Edward S. (Edward Samuel) Farrow.

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miles, have a substratum of coralline limestone of very rough"
and irregular surjSice, which is covered by sand, siliceous in part
at least, and soft mud from three to ten feet deep, which covers
all but a few points of the limestone and is overgrown with rank
saw grass. The water overlying this mud is about three feet
deep in dry seasons, and rises after rains from two to three feet.
Lake Okeechobee is but a deeper extension of the Everglades,
its depth averaging about twelve feet, and its area being nearly
twelve hundred square miles. The stight elevation of the Ever-
glade region increases gradually to the north, and the Kissimee
river, which empties into the north margin of Lake Okeechobee,
has a southerly course of near a hundred miles, with a current of
half a mile to three miles. There is thus a very gentle rise
throughout the peninsula, and in the general slope sweeping the
north margin of the Gulf and South Atlantic.

The existence of abundant fossil corals in the Tertiary lime-
stone strata of two hundred to three hundred feet thick, spread-
ing from the Mississippi river around to Cape Fear river in
North Carolina, indicates an ancient coral origin.* Prof. Tuomey
was led by these evidences to a special examination of the Flor-
ida Reef, from which he concluded that a continuous process of

' AsRistmit F. H. Gerties, U. S. Coast Survey, found the surface of the water in
the Everglades to be 6 ft. l\ inches above luw water-mark at Furt Dallas : see
CoAft Sdrvey Report fur 1849, p. 47.

* There are airals in the Tertiary of the coast, but no continuous reef-mck, we
believe, warrantini; tlio above remark. The many muddy streams have been in Um
way of the eztenftive formation of coral reefs on these coasts, even when, as in the
Tertiary, the temperature of the ocean fiivored it— Ens.



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E. B. Hunt on the Florida Reef. SOT

coral growth through geologic ages may have produced this im-
mense coral limestone area. He agrees with Mr. Conrad in call*
ing the Tampa limestone Tertiary. In all this space of limestone
strata, there is no point whose altitude approaches to equality
with the depth of near a mile, found off the Cuban coast The
whole view of this subject leaves a strong impression that no
great changes of level have occurred during the f)eriod of forma-
tion, not only of the present crescent of reef and keys, and the
Cape Sable and Fort Dallas crescent, but even in the more an-
cient coral period, which produced the North Peninsula and the
coral limestones of the great Gulf and Atlantic slope.

Confirmatory evidence is found in the Bahama, Salt key, Cuba
and Yucatan reefs, which have attained great expansion with but
slight evidence of disturbance. There are no indications of atoll
formation by sinking; but Darwin (Appendix, p. 186) apj)eals
only to elevation, and meets the fact of the singular coinciaence
of level over many disconnected banks of great area in the
West Indies, by supposing that the elevated masses of the banks
were uniformly washed away by the sea during their elevation.
It is evident that the remarkable evenness of soundings over
these banks is a measure of the depth to which the destroying
action of the waves extends in their several localities. The
enormous accumulations on the Florida side of the Gulf Stream
make it quite rational to suppose that Salt Key Bank, for in-
stance, may have resulted from a single nucleal peak, now worn
away by the sea, which has afforded a basis lor the growth of a
fringincr reef and for a wasting action by the waves, whence an
outward expansion may have resulted, which, in the course of
ages, has accumulated the larger portion of the great truncated
cone, now rising from near four hundred fathoms. To what
extent the type of action which I have supposed instrumental
in producing tne Florida Bank may be applied in the explanation
of other cases of coral reef, I am not qualified to decide. It can
hardly be supposed that such acute and philosophical minds as
Darwin's ana Dana's would fail to perceive and give proper
weight to this familiar action of attrition, transportation, and
deposition.' Dana is very explicit in stating it, ana I must there-

