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National Guard in Paris, 212.

National Insurance Act, 249.

"National Notables," 31.

National Wealth, of the principal
European countries, 156, 157; of
France, 230.

National Workshops, 77, 73.

Nationalism, in the eighteenth cen-
tury, 8; in the nineteenth century,
9; in France during the French
Revolution, 22; development of,
34-7; disintegrating effects of,
37; in Central Europe, 106; among
the Poles of the German Empire,
170; strength of in Russia, 289;
in the German Empire, 289; in
Italy, 348; in Holland, 356.

Nationality, 34-7.

"Natural Laws," 50.

"Naval Holidav," 206.

Naval Laws (German), 200, 201, 400.

Naval Panic of 1909, 203, 204.

Naval Power, reliance of Great Bri-
tain on, 199, 200; development of
in the German Empire, £00, 201.

Navarino, 321.

Near East, 324.

Nebular Hypothesis, 71.

Needle Gun, 130.

Negroes in the British Empire, 380.

Nekrasov, 269.

Nepal, 379.

Neptune, 69.

Netherlands, in earlier times, 354, 355;
revolt of, 354, 358.



Netherlands, Austrian, 355, 358;
Dutch, 355; Spanish, 355.

Neubreisach, 458.

Neutrality of Belgium and of Lux-
emburg violated by the German
Empire, 446.

Neutralization of Belgium, 359; of
Switzerland, 360; of Norway, 365.

Neuve Chapclle, 475.

New Brunswick, 373.

New England, 29.

New Guinea, 391.

New Lanark, 76.

New South Wales, 373.

New Zealand, 380.

Newcomen, Thomas, 42.

Newfoundland, 372.

Ncw.«papers, in the eighteenth cen-
tury, 9; in the nineteenth cen-
tiu"y, 11.

Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia, 24, 111.

Nicholas IL Tsar of Russia, 269;
character and policy of, 290-1;
reign of, 290-302; urges disarma-
ment, 426; works for world peace,
502; abdication of, 539; murder of,
544.

Nihilists, 279, 283.

"No Annexations and No Indemni-
ties," 504, 541.

Nobles, in the eighteenth centiu-y, 8;
in the nineteenth century, 9; eman-
cipation of serfs by in Russia,
270.

Non Erpedit, 346.

Non Licet, 346.

Norddeutsche AUgemeine Zeitung^ 398.

Normandy, 363.

Normans, 15, 256.

North German Confederation, 27, 32,
96, 107, 131, 134-6.

North German Lloyd Steamship
Company, 155.

North Sea, 13, 354, 428.

Norway, 118, 362, 363, 364, 365.

Nova Scotia, 373.

Novi-Bazar, Sanjak of, 334.

Obrenovich, Milosh, 332.
Obrenovich Family, 333.
October Manifesto, 299, 300.
"Octobrists," 300.
Officers, in war, 452.
Oil, used for lighting, 44.
Old Age Insiu-ance Laws, 163.
Old Age Pension Act, 249.
Old Catholics, 159.
Old Colonial System, 393.



INDEX



573



Old Rcgiqie, 41.

Ollivicr, Emilc, 165.

Orndurman, 37G.

Ontario, .'573.

"OjK'n Covenants," .^Ol.

Opium Traffic, 377, 378.

"Opium War," 377.

Oran^;e I'Vot- Stale, 37G.

"Organic Law.s," !il7.

Oryanixatioti du Travail, 77.

Origin of Species, 71.

Orlamio, .'501.

Orleans, House of, 217.

Orleans Monareiiy, '3Hi.

Ortfiodox Church, 84, 85, 284, 285,
288, 289.

Osman Pasha, .S23.

Ottoman lOmiiire, in earlier times,
lie, 117; in the first half of tlie
nineteenth century, 117, 118; decay
of, 314; decline of, 310, 317; gov-
ernment of, 31 7.

Owen, Roherl, 7(!, 78, 79, 635.

Oxford, 247-

Pacstum, 15.

Pan-Germanism, 289.

Pan-Slavism, 289, 419.

Panama, 10, 375.

Pankfuirst, Emmclinc, 245.

Papacv, 227.

Paparinfallibility, 07, 90, 159.

Papal States, 85.

Paradise Lest, 08.

Paris, siege of, 1S8; surrender of,
139; in 1871, 212, 213; socialist
commune in, 212-14; industrial
disorders in, 533.

Parliament of Great Britain, 19, 32,
250.

