 484; liavcn;
wrought by the submarines, 484;
the l'nit»(l Stales joins the Allies,
484-8; the submarines checked,
488; general exhauslion, 489; f^rcat
German offensive, 4!)0, 491; Allied
ofTcnsive, 492— J; Bulgaria sur-
renders, 493; Turkey surrenders,
493; Auslria-Hniigary cullafises,
493, 494; (icmiany surrenders, 495;
settlement following, 4!)8-527; cost
of to the Allies, 505; terrible conse-
quences of, 524-7; cost of, 525;
loss of life in, 525, 520; eflecls of in
Rrssia, 538, 539.

Great Western, 42.

Gre<'ce, renewed study of the Greek
classics in, 30; becomes inde-
pendent, 117; condition of in 1870,
118; in the Balkan Wars, 327-
31, 335; history of, 334-6; in the
Great War, 335, 330; after the
War, 330; conditions in, 326;
ancient, 370.

Greek, study of, 30.320.

Greek Catholic Church, 84, 8.5, 28 J;
in Servia, 3.'M; in Greece, 330; in
Rumania, 3.39; in Bulgaria, 311;
among the South Slavs, 434.

Greek In(lei)endence, War for, 313,
31!), .320, 321.

Greenland, 30.3, 366.

Grev. Sir Edward. 207, 401, 441.

Griffith, Arthur, 20.3.

Grillparzer, Franz, 304.

Guadeloupe, 382.

(Tuesde, Jules, 535.

Guilds, regulations of, 45; disap-
pearance of in England, 46.

Gustavus Adolphuo, 303.

Habeas Corpvs, 19.

The Hague, peace conferences at,

420, 427.
Hague Tribunal, 421, 442.



568



INDEX



Haig, Sir Douglas, 490.

Haldanc. Lord. !20(), 207.

Hamburg-America Steamship Com-
pany, 155.

Ilanotaux, 400.

Hapsburg, House of, 304, 308,

Hardenberg, 125.

Hargreavcs, James, 45.

Harrison, Frederic, 122.

Heating of Houses, 9, 41.

Hebert, 87.

Heine, 193.

Helgoland, 374, 370, 472, 515.

Helvetic Republic, 3G0.

Henry IV', Emperor of the Holy Ro-
man Empire, 160.

Henry IV, King of France, 502.

Herzegovina, acquired by Austria-
Hungary, 178, 313, 315, 323, 324;
rebellion in, 321; annexed by
Austria-Hungary, 324, 333, 405-8,
435, 436; lost by Austria and
Hungary, 510.

Hetairia Philike, 320.

"High Coiu-t of Parliament," 254.

Higher Criticism, 88.

Hindenburg, von, 407, 468.

Hindenburg Line, 493, 494.

Histoire Naturclle, 70.

Holland, suffrage in, 32; in 1870, 118;
decline of, 211; earlier history of,
354, 355; in the nineteenth cen-
tury, 355-7; relations of with Great
Britain, 350; with the German Em-
pire, 356, 357; during the Great
War, 357; colonial possessions of,
357, 390, 391; government of,
357.

Holstein, 118, 127-9, 131, 366.

Holy Roman Empire, 105, 113, 227.

Holy Synod of Russia, 281, 288.

Home Rule, 256.

Home Rule Bill (1886), 261; (1893),
261; (1912), 261, 263.

Honduras, 372.

Hong Kong, 377.

Horsley, Bishop, 28.

Hours of Labor, regulated for women
and children, 53; in the United
Kingdom, 98.

House of Common?, 96, 254, 255.

House of Lords, 253-5, 261, 412.

Hudson Bay, 373.

Humanitarianism, 63.

Ilmcb-ed Years War, 123, 211, 451.

Hiingiry, abolition of serfdom in,
2 ■>; Revolution of 1848 in, 27, 106;
cjx^titution proclaimed in, 27;



suffrage in, 32, 33; peoples in, 108;
becomes a part of the Dual Mon-
archy, 305; agricultural develop-
ment in, 306, 307; parts of, 310;
government of, 311, 312; con-
quered by the Turks, 316; aban-
doned by the Turks, 317; fate of,
517, 521.

" Hunger Strike," 245.

Huns, 16, 451.

Hutton, Janies, 70.

Huxley, T. H., 07, 72, 87.

Hyndman, H. M., 535.

Iceland, 363, 366.

Ikons, 85.

Illiteracy, 11; in France, 222; in Ger-
many, 222; in Russia, 283.

Immaculate Conception, 89.

Imperialism, 392, 393, 394.

"In Flanders Fields," 450.

Indemnity, paid by France to Ger-
many, 141, 211, 214; to be paid by
Germany, question of, 504, 505, 515.

Independent Ireland, struggle for,
264, 265.