' It IS certninly hnrdly to be nupposed, that Darwin or Dana 9hou1d have over-
loolved the effects of "attrition, transportation, and deposition*' — cautien acting alike
whether the material subjected to them be coral and nMU, or granite and nandfitone.
Mr. Dana, in his Report on Coral Ueefit and IitUinds, in fact, attributes the f<»rmatioo
of the reuf-rock, or the great maM of the reef, to the consolidation of the coral-
debris made by the triturating waves and distributed by the waves and currents.
See pages 41, 42, 57, 62, 105 to 109, 115, 121, 149. (or in this Journal, [2] xi. 806,
867 ; xii. 82. .S6, 330 to 884; xiii, 86, 40; xiv, 78, 79. 88.) where the effect^ of th«
tritnratmg waves and distributing currents are particularly described, even to the
formation of coral mud in the shallow waters among the reefs.

Speaking of tl»e effects of the currents among the Feeiee Ldandii, he remarks, p.
42 (thin Journal, [2] xi, 867): ** When the materials from both sources, the thore and
the reef, are mingled, the proportion will necessarily depend on the proximity to
the mouths of streams, the breadth of the iuner waters or channels, and the direo-



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208 E. B. Hunt on the Florida Reef.

fore suppose, that a satisfactory explanation of the growth of the
Pacific. coral islands demands vertical movements unlike any
exhibited in the West Indies.

If the views now presented are correct, the chronology of the
reef becomes stupendous. The most rapid instance of coral

frowth which I found on the breakwater and foundations of
ort Taylor was a Meandrina of about six inches radius, which
was produced within twelve years, or the rate was a half inch
per annum. Numerous specimens derived from stones or piles
whose dates of immersion were known, and whose surfaces were
so rapidlv coated by vegetation and corallines that we can safely
assume the coral colonies to have been planted soon after im-
mersion, all indicate for the vicinity of Fort Taylor a general
rate of growth less than the above. There is no obvious reason
why this rate should not be identical with that on the reef
proper, as the tidal currents supply ample moving water, and the
temperature is much the same.

Bearing in mind that the living reef belt hardly averages a
mile in width, and that this is much interrupted, while the shoal

Eart of the Bank averages between fifteen and twenty miles
road, and that this is but a small part of the breadth of the base
of this bank, on the original bottom, aside from the marl and
sand contributed to the Bay of Florida, we are overwhelmed
with the immense demand for time. We ought not to suppose
less than three hundred fathoms of detritus built up on an aver-
age. Moreover, much of this calcareous material is likely to

tion aod force of tbe currents. These tidal curreats often have gr€&at strength, and
are much modified and increased in force at certain places, or dtrninished in others,
by the position of the reef with reference to the land. Sweeping on, they carry off
the coral debris from some regions to others distant ; and again they bear along
only the shore detritus, and distribute it. It is thus seen that the same region may
differ widely in its adjacent parts,— may seemingly afford evidence Sn one place thai
there is no coral near, and m another no basaltic land, although either is within a
few rods, or even close along side. The extent of the land in proportion to the
reef will have an obvious effect upon the chanieter of the channel or lagoon depo-
sitions. When the islund stands, like Bacon's isles (Feejees), as a mere point of rock
in a wide sea enclosed by a distant barrier, the streams of the land are small, and
their detritus quite limited in amount. In such a case, the reef and the growing
patches scattered oyer the lagoon, are the sources of nearly all the raat«riaT that is
accumulated upon the bottom."

Again, p. 67: "The reef-rock, wherever broken, shows a detritus origin," etc
Again, p. 121 (this Journal, xiii, 40),— treating of the precautions necessnry to de-
termine correctly the rate of growth of reefs, he observes : ** It is also necessary to
examine into whatever has any bearing upon the marine or tidal currents of the
•region — their strength, velocity, direction, where they eddy, and where nut, whether
they flow over reefs that may afford debi*is, or not. All the debris of one plantation
may sometimes bo swept away by currents to contribute to other patehes. so that
one will enlarge at the expense of others ; or, currents may carry tlie detritus into
the clinnnels or deeper waters around a coral patch, and leave little to aid the plan-
tation itself in its increase and consolidation."