Parliament, Independent, in Ireland,
258.

I'arliament Aet of 1911, 25.3, 255, 2G1.

Parliamentary Pcprcsentation in
Great Britain, 241.

Parncll, C. S., 201.

Partitions of Poland, 270.

Patriotism, 393.

Peace Conferences, 426, 427.

Peace of Paris, 373.

Peasant Proprietors in France, 23.

Peasants, in France, condition of
bettered, 22; purcliase lan<l in
I'Vance, 75, 231; in Russia, condi-
tion of. Ill, 272, 273, 291; become
landowners in Russia, 231; condi-
tion of in Ireland, 258, 259; acquire
ownership of land in Ireland, 200;



condition of in Poland, 278; owner-
ship of land b\' in Ser\ia, 3.'i4.

Peojilc, Lower Class of, condition ot
in the Old Itcginic. 8, 17.

Pcrouiic, 47(i, 477.

Persia, 370, 378, 379, 405.

Petrograd. 5.38, 539.

Philip 11, Kingof .Si)ain, 358.

Philii)pine Islands, ."90.

Piedmont, sulfrage in, .32; leader of
the Italian peoi>le, 114.

Pira'Us, .'!.'i5.

Pitt. \Niliiam. the Younger, 258.

Pius \ll. Pojie, 220.

Pius IX, Pope, 89, 345, 3^16.

Plagues, 43.

Plato, 73.

Plehve, von, 283, 290, 298.

Plcvii.i, 323.

Pobie(!ono.stsev,2C9, 281, 282, 290, 299.

I'oison (ia.ses, 427.

Poland, partitions of, 110; reWlion of
18015 in, 274; de.-ire for independ-
ence in, 270; cf)mi)lete subjection
of, 270; conditions in, 278; former
greatness of, 285; strategical posi-
tion of in Russia, 287; attempted
Russificationof, 288;tributary to the
Turks, 310; leading Slavic state,
433; battles in, 40,S, 409; German
methods in, 485; question of, 508;
in 1920, 521. 522; lost to Russia, 543;
at war wilh the l>cl.yk(riln, 544.

Poles, in the (jerman Knii)ire, 170,
171; of Russia, 280; disturbances
among, 298; concessions to, 299;
in Austria-Hungary, 310, 311.

"Polish Corridor," 514.

Polish Language, 170.

Polish Nationalism, 170.

Polish Rebellion of 1803, 179.

Popes, 85, 180, 181.

Population, increase of in Europe,
50; in Great Britain, 50, 57, 430;
in the Gernuin Eiiij)ire, 57, 58, 157,
158, 4.30; decline of in Ireland, 99,
430; growth of in the principal
Euro])ean countries, 157; increase
of in Italy, 348; in Japan, SIS;
room for growth of, 429, 430;
gnjwf h of in France, 430.

Port Arthur, 294, 2!)(i, 297.

Portugal, i)alaces of, 14; history of in
the nineteenth century, 352-4;
controls the sea-routes to the east,
372; colonies of, 390.

Portuguese Colonies, alleged secret
agreement about, 353, 587, 888.



574



INDEX



Portuguese East Africa, 387, 390.

Portuguese Republic, 353, 354.

Posen, 170, 284. 287, 514.

Potsdam Accord, 409, 412.

Poverty in Great Britain, 252.

Prince Edward Island, 373.

Principles of Geology, 71.

Printing-press, Power, 11.

" Prisoners of the^Vatican," 346.

Production, increased, 11.

I'rofit-sharing, 76.

Proletariat, 81, 82.

Protective Tariffs, in the German
Empire, 154, 155; in Austria-
Hungary, 307.

Protestant Churches, 90; in the nine-
teenth century, 91.

Proudhon, Pierre Joseph, 279, 280,
530, 531.

Prussia, education in, 11; reforms in,
25; abolition of serfdom in, 25;
Revolution of 1848 in, 27, 106;
constitution granted in, 27; nation-
alism in, 36; leader of the German
states, 107; military triumphs of,
122-41; foundation of the greatness
of, 124; development of the army of,
124-6; at war with Denmark, 127-9;
with Austria, 129-31; with France,
131-41; makes alliance with Italy,
129; army of in the Austro-Prussian
War, 131; army of in the Franco-
German ^Yar, 135, 136; govern-
m-ent in, 167; friendship of with
Russia, 178, 179; beginning of, 193,
433; development of the army of,
424, 425.

