Edward S. (Edward Samuel) Farrow.

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mena are a residt of glaciers, or icebergs, the writer has discussed
in his Geological Manual, and need not take up here.

The absence of well characterized moraines from the most of
the country will not be deemed remarkable by those who consider
the length of time which has elapsed since the Glacial epoch
ended, and the power of running water in wearing to powder
loose stones of whatever hardness, and especially mose derived
from most sedimentary strata.

Again, moraines are always comparatively small where the
glacier has no towering peaks or cliflfs about its course, to afl^rd
avalanches of ice and stones. The glacier of the Mohawk, in
order to make scratches about Cherry v alley, 1800 feet above the
sea-level must have reached to a height of at least 2000 feet ;
and with this level, if the region had anything like its present
configuration, it would have buried a large part of the southern
Dlateau, while its northern border would have had no limit in
N'ew York State, except about the Adirondack Mountains, 70
or 75 miles distant

' Mr. Vanuxem obeerres, in oonclading his remarks on this subject, that the
glaeier-origin of the scratches harmoniies with the fact that the scratched smUucM
are found at no regular or defined eleFations ; that the surfaces are too much worn,
and extend over too great an extent of the same rock, to have been caused bj
iceb«[gs, especially, as the lines are always straight ones, and the motion of icebeiga
is oscillatory and rotatory. The direction also of the scratches is in accordance with
existing ▼alleys, and hence local, agreeing with glaciers in both respects.** He adds
further, with his usual discrimination, "As matter of fact from actual observation,
the glacier-theory will have preference of the two, especially, should the term local
ice h% substituted, being a more general expression : — glaciers having their origin
near the line where perpetual snow ceases, whereas local ice embraces the same, as
well as all bodies of solidified water, be the cause of the reduction of temperature
what it may, whether permanent or transient, that has given rise to it" p. 247.



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/. D. Dana on a Mohawk-valley Glacier. S49

On the Catskills, the glacier scratches reach to a height of at
least 2235 feet— -the elevation at the Mountain House, and this
implies the existence of ice and snow to a height of at least
2600 feet; and if the snow had this height over the whole south-
em plateau, it would have almost completely buried it^ with the
exception of the higher Catskill summits.*

Without more extended observation, it is not possible to say
whether the east-and-west, or the north-and-south, scratches of
the Cherry Valley region are of earlier date. If the former, then,
beyond question, the north-aftd-south are due to a Sxuquehannah
glacier; out if the latter, they may have resulted, as already inti-
mated, from a great continental glacier spreading southward from
the remote north, of which the Mohawk glacier was a final por-
tion that became partly outlined and independent only in the later
part of the Glacial epoch. The fact of the greater average height
of the southern plateau than the northern adds to the difficulties
of arriving, at present, at sure conclusions ; and the uncertainties,
arising from our ignorance of the changes in the topography of
the country through erosion, during the time which has since
elapsed, still further enhance these difficulties. But, whatever
the uncertainties, there is sufficient justness in the views of Van*
uxem, Dwight and others, as to a frequent conformity between
the direction of scratches and of the valleys, (the greater valleys,)
to suggest the right method of investigation, and indicate the
line in which a large part of the truth lies.

The £Gu:ts gathered over much of New England appear to
point directly to a Ccmnecticut-vaUey glacier; and those between
the Green Mountains and the Catskills, to a Evdeon-vaJiey gla-
der; and others, in the vicinity of Penobscot Bay, recently
studied by Mr. De Laski, to a Penobscoi-bay glacier, as this ob-
server, idter extensive research, has concluded. A Jfohawk-
valley glacier may, with little if any doubt, be added to the
number already defined, and probably, also, a /Su^gueAannoA-
valley glacier.

* Raiiitay ttatet, in his obseiTAtioiis oo the drifl-scrmtcbes of the CAttkiU regigo
(Quart. Jour. Qeol. Soc LodcL, zt, 208), that while the striations on the ascent of the
mountain from the east were ** nearly north-and-south along the flanks of the escarp*
ment, and not from west to east down the slope of the hul,** and ** yery strong and
ftequent np to the plateau on which the Mountain House standv, 2860 [2285] feet
above the sea," at thM summit leyel, on the watershed, the scratches approximate to
eastHUid*west He says *' on this pUteau, numerous main grooyes are seen, passiof
across the hill, and nearly at right angles to most of those obserred dunnp^ the
ascent,— seemingly pointing to we fact that the icebergs [Mr. Ramsay adopting in
his reasoning the ioeberg'theory] which striated the eastern flank of the mountains
in a northand-eouth direction, when the whole was nearly submerged, here ibnnd a
passa^ or strait throuffh which they sometimes floated and grated the bottom, in a
direction quite across that which they were forced to follow when passing along the
great escarpment that now faces tlie Hudson.'' He states, also, that these main
grooyes are crossed " at yarious aneles** hj ** minor striations.** Mather, as meo-
tioned in his Oeoloeical Report, mtAt long since some similar obsdryations on the
CatdriU scratches ; hut they were less complete than those by Ramsay.