Again, when explaining the origin of the bard compact limestone, containing
jrarely a fossil, which constitutes so large a proportion of the reef-rock, he says :



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E. B. Hunt on the Florida Reef. 309

have been more than once used by the coral animals, and some
must have been swept into the ocean waters. Taking the living
reef at one-twentietn the breadth of the total bank, the depth
of the bank at three hundred fathoms, and the rate of growth at
■J inch per annum, we find, aside from the other elements of
protraction, 864,000 years as the time for building the bank,
when considered in cross section. Considering the growth as
being by the west end from Cape Florida to Tu)rtugas Bank, a
great increase of time is still demanded, so that we can hardly,
on these data, diminish the chronology of the growth of the
present Florida Bank even to a million years. Appalling as this
estimate of time for building appears, it seems impossible hon-
estly to reduce it If to this oe added the time consumed in
building the Cape Sable and Fort Dallas crescent, and again the
inconceivable periods demanded in the growth of the main
peninsula and the limestone strata of the grand slope of the
Qulf and South Atlantic, the imagination is appalled, and can
only rest on limitless infinities. We can indeed readilv make
an arithmetical approximation to this inconceivable total. The
nature of coral reefs limits the growing portion to the outer reef
line, and it is a liberal allowance if we suppose a zone of one
mile broad regularly covered with growing surfaces. The solid-
ified masses derived from this zone, wherever deposited, cannot
possibly increase, in the whole, more rapidly than this zone can
supply the materials. If we assume these masses at 250 feet
thick on their northern margin in Alabama, and 1800 feet thick
on the present southern boundary, we can safely assume an
average thickness of 900 feet The length of the general line of

** Ad explanation of this peculiarity is obvious on tbe principle already discussed —
the action of a triturating sea,** etc

Mr. Dana even considers the question of the transportation of the detritus over
the bottom of the adjoining ocean, a point so well illustrated by Captain Hunt. On
page 154 (this Journal, xiv, 88), he remarks as follows: "* It is an incjuiry of some
interest, whether, in on archipelago like the Paumotus, coral debris is not carried
from the coral islands, and distributed over the bottom of the ocean ; and whether
limestones, thus originating, are not in process of formation. I venture no positive
assertion on this subject, yet would express strong doubts. The fact that soundiuga
off some basaltic islands, as we recede from the reef-growing depths, lose more and
more in tlie proportion of coral sand, till we finally reach a bottom of earth, like
the material of the island, bears against the hypothesis. This was found to be the
case off Upolu, where the reefs are cxtennive.^ The doubts here expressed could
not exist in a sea where the reef islands were swept by a marine current as strong
as that passing the Florida Keys ; and this is the special fact which gives origin-
ality nnd great interest to the researches above detailed by Captain Hunt, wheUier
the idea that the formation of the reef consisted in a gradual elongation from the
eastward, without subsidence — a view also of great interest, and original — be cor-
rect or not

It may be added here, that the possibility, not to say strong probability, of great
changes of level during and following the Post-tertiary, in the region of the Mexican
Qulf, as well as in the other transverse tropical seas of the globe, the Mediterra-
nean and East Indian, is one among the many sources of doubt that complicate
the problem of time connected with the Florida reef. — j. d, d.