Independent Labor Party, 250, 536.

India, 374, 378, 381, 394.

Indian Mutiny, 374.

Industrial Disorders, in France,
411, 412; in Great Britain, 412.

Industrial Growth, in the German
Empire, 153, 154.

Industrial Revolution, contributes
to the development of nationalism,
36; earlier stages of, 44, 45; in Great
Britain, 45-53; spreads eastward
across Europe, 5^, 54; effects of,
54-65; causes growlh of commun-
istic ideas, 75; in France, 104;
in the German Empire, 154; ef-
fect of upon the position of wo-
men, 64, 242; in Russia, 291, 292;
in Austria-Hungary, 306.

Industrial Workers of the World, 532.

Industrialism, in Belgium, 359.

Industry, regulation of by the State,
49; unregulated, 50.

Infallibility of the Popes, 90.

Initiative, 362.

Intellectual Changes in Modern
Times, 67-91.

International Association of the
Congo, 391.

International Engagements, weak-
ening of, 409.

International Working Men's Associ-
ation, 80.



INDEX



5G9



Internationale, 80.

Ionian Ishuuis, I5:i.'>.

Ireland, condition of the people in,
18; nationalism in, 37; unite<l with
Great liritain, 95, 258; conditions
in, 98. 99, 258, 259; relations of with
Great Britain, 25(i-(i5; early his-
tory of, 25(5, 257; conquest of,
257; famine in, 259; improvement
of conditions in, 259, 200; move-
ment for Home Rule in, 201, 20,'{;
geofjraphical relation of to (Jrcat
Britain, 204; ravaged by the Danes,
302.

Irish in the service of France, 124.

Irish Convention, 204.

Irish Language, study of, 203.

Irish Literary Revival, 203.

Irish (Question, 25(»-05.

Irish Republic, 204.

Iron, 4.'>, 153.

Isabella II, Queen of Spain, 350.

Istria, 310.

Italia Irredenta, S-W. 474, 500.

Italian Colonies, 389, 390.

Italian Frontier, 500.

Itidian Provinces, lost by Austria,
308.

Italian Somaliland, 389.

Italians, in Austria-IIunparj', 310;
join the Allies in the Great War,
474; progrcFS of, 477; defeated at
Caporctto, 484; overwhelm the
Austrians, 493, 494.

Italy, disap{)caraiKe of serfdom in, 25;
suffrage in, 3^2; uniCicalion of, 3(),
114, 344, 345; Industrial Revolu-
tion in, 54; in earlier times, 112, 113;
in the first half of the nineteenth
century, 113, 114; makes an alli-
ance with Prussia, 129; becomes a
member of the Triple Alliance, 179-
82; relations of with France, 180,
181, 197; amljilioiis of in Tunisia,
181; weak frontier of, 181; less at-
tached to the Triple Alliance, 182,
184; makes a "reinsurance treaty"
with France, 184; relation of with
other meml)ers of the Triple Alli-
ance, 197; seizes Tiipoli, 324, 325;
government of, 345; Church and
State in, .'5-15, 340; domestic history
of, 340-8; nationalism in, 348, 349;
foreign relations of. .'M!), 350; rela-
tions of with Austria-Hungary,
349; enters the (^reat War, 'J.'A),
474; refuses to join in attack on
Servia in 1913, 418; in 1920, 519.



Jacobins, 23, 74.

Jamaica, .372.

Janina. 319, 327, .'528.

Janis.saries, 310, 317.

Japan, progress of, 293; fears Ru.'sia.
294; at war with Ru.ssia, 294-7;
triumi)h of, 297, 298; increase of
I)i)I)ulation in, .348; commanding
po>iti()ii of in the Far Fast, 428;
in 1920, 523.

Jauris, Jean, 535.

Java, .391.

Jena, 124.

Jesuits, 159.

Jesus, 73, 74.

Jewish Pale, 288.

Jews, in Russia, 280, 288.

Joffrc, 401.

Judicial System in Russia, reformefl,
273.

Jugo-Slavs, in .■\ustria-ITungary, 300;
aims of conflict with Italy's <le-
sires, 500; question of, 510, 511;
in 1920, 519, 522; sec South Slavs.

Junkers. 145, 140, 152, 520.

Jury, Trial by, introduced into Rus-
sia, 273.

Justices of the Peace, 273.

Jutland, Rattle of. 473.