Prussian Army, development of, 424,
425.

Prussian Guard, 462.

"Public Schools," 247.

Punch, 188.

Puritan Revolution, 242.

Pyrenees Mountains, 12, 13.

Quakers, 242.

Quanta Cura, 89.

Quebec, 373.

Quest-ce que la Propri6tef, 530.

Racial Differences in European Coun-
tries, 284.

Racial Superiority, belief in, 437.

Itacial Unity, desire for, 283, 284.

Radicalism, in France, 104, 105;
in Russia, 278, 279.

Railroads, 11,41,291,454.

Reason, Worship of in France, 22, 86.



"Red Sunday," 299.

Redistribution Act of 1885, 241.

Redmond, John, 261.

Referendum, 362.

Reflections of Pobiedonostsev, 281.

Reformation, 62, 158.

Reich.statid, 145, 169.

Reichsrath, 310, 311.

Reichstag, 145.

Reign of Terror, 22, 24, 86.

"Reinsurance Treaty," 186, 192.

Religion, troubled by the doctrine
of evolution, 72, 73; in France, 227,
228, 230.

Religious Belief, in the eighteenth
century, 8; conBict of with scien-
tific thought, 10.

Religious Liberty in the Turkish Em-
pire, 317.

Religious Orders in France, 228.

Re-port of the British Labor Com-
mittee, 251.

Representation of Industries and
Groups, 246, 247.

Representative Government, origin
and development of, 29.

Republic, established in France, 21;
becomes militant, 24; in England,
28; second, established in France,
103, 219, 220; third, 212; in Spain,
350; in Portugal, 353, 354.

Republic of Plato, 73.

"Revenge for Sadowa," 132.

Reventlow, Count Ernst zu, 240.

Revolution cf 1830, 24.

Revolution of 1848, 25, 77, 106, 109,
301.

Revolution of 1005 in Russia, 298-
300.

Revolution of 1917 in Russia, 231;
beginning of, 539; first stage of, 540;
second stage of, 542-0; results of, 546.

Revolutionary War, 100.

Rhcims, 15, 486, 491.

Rhodes, Cecil, 377.

Rigsdag, 366.

Risorgimento, 114.

Rivet Law, 215.

Robespierre, 22, 74, 545.

Roman Catholic Church, in the nine-
teenth century, 85-90; in the Ger-
man Empire, 159, 170; in France,
220-30; in Poland, 286; in Italy,
345, 340.

Roman Catholics, religious disabili-
ties removed from, 31, 98; in Ire-
land, 99; in the German Empire,
159, 160.



INDEX



btb



Roman Empire. ?A. fi2, 232, 370, 871.

Romanovs, Dynasty of, eii<l of, 5'M.

Rome, 111, 115, 3H, 315, 370.

Roon, von, 12(5.

Roosevelt, Theodore, 297.

Roiissejiu, 8. 20, 28, 2!), lO, 71. 80.

Rudolph, Archduke, of Au.stria, 308.

Rigby. 247.

Rumania, wins autonomy, 117; eon-
«htions in in 1870, 118; attaelied
to the Triple Alliance. 184. 314;
enters the Second Balkan AVar.
331, 3.'?7; iiistory of. 33(1-8; <lomes-
lic affairs of, 338, 339; enters the
(ireal War, 478; conquered, 478; in
1920, 521.

Rumanians, union of assisted by
Napoleon 111, 103; in Hungary,
300; in .\u.stria-IIungary, 310, 314.

Rumelia, 319.

Rural Life, [)redoniinanee of before
the Industrial Revolution, (iO.

Russia, little aifccted by the French
Revolution. 25; nationali.sm in, 3(>;
Industrial Revolution in. 54, 291,
292; religion of. 84, 85; earlier
history of, 109, 110; in the nine-
teenth century. 110, 111; govern-
ment of. 111, 112; reforms in, 112;
rivalry of with Austria-Hungary.
175. 17(5. 178; friend.>hip of with
Prussia. 179; new agreement of
with the Central Powers. 185, 18(5;
secret treaty of with the Cerman
Empire, 180; attitude of in the
Affair of 1875, 234; makes the Dual
Alliance with France, 235; rela-
tions of with Great Britain, 205,
404; under Alexander H. 209-281;
aboHtion of serfdom in. 270-4;
reform of the judicial system in,
273; reform of local government
in. 273, 274; discontent in, 274;
tru.shes the Polish rebellion, 27G;
increase of discontent in, 278; nihil-
ism in, 279; anarchi.sts in. 279.
280; activities of radicals in, 280.
281; under Alexander HI, 281-90;
reaction in. 282, 283; polic-v of Rus-
sification in. 283, 284, 287. 288,
289; peoples in. 284-7; unification
of peoples in desired, 287; extreme
nationalism in. 289; corruption
and inefficiency of the government
in, 289, 290; imder Nic-holas H,
290-302; foreign relations of, 292-4;
at war with Japan, 294-8; accepts
the Treaty of Portsmouth, 297,