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9i0 Mineral Localities in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, ^.

average cross section of the growing front cannot be less tban
250 to 800 miles, or at the minimum a horizontal formation of
250 times the growing zone can be assumed. Taking the rate as
before at 24 years to the foot, we shall have for the total time
24x250x900, on the data as stated; or, we find the total
period of 5,400,000 years, as that required for the growth of the
entire coral limestone formation of Florida. The rate of coral
growth is nearly a ricid one, scarcely subject to fluctuation in
any supposable period of time, and the limitation of growth to
an outer reef of narrow section is also a necessity of organic
habits. If then it be a fact that all the limestone mass now con-
sidered is of coral origin, the time of coral growth cannot be
reduced below the result given above. It is likely to be much
greater, as all the elements have been assumed on the side of a
minimum chronology, and no allowance is made for growth by
the west end instead of by the front

The derivation of the substructure of the bank from coral

frowth makes the seemingly formidable chronology deduced by
rof. Agassiz shrink into insignificance. But is this vastness of
time really incredible? Does its shock to our ideas militate
against its reality? It is not the method of true philosophy to
belittle nature to our ideal standards, but it is mther our duty to
seek facts without bias or preconception. Looking thus squarely
at the facts of the reef, in the aspect I have regarded them, the ag-
gregate of time given seems really and truly insufficient There
are vast possibilities of error in such estimates, but are we not
quite as likely to err through our preconceptions of limited
chronology as by boldly submitting to the guidance of estima-
tion from actual bases 1



Akt. XXIII. — CaiaJogue of Mineral T^ocaliiies in New Brunswick,
Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland; by O. C. Marsh, B.A., of the
Sheffield Scientific School, Yale College.

The following list of mineral localities in New Brunswick,*
Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland, is the first covering all these
regions that has been published. Although necessarily imper-
fect in many respects, it has been prepared with considerable
care, and it is hoped that it may prove of some service to min-
eralogists who are not familiar with these interesting regions.

The lists of minerals occurring at manjr of the places men-
tioned in the Catalogue, especially those in the trap district of
the Bay of Fundy, are copied from the writer's notes, which were

' Many of the notices of localities referred to in this Province are given on the
anthority of Mr. Mathew, which is a sufficient guarantee fur their genei^ accuracy.



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Mineral Localities in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, ^. 81 1

taken at the localities daring several excursions to the Provinces,
the lirst in 1854. Even these lists may, in some cases, be foand
incomplete; since the destructive tides of that region are con*
st^ntly changing the outlines of the coast, and thus exhausting
the old lociilities, while at the same time bringing to light others,
equally rich in mineral treasures.

The notices of localilies which the writer has not visited are
derived from the best sources of information to which he had
access. A few were taken from the publications of Jackson and
Alger, Dawson, and Jukes, which contain much that is valuable
in regard to the mineralogy of these Provinces.' The writer is
also especially indebted to Greorge F. Mathew, Esq., and Charles
F. Hartt, Esq., of St John, for important information in regard
to localities, especially in New Brunswick, and to Prof. Forrest
Shepherd, of New Haven, for notices of several new localities
in Newfoundland.

There is probably no part of the world, except the trap dis-
trict of India, which is richer in zeolites than tne shores of the
bay of Fundy ; yet the minerals from that region have hitherto
received but little attention in comparison with those from other
similar sections, and hence no little confusion exists in regard to
what species occur at the diflferent localities. In the following
lists of minerals from Nova Scotia, thomsonite, prehnite, and one
or two other species are marked doubtful. The first is generally
believed to be one of the most common minerals in that Prov-
ince, yet on examining and analyzing specimens of the so-called
thomsonite from many of its reputed localities, the writer found
them to be invariably mesolite or natrolite, — most generally the
former; and it is doubtful if this species has yet been discov-
ered in that region. Prehnite, also, is stated to occur at two
places on the bay of Fundy;" yet an examination of specimens, so
considered, which were collected by the discoverers of the local-
ities, as well as a careful exploration of nearly all the places in
that section at which this mineral might naturally be expected
to occur, has led the writer to believe that prehnite has not
hitherto been met with in Nova Scotia, and that its existence at
anv locality in that Province is extremely doubtful.