Kaiser, of the German Empire, 1 t.l,

148.
Kamernn, SSG.
Kapilal, Das, 80.
Kara George, .332, .333.
Karageorgevich, House of, 333.
Kay, John, 45.
Kepler, 09.
Kerensky, 540, 542.
Kiao-chau, 294, 472.
Kiel Canal, 300, 472, 515.
Kiev, 541,544.
Kingdom of Hungary, 310; see

Hungary.
Kingdom of Italy, 32, 112, 114. 345;

sec Italy.
Kipling, Rudyard, 309.
Kirk-Kilisse, 328.
Kitchener, General, 370.
Klu( k, (ieneral von, 4(!1.
Kolchak, Admiral, 5 !-4, 545.
Koniggriitz. Battle of, 130.
Korea, 294, 297.
Koweit, 195.

Krir(jshrau<h im Landhricge, 427,
KuliurkampJ, 159, 170.
Kumanovo, 327.



570



INDEX



Labor Disputes in Great Britain, 251.

Labor in Great Britain during the
Great War, 251.

Labor Laws in the United Kingdom,
98.

Labor Party in Great Britain, 250,
251,

Laissez-faire, doctrine of, 49, 50;
partly abandoned, 52, SS; abandoned
in the German Empire, 155.

Lamps, 44.

Land, in France, divided among small
proprietors, 21, 231; in Russia,
231; ow-nership of in Great Britain,
252, 253; ownership of in Ireland,
257, 200; in Italy, 347; in Norway,
364; in Russia in 1920, 5iG.

Land Captains, 282.

Land Laws, affecting Ireland, 260,
334.

Land Purchase Acts (Ireland), 334.

Landlords, English, in Ireland, 257.

Landsturm, 125.

Landtag of Prussia, 126.

Landuehr, 125.

Language of Command, in the army
of Austria-Hungary, 307.

Laon, 476, 481, 493.

Laplace, 71.

Lapps, 285.

Lassalle, Ferdinand, 530, 533.

Law of Associations, 228.

Law of Papal Guarantees, 345.

"League of Nations," 502, 512-14.

Legitimists in France, 217.

Leisure, 64, 65.

Lenine, Nicolai, 504, 537, 542, 543,
544, 545.

Lens, 514.

Leopold II, King of the Belgians, 391,
392.

Leopold, Prince, of Hohenzollern,
133.

Lepanto, 116, 316.

Lesseps, Ferdinand de, 374, 375.

Ijcvellers, 74.

Liao-tung Peninsula, 294, 296, 297.

Liao-yang, 296.

Libera Chiesa in Stato Libera, 345.

Lilieral Party, advocates Home Rule
for Ireland, 261.

Lilierals in Great Britain, 248.

Lil)eria, 371, 515.

Liberie, Eyalite, Fraterniie, 27.

Liebknecht, Wilhelm, 533.

Li»'ge, 459, 460.

" Light Year," 69.

Lighting, Artificial, 41, 43, 44.



Liliencron, song of, 122.

Limitation of Armaments, opposed
by the German Empire, 206.

Liquid Fire, 482.

Lithuania, 276, 285.

Little Russians, in Austria-Hungary,
310,311.

Liverpool, 13, 412, 533.

Livingstone, 391.

Livonia, 286.

Local Government, reformed in Rus-
sia, 112, 273; in France, 215, 221;
in England, 220, 221.

Lombardy, 114.

London Protocol, 128.

Lorraine, 136.

"Lost Provinces," 431.

Louis XIV, King of France, 95, 124,
211, 354, 424, 506.

Louis XV, King of France, 506.

Louis XVI, King of France, 20, 23, 290.

Louis Napoleon, 26.

Louvain, 485.

Lowe, Robert, 247.

Lower Austria, 310.

Lucretius, 70.

Luderitz, 386.

Lule-Burgas, 328.

Lusitania, 479.

Luther, 80, 90.

Lutheran Church, 90, 226, 363.

Luxemburg, 118, 132, 446.

Lvov, Prince, 540, 542.

Lyell, Sir Charies, 71, 87?.

Macaulay, on the suffrage, 31.

Macedonia, 325, 326, 340.

Machinery, Labor-saving, 44.

Machines, 45-8.

Mackensen, von, 468.

MacMahon, 136, 217.

McCrae, Lieut.-Col. John, 450.

Madagascar, 236, 384.

Magyars, 37, 108, 109, 116, 306, 310.

Malays in the British Empire, 380.

Malta, 374.

Manchuria, 294, 297, 298.

Manhood Suffrage, in France, 21,
30, 31; obstacles to, 30, 31; in
Spain, 32; in Austria, 32; in the
United States, 33; in Norway, 365.

Manifeste des Egaux, 75.

Manifesto of the Communist Party, 56,
GO, 79, 80, 82, 529.

Manoel II, King of Portugal, 353.

Manorial Obligations, abolished in
France, 21, 23; abolished in Russia,
112; in Rumania, 338.



INDEX



571



Manorial Rights, in Franco, 10.

ManufartuririK l)cforc the Industrial
Rovolutiori, J).

Marat, 22.

March I^ws, S.3.