298; discontent in, 298; revolution
in, 298-.'{00; reaction in, 299-3(Jl;
U-fore the (Jrcat War, .302; foreign
pcjlicy of, 302; relations of \Nith
Austria-Hungary, 313; thwarted
at the Congress of licrlin, 313;
f;oulhfrn jjart cjf conciuerecl by the
Turks, 310; expansion of at the
t'X|)ense of the Turks, 818; assists
the (ireeks to win incUi)endence,
321; makes war on Turkey. 35^3;
obtains a si)here of influence in
Persia. 379; in the IJosiiia-Herzego-
vina;Crisis, 400-8; recovers strength.
410;iFi the Balkan Crisis cjf 1912-13.
410. 417; outlets of, 428; leader of
the Slavs, 433; negotiations of with
Germany, 443; cc)llaj)se of in the
Great War, 481, 482; losses of, 521,
522; socialism in, 5.37-40; effects
of the Great War in, 5.38, 539; under
the HoJ.shcviki, 542-0; accei)ts the
Peace of Brest-Litovsk. 542, 543.

Russian P>mpire, end of, 521, 522.

Russian Revolution of 1905, 298-300;
failure of, 301.

Russian Revolution of 1917, 231,
482, .522; cause of, 53t>-4C; results
of, 54G.

Russians, defeat the Au.strians, 4G7;
overrim (ialicia, 4(i7; defeated at
Tannenbcrg. 407; cajjture Przem-
ysl. 408; strive to win the Car-
pathian passes. 408; defeated dis-
astrously at the Dunajec-, 408; re-
treat of, 408. 4(;9; last offensive of,
477; withdraw from the War, 481,
482; endurance of, 482.

Russificatinn of Poland, attempted.
278; policy of. 283. 284, 287-JK).

Russo-Japanese War, lessons of, 202,
203; course of, 294-8; consequences
of in Europe, 402, 404; in Asia, 434.

Russo-Turkish War, 178, 205, 313.
323, 339, 404.

Ruthenians, in Austria-Hungary, 310,
311.

Saar Basin, 514.
Sabotage, 412, 5r.3.
Sagasta, 351.
Sahara, 383, 381.
St. Mihiel, 493.
St. Petersburg. 292. 299.
St.Qnentin, 47(!. 490.
Saint-Simon, 10, 70, 77.
Sakhalin. 297.
Salisbury, Ix)rd, 19.3, 400,



576



INDEX



Salonica, 198, 312; captured by the
Greeks, 3i7, 335; occupied by the
Allies, 336, 472, 493.

Sabburg, 15, 310.

Samoan Islands, 386.

Sarajevo, 308, 315, 440.

Sardinia, Kingdom of, 114, 344.

Scandinavian Countries, in 1870, 118;
earlier history of, SGi, 363; in the
nineteenth century, 363-6.

Scharnhorst, 125.

Schiller, 450.

Schleswig, 118, 127-9, 131, 284, 366.

Schleswig-Holstein, question of, 127,
128; war about, 128, 129.

Schnjebele Affair, 234, 235.

Science, conflict of with religion,
87, 88, 91.

ScientiBc Progress, 10, 87, 88.

Scotland, 58, 95.

"Scrap of Paper," 189, 409, 446.

Scutari, 327, 328, 329, 417.

Second Balkan War, 315, 329, 331.

Second Empire (French), 96, 103, 383.

Second Hague Conference, 200, 427.

Secret German Report, alleged, on
German expansion, 398.

Sedan, 137.

Self-government, progress of in Eu-
rope, 20-4, 25-33; advanced by
the Industrial Revolution, 60, 61;
development of in France, 219, 220;
in the British Empire, 381.

Senate of the United States, 256, 518.

Serbs, in Austria-Hungary, 310; help
to defeat the Bidgars, 493.

"Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes," State
of, 516, 521, 522.

Serfdom, 8. 17, 18, 19; abolished in
France, 20, 23, 271; disappearance
of in the various countries of Eu-
rope, 23; abolition of in Russia,
112, 270, 271; disappearance of in
England, 271; results of the aboli-
tion of in Russia, 272, 273; end of
in Europe, 271; end of in Rumania,
338.

Sergei, Grand Duke, 298.

Servia, relations of with Austria-
Hungary, 315; with Russia, 315;
beginning of the struggle for the
independence of, 319; in the Balkan
Wars, 327-31, 333, 334; history of,
332, 333; foreign relations of, 333,
334; in the Great War, 334; after
the War, 334, 510; conditions in,
334; in the Bosnia-Herzegovina
Crisis, 407, 408; strives for an out-



let on the Adriatic, 416; appeals
to Russia for support, 441; accused
of complicity in the crime of Sara-
jevo, 440; largely yields to the Aus-
trian demands, 442; conquered by
the Teutonic Powers, 469, 470; Ger-
man methods in, 485.

Seven Years War, 373, 382.

Shantung, 515.

Shaw, G. B., 536.

Shelley, 304.

"Shining Armor," 408.

Siam, 515, 517.

Siberia, 280, 293, 298.

Sickness Insurance Law, 163.

Sinn Fein, 37, 203, 264, 265.

Sk-upshtina, 334.

Slavery, in the United States, 25, 271;
in Brazil, 25, 271.

Slavonia, 510.

Slavs, in Austria-Hungary, 306; in
Greece in the Middle Ages, 336;
rivalry of with the Teutons, 433-6;
position of in 1920, 522.

Slivnitsa, 333, 340.

Slovaks, 311, 507.

Slovenes, 310.

Smith, Adam, 49.

Sobranje, 341.

Social Democratic Federation, 535.

Social Democratic Party (German
Empire), 166.

Social Democratic Party (Russia),
292, 533, 534, 540.

"Social Workshops," 77.

Socialism, 10; origin of, 73; develop-
ment of, 73-81; doctrines of, 81-4;
effects of upon the Church, 87;
condemned by the Roman Cath-
olic Chiu-ch, 89; in France, 104,
105; gro^vth of in the German Em-
pire, 161, 162; repression of, 162;
in Great Britain, 251; in Russia,
292; spread of, 529, 530; discon-
tent with the progress of, 531;
spread of in the German Empire,
533, 534; in Austria-Hungary, 534;
in France, 534, 535; in Great Bri-
tain, 535-7; in Russia, 537-46.

Socialist, origin of the term, 76.

Socialist Parly in the German Empire,
163.

Socialist Revolutionary Party, 292.

Soissons, 492.

Somme, Battle of the. 476, 477.

Sonderbund, 119, 301.

Sorel, Georges, 529.

South Africa, 357. 380.



INDEX



577



South Slavs, 310, 314, 433, 434.

Sovki (jovcrniricnt, decTCCs of, 59St.

Soviets, 5ii, 543.

Spain, dihappcarancc of serfdom in,
25; constitution proclaimed in, !^(J,
27; suffra^^c in, 'M; natii)nali.sm in,
;{4-«; Industrial Revolution in, 51;
rules part of Italy, 113; in earlier
times, 115; in 1870, IKi; throne of
vacant, 133; relations of with the
Triple .Alliance, 183; decline of, 211;
history of mimv 1870. 3,")(), 351; gov-
ernment of, 351; conditions in, 352;
colonial empire of lost, 372, 31)0.

Spanish llepnhlic, 350.

"Spartacides," 520.

Spencer, llerliert, 72.

•'Spheres of Inlluencc" in China, 378.

Spichcren, 130.

Si)ies, 130, 42(1, 455.

Spinninji "Jenny," 45.

"S[)innin;;-.Mule," 4(i.

"Splendid Isolation," 90, 175, 401.

Stadt holder, 355.

Staml>ulov, 340.

Standiird of Living, 230, 231.

Standing Armies, 425.

Stanley, 301.

"State of Nature," 20, 30.

State Socialism, 102, 103, 107, 249.

States (Jcneral, 254, 357.

Slatiito Fondamcntulc del Regno, 345.

Steam, 41.

Steam Engine, 9, 41, 42.

Steamboat, 41, 42.

Steamship, 10.

Stein, vom, 125.

Stephenson, George, 42.

Slolypin, 301.