The entire group of zeolitic minerals from the bay of Fundy
is well worthy of careful study. The writer has for several
years been collecting materials for a full examination of the dif-
ferent species, and hopes at some future time to embody the
results of his investigations in a Monograph on the subject

* Remarks on the Mineralogy and Geology of Nova Scotia, by Charles T. Jack-
Bon and Francb Alger; Memoirs of the American Academy, vol. 1, 1888; Acadian
Oeology, by J. W. Dawson, F.G.S^ Edinburgh, 1856; Geological Survey of New-
fimndland, by J. E Jukes, t.QS., London, 1848.

* Near Black fiock, Kings Co., and at Clark's Head, Cumberiaod Go.



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812 Mineral localities in New Brunswick.

The following catalogue is arranged according to the plan used
in Dana's Mineralogy. Only localities which aftbrd cabinet spec-
imens are in general included. The names of those minerals
which can be obtained in good specimens at the several localities
are printed in italics. When the specimens are remarkably good,
an exclamation mark (I) is added, or two of these marks (I I) if
the specimens are quite unique.

NEW BRUNSWICK.

ALBERT CO. Grindstone Point and Island. — ^6ar3rte8, iron pyrites,
lignite.

HOPEWELL. — Gypsum (alabaster and selenite); Albert mines,— -coal
(albertite).

Pallet River — fifteen miles from mouth, — coal.

Shepodt Mountain. — Al unite in clay, calcite, iron pjrites, mangan-
ite f psiloraelane, pyroluaite.

Turtle Creek. — Coal.
CARLETON CO. Woodstock. — Copper pyrites (mined), hematite,

limonite, wad.
CHARLOTTE CO. Beaver Harbor.— Chlorite, jasper.

Campobbllo — at Welchpool. — Blende, copper pyrites, erubescite, ga-
lena, iron pyrites; at head of Harbor de Lute, galena (4 inch vein) ;
at Head Harbor, copperas, iron pyrites.

Deer Island— on west side. — Calcite (in amygdaloid), magnetite,
quartz crystals.

DiGDiouASH River. —On west side of entrance, ca/«te / (in conglom-
erate), chalcedony ; at Rolling Dam, graphite.

Grandmanan. — Between Northern Head and Dark Harbor, agate,
amethyst, apophyllite^ calcite, hematite, heulandite, jasper, magnet-
ite^ natrolite, stilbite, thomsonite 9 ; at Whale. Cove, calcite /, heuland-
ite, laumontite, stilbite, semi-opal/ ; at Fish Head, two miles east of
Eel Brook, chlorite in quartz (abundant) ; at Rosses' Island, quarts
crystals; at White Head, chlorite, quartz crystals.

L'Etano Island Harbor. — Chlorite, iron pyrites, marble, serpentine ;
at La T^te, copper pyrites, erubescite, galena.

Wagaguadavic River. — At entrance, azurite, copper pyrites in veins,
malachite; one eighth of a mile east, galena.

New River. — At Mills, actinolite? (in porphyry).

Seelt's Cove. — Hill, half a mile north, calcite, iron pyrites, magnet-
ite, quartz crystals.

St. Stephen. — Four miles north of, graphite in slate, molybdenite in
gneiss, quartz crystals; at Mill Farm, iron pyrites.

Wauwio Kiver. — ^Three miles up, at Cormick's Mills, pyrites in boul-
ders, garnet, feldspar crystals, tourmaline ; at Bartlett's Pond, quartz
crystals.
GLOUCESTER CO. Bathurst.— Coal, malachite.

TiTB-A-QouoHB RivBR. — ^Eight miles from Bathurst, copper pyrites
(mined), oxyd of manganese ! ! formerly mined.