Marchand, Major, 381.

JNIarw-hal, Sylvain, 75.

Maria Christina, Queen Mother, rnles
Spain, 350.

Marne, Battle of the, 1.34, 401-3;
Secondlkittleof the, 491.

Marscilla isc, 1 (ii).

Martinique, 382.

Marx, Karl, 10; on tlie hnnrgcoisir,
56; on Capital and Lal)()r, (17;
career of, 71)-8r, doctrines of, Kl-4;
influence of, 52i), 530; opjjosed to an-
archism, 531; in England, 535.

Matches, Friction, 44.

Maximilian, Arclidukc of Austria, 308.

Mazurian Lakes, 4(57.

Mazzini, 114.

Mechanical Invention, in the nine-
teenth century, 10.

^Mediterranean Sea, 12, 14; agreement
coneerning, 183, 2(17; trade-route
through, 196; Turkish i)ower in,
316; controlled by the British, 375,
429; havoc WTOUght by submarines
in, 484.

Mehemet Ali, 320, 321.

Menshcviki, 540.

Mercenaries, 123, 124; Swiss, 3G0.

Merchant Ships, sunk by submarines,
479.

Mesopotamia, 435.

Messines Ridge, 480.

Metternich, Prince, 24, 25, 106, 320,
335.

Metz, 136, 137, 138, 493.

Mexico, 308, 383.

Middle Europe, 435, 436.

Militarism, in Prussia. 167. 168;
growth of in Europe, 190; in Eurojie,
424-6; in antiquity, 424; in the
German Empire, 438.

Military Convention between Russia
and France, 235.

Military Law of Boycn (1813), 125,
424.

Military Power Altered by the In-
dustrial Revolution, 59, 60.

Military Strategy, 127.

Miliukov, IVofessor, 300, 540, 542.

Mill, J. S., 63, 231, 243.

Milton, John, 17, 68, 240.

"Ministries" in Austria-Hungary,
305.



Ministry, in the I'nilcd Kingdom, 97;
in Prussia, 97; in J'ranic, 97, 104.

Mir, 272, 301.

Mischoz, 332.

MitraUUu.se, 1.34.

MHldeuropu, 195, 100.

Mobilization, 444.

Mohammedans in the Briti.sb Empire,
380.

Moldavia, sec Danubian I'rincipali-
li( .1.

Moltke, Ilellmuth von, 126, 127, 128,
130, 133, 135, 130; on peace and
war, 43H.

Monarchy, relics of cherished in (ireat
liritain, 224; restoration of dc-ircd
in Frame, 224.

Mona.steries, suppression of in Po-
land, 27().

Mongols, 31(;.

Monroe Doctrine, 434.

Mons, 460.

Montalembert, 17.

Montdidier, 492.

Montenegro, declares war on Tur-
key, 327; in the Balkan Wars, 327-
31; history of, 332; ccjndilions in,
332; in the Balkan Cris-is of 1912-13,
417; expected to join a South Slavic
fe<leration, 510.

Monte Santo, 483-4.

Montesquieu, 20, 74, 117.

Moravia, 310, 507.

More, Sir Thomas, 74.

Morocco, acquired by France, 384,
415; jjenetration of by the French,
411; German rights in, 515; ri^^hts
of Austria in, 517.

aiorocco Crisis of 1905, 402, 403.

Morocco Crisis of 1911, 411-16.

Morris, William, 535.

Moscow, 15, 235, 292, 542.

INIountains of Europe, 13.

Mozanibifiue, 390.

Mukden, Battle of, 296, 402.

Munici|)al Government in the Ger-
man Empire, 151, 152.

Namur, 458, 459.

Napoleon, 14, 21; rise of, 22; work of,
23; hostility to, 24; wars of, 24,
35, 30, 95, 213; French Revolution
saved by, 24; on aristocracy, 55;
relations of with the Church, 85-7,
227; power of, 102; rearranges cen-
tral Europe, 105; invasion of Rus-
sia by, 235.

Napoleon III, Emperor of France,



572



INDEX



26, 94.; foreign policy cf, 103, 104;
waniug popularity of the govern-
ment of, 131; diplomacy of before
the Franco-German War, 131-3;
in the war, 13C), 137; maintains the
temporal power of the Pope, 180,
181, 345; leader in the Crimean
War, 235; assists the Rumanians to
unite the Danubian Principalities,
337; assists the Italians, 344;
intrigues of concerning Belgium, 359.

Napoleonic Empire, lO'i.

Natal, 376.

Nation, original meaning of the word,
34.

National Armies, 124, 125.

National Assembly, in France (1789),
20; of Russia, 299.

National Convention (France, 1792),
21.

National Council (Swiss), 361.

National Debt of France, 223, 525.

National Debts, 524, 525.



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