SloTthiiui, 30t, 305.

Straits Settlements, 373.

Strassburg, 138, 458.

Strategic Railways, 426.

Strikes, 532.

Stromboli, 15.

Stvria, 310.

Subject Races, 108-171.

Submarines, 10, 478-80, 484, 488, 489.

Sudan, 376.

Suez Canal, 10, 11, 374, 375.

Suffrage, in Europe in the eighteenth
century, 8; universal, 17; in France
in 1791, 20; in the United States.
30; in France, 30, 31; in Great Bri-
tain, 30; extension of in central and
southern Europe, 32, 33; extension
of in the I'nited Kingdom, 90;
in Russia, 299, 301; in Austria, 310,



311; in Hungary, 312; in Italy. 3^15;
in Spain, 351; in Holland, 357; in
Mclgiuin, ,359, .300; in \<jrway, 3G1,
3(i5; in Dcmnark, :m), 307.

Sutrragctlcs, 245. 24ti.

Sumatra, 391.

Sweden, suffrage in, 33; decline of,
211; in earlier times, 30.3; in the
nineteenth century, 301, 305; gov-
ernment of, 3M.

Swedes in Russia, 303.

Swedish (nlturc in Finland, 285.

Swiss, obtain their freedom from Aus-
tria, 300.

Swiss Cantons, govcrimient in, 18.

Swiss Confederation, .3(>().

Switzerland, sufTragc in, .33; neutrali-
zation of, 118; education in, 248;
earlier history (jf, 300; in the nine-
teenth century, 300, 301; govern-
ment of, 301, .3(;2: conditions in, 302.

Sijlhiliiis of ICrrar.i, 89.

Syndicalism, 531-3.

Syndicat, 532.

Tal)le of Magnates, 312.

Tajf To/cCase, 249. 250.

Take Your Clioiee, 30.

Talleyrand, 102.

"TanJis," 494.

TanncnlniTg, Ralllecf, 407.

Taxation in Italy, 347.

Tchalaldja Line's, 328.

Telegraph, 11,41.

Tclc{)h()nc, 41.

Terrorists, 281.

Teutonic Race, alleged superiority

of, 437.
Teutons, rivalry of with the Slavs,

433-6.
Textile Industry, 45, 46.
"They Shall Not Pass," 470.
Thiers, L. A., 214,520.
Third Estate. 20.
Third Republic (French), 212, 215,

217, 224, 227, 228.
Thirteen Colonies, independence of,

257, 373.
Thirty Years War. 12.3, 153, 158, 303,

451, 498.
Three-class System of Voting, 146, 273.
Tibet, 378, 379, 405.
Tirpitz, Admiral von, 200.
Togo, Admiral, 297.
Togoland, 380.
Tonkin, 383.
Tovnlxe, .\rnold, 40.
Trade Unions, D'J, 98, 219, 250, 532.



578



INDEX



Trades Disputes Act, 250.

Trafalgar, 201.

Tram Cars, 10.

Trans-Siberian Railway, 2Q3, 294.

Transportation, revolution in, 42.

Transvaal, 376.

Transylvania, 310, 314, 317, 337, 338,
521.

Travel. 9, 10.

Treaty of Adrianople, 319, 321, 332,
33G.

Treaty of Berlin, 178, 323, 324, 337,
339, 340. 405, 406.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 482, 515.
517, 542, 543.

Treaty of Bucharest, 331, 334, 337,
341.

Treaty of Carlowitz, 317.

Treaty of Frankfort, 139-41, 153.

Treaty of London, 319, 328, 335.

Treaty of Portsmouth, 297, 298.

Treaty of Prague, 131, 175.

Treaty of St. Germain, 338, 516, 517.

Treaty of San Stefano, 319, 323, 332,
339.

Treaty of Sevres, 517, 518.

Treaty of Utrecht, 176, 254, 358.
373.

Treaty of Versailles, 512-16. 518, 519.

Treaty of Vienna, 128, 129.

"Treaty Ports." 377.

Treitschke, 122, 143.

Trenlino, 310, 349, 477.

Trevithick, Richard, 42.

Tribune, New York, 498.

Trieste, 310, 428, 477, 506.

Trinidad, 374.

Triple Alliance, preamble to, 173;
formation of, 179-82; weakening of,
182; treaties of, 182, 183; relations
of with Great Britain, 183, 267;
Rumania an appendage of, 184,
314, 315; power of, 184, 185;
stronger than the Dual Alliance,
236; Italy helps to make, 349;
position of, 398; power of rela-
tively diminished, 417, 418; op-
posed to the Triple Entente, 422.