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Mineral locoKHes in New BrunswiciL SIS

KENT CO. BuoTOuoHi RnrmL— Coal.
CooAioifB RiTBR. — On branch three miles from bridge, ooal.
RicHiBuoTO RnriR. — ^Three miles above Ford's Mills, and at Big Brook,

coal; at Bassk, iron pyrites; Liverpool, limonite.
EouoHiBououAsis RiVER. — Coal.
KINGS CO. Bbllbisle B^r.^On north shore, galena in limestone,

horostone, jasper; Bull Moose Hill, large bed of magnetite on &nn

of Northnip and Benson.
CuFTON. — Chlorite, epidote, hematite, orthoclase in crystals, prehnite,

quartz crystals.
Hammond Kivir. — At Sherwood's, graphite in limestone.
Hampton. — At Darling's Lake, agate, camelian, jasper.
Ejnoston. — On ridge south of village, chlorite, magnetite, magnetic

pyrites.
Nbbapib. — ^Near Hatfield's Mill, pyrites; near Mather's Inn, amethysti

feldspar, quartz crystals.
QuisPAMsis. — Copper pyrites, galena, iron pyrites, laumontite.
SussKX. — ^Near Cloat's Mills, on road to Belleisle, argentiferous galena;

one mile north of Baxter's Inn, specular iron in crystals, limonite;

on Capt. McCready's farm, east of Church, seUfUte/f (crystals con-
• taining sand).

Upham. — Salt springs ; four miles east of Titus' Mills, gypsum.
NORTHUMBERLAND CO. Boistown.— Coal ; also at New Castle

and Chatham.
QUEENS CO. Grand Lake. — At Long Point, barytes, copperas, and

pyrites in fossil trees ; Salmon River, on Crawford's farm, coal, cop-
peras, pyrites, limonite ; New Castle River, coal mines ; Coal Creek,

coal jfformeHy worked).
Long RBA0H. - Opposite Van Warts, chlorite.
Washbdsmoak Rivsr. — ^Two and a half miles from Long's Creek,

coal ; a few miles above mouth of W. River, on S.K side of small

cove, camelian, chalcedony, homstone, jasper, quartz crystals.
RESTIGOUCHE CO. Bbllkdune Point.— CWctte/ ierpentine, verde

antique marble,
Dalhousib. — ^Agate, camelian.
Point LbNim. — Coal.
SAINT JOHN CO. Black Rivbr. — On coast, caldte, chlorite, copper

pyrites, hematite ! in crystals, pyroxene (green earth), quartz crystals.
Brandt Brook. — ^Epidote, hornblende^ quartz crystals.
Carlbton. — Near Falls, calcite (red).

Chanob Harbor. — Calcite (deep red) in quartz veins, chlorite in argil-
laceous and talcose slate.
LnTLB DiPPBR Harbor. — On west side, in greenstone, amethyst, ba-

ryte^ quartz crystals.
MooBBPATH. — Feldspar (red), homblende, muscovite, black tourmaline.
Musquash. — On East side Harbor, copperas, granhite, pyrites; at

Shannon's, chrysotile, serpentine ; East side of Musquash, qwxfiM

crystals ! (in conglomerate).
Portland. — At the Falls, large bed of graphite (impure) ; at Fort Howe

Hill, calcite (fine crystals in several forms), graphite ; Crow's Nest,
Am. Joub. Sol— Sboond Sjsxuu, Vol. XXXV, No. 104.~Maxoh, 186&
38



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314^ Mineral localitie$ in Nova Scotia.

asbestos, calcite (fibrous), chrysoUle^ magnetite, serpentine, steatite ;

Lily Lake, white augite ?, chrjsotile, graphite, serpentine, steatite,

talc; How*s Road, two miles out, epidote (in syenite), steatite in

limestone, tremolite; Drury's Cove, graphite, pyrites, pyrallolite?

indurated talc
QoAoa — At Light House Point, large bed of oxyd of manganese ; west

of Point, lignite; east of Quaco, at Fuller's Creek, graphite, iron

pyrites; farlher eastward, asbestus, chrysolite, black tourmaline.
Bbd Hbad. — Calcite (fibrous), red jasper.



Online LibraryEdward S. (Edward Samuel) FarrowThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 27 of 61)