Triple Alliance of Workers in Great
Britain, 251.

Triple Entente, 205, 266; formation
of, 399. 404, 405; increasing strength
of. 410; opposed to the Triple
Alliance, 423.

Tripoli, 324, 325; seized by Italy,
349, 389, 390.

Trotzky, 301, 504, 537, 542, 543,
64A.



Tsardom, fall of the, 539, 540.

Tsingtao, 472,

Tsushima, Battle of, 203, 297.

Tunisia, 181, 383, 384, 389.

Turco-Italian War. 429.

Turgcniev, 279.

Turkestan. 265.

Turkey, relations of with the German-
Empire, 193, 194; former greatness
of. 315; enters the Great War. 470;
surrenders to the Allies, 493;
losses of, 517.

Turkish Empire, rivalry for the pos-
sessions of, 318; preserved by the
rivalries of the Great Powers,
318, 319; dismemlterment of, 319-
31; further decline and losses of,
324-31; before the Great War, 331;
African possessions of lost, 390;
loses Bosniaand Herzegovina, 405-8.

Turks, earlier greatness of, 315; char-
acter of, 325; incapacity of in gov-
ernment, 325.

"Two- Power Standard," British na-
val policy, 199.

Uganda, 376.

Ukraine, 284, 287, 522, 543.

Ulster, 99, 257, 263.

Unification, of Germany, 106, 107;
of Italy, 114, 115.

Unionists, of Ulster, 264.

United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Ireland, suffrage in, 31, 32;
in 1870, 94; formation of, 95, 258;
national debt of, 96, 525; govern-
ment of, 96, 97; extension of the
franchise in, 240, 241, 246.

United Netherlands, 355.

United Provinces, 360.

United States, slavery in, 25, 271;
constitution of, 25; franchise in,
30, 33; relations of with Great Bri-
tain, 100; recognizes the Third
(French) Republic, 215; assimila-
tion of immigrants in, 288; Italians
in, 348; participates in the Algeciras
Conference, 403; joins the Allies in
the Great War, 484-8; refuses to
accept the Treaty of Versailles,
518, 519; in 1920, 523.

Universal Military Service, 124, 125,
126, 233, 424, 425.

Universe, 68, 69.

Universities, 222, 223.

University Tests Act, 248, 249.

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare, 479,
480.



INDEX



579



Upper Austria, 310.
Urban Life, (>(), (il, G2.\
Usher, Archbishop, 70.
Utopia, 74.

Vatican, 315.

Vatican Council, 89, 90, 159.

Venelia, 131, 349.

Venice, 15, 481.

Venizelos, 32G, 335.

Verdun, 458, 4G1. 475, 47G.

Veto, kiuR of En^Umd's power of falls

into disuse, 255.
"\'eto Power" of the House of

I>ords, 254.
Victoria, Queen of Great Britain and

Ireland, 149, 192, 400.
Vienna, 15, 110, 117, 305, 310, 317,

517.
Village Community in Russia, 272,

389.
Villeins, 271.
Viniy, 4S0.
Virgil, 450.
Virginia, 372.

Virginia Company of London, 370.
Vladivostok, 293, 294, 290, 428.
Volga lliver, 12, 13, 280.
Voltaire, 20, 228, 437.
Voyage en Icarie, 79.

Wallace, A. R., 71.

Wallachia, 310; see DanuMan Princi-
pal it ic a.

War, end of desired, 33, 34; glorifica-
tion of in the German Empire,
437, 438.

W^ar Material, accumulation of, 425,
420, 453, 454.

War of Liberation, 30, 125.

War of the Nations, 315.

War of the Spanish Succession, 115,
372, 373, 498.

Wfirsaw, 409, 475, 544.

Washing, 43w

Water, supply of, 42, 43.

Waterloo, Battle of, 23, 90.

Watt, James, 42.

Wealth, distribution of in Great
Britain, 252.

Weavers, 48.

Weaving, 45, 40.

Webb, Beatrice, 536; Sidney, 536.

WVi-hai-wei, 378.

Weitling, Wilhelm, 79.

Wells, H. G., 530.

Weltmacht oder Untergang, 438.



West Indies, 372, 373.

West Prussia, 170, 514.

West Slavs, 310.



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