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250 /. Nicklis on Changes in Wine.

Abt. XXVn.— On certain Changes in Wine; by J. NiCKLis.*

Among the different substances contained in wine, one of the
most characteristic and constant, in connection with alcohol and
water, is the bitartrate of potassa. Since a wine will not be
accepted as a natural product if it lacks this salt, it is well
known that the manufacturers are always careful to add the
bitartrate of potassa to spurious wine. Nothing has ever
changed this opinion, although numerous chemical researches
have been made every year with the different wines produced in
France. Natural wine always contains a proportion more or less
appreciable of cream of tartar (bitartrate of potassa), if the wine
has not undergone any change. Through recent investigations
made at Lyons and at Montpellier it has been discovered that the
bitartrate of potassa may be wanting in wines which have un-
dergone decomposition, especially in such wine as has become
bitter. Wine affected in this manner is known in France under
the name of "changed wine" {vin toumS). It is verv disj^ee-
able to the taste, and gives by distillation volatile acids in much
greater quantity than are furnished by normal wine.

It has also been remarked that " changed wine" contains more
potassa than wine of the same province which has not been
spoiled. But sugar and glycerine are not more abundant in such
wine ; on the contrary there appears lactic acid, which depends
upon su«ir for its production, and also another acid with the
formula CjHjO^, which is the formula for propionic acid, but
which, as we shall see below, is here applicaole to an isomeric
acid.

It was at first thought that this volatile acid was derived from
glycerine, which is normally contained in wine. But its origin
IS now explained, by a fact which we discovered in 1846 and
published in a memoir inserted in the Comptes Rendus of the
Academy of Sciences (voL xxi, p. 285) entitled, " Sur un acidepar-
tictdier produit par la fermenfaiion du tartre bruf^ This acid we
call btUynxLcetic acid because of the facility with which it may
be transformed into acetic acid and into butyric acid, and also
because it is possible to effect the synthesis of this acid, as we
have formerly shown in the Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie^
xxxiii, p. 851. We shall refer to this synthesis below.

The production of an acid C,H,0^ from the butyric acid or
from the acetic acid may be rendered intelligible by means of the
following equation :

C,H,0,+C,H,0,=:C.,H„0, : and <?l»?^-C,H.O, (»)
[Acetic acid + butyric acid.] [Batyroacetic acid.]

> Communicated to tliis Journal by the author.

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/. Nicklis an Changes in Wine. Ml

Although this acid may arise from fermentation of bitartrate
of potassa, it has never, for a wonder, been foand in wine which
has lost its tartaric acid by means of adulteration. This fitct
confirms the observation, made long since in the practice of wine
making, viz : that when the wine became changed in this man-
ner, all the crude tartar which had settled at the bottom of the
casks disappeared little by little, an observation which confirms
this other fact demonstrated by chemistry, to wit, that '^ changed
wine" contains more potassa than is found in normal wine. Tnis
is evidently due to bitartrate of potassa originallv deposited in
the bottom of the cask, which by redisso^ving and fermentation
has furnished this excess of potassa now dissolved by the aid of
the lactic acid and of the butyro-acetic acid produced during
fermentation.

The "turning" of wine which is characterized by the designa-
tion changed wine {vin Umme), and which follows when the wine
becomes bitter, consists essentially in a transformation of sugar
into lactic acid, and tartaric acid into an acid containing the ele-
ments of acetic and butyric acids, that is to say of butyro-acetio
acid. Under the influence of this change the metamorphism of
tartaric acid takes place not only when it is free and in solution,
but even when it is combined with potassa and is deposited at
the bottom of the oaBk. in the condition of. an insoluble bitar-
trate.

* The notation of Gerhardt shows clearly the difference between the two adds
called propionic and butyro-acetic. Take for example the salt of baryta, the crys-
talline form of which is identical for the two acids (Rammelsberg, KryttaUograpK'
itehe OhemUf ii, p. 161).

i. )
ejH.e^ej and,

Propionate of barjta. Batynwicetate of baryta.

To obtain the butyro-acetic acid, it is only necessary to pass a solution of acetate
and batyrate into a retort containing; hot and dilute sulphuric acid, and to condense
in a convenient vessel the vapors which are diseneaged. The condensed liquid coo-
tains an acid which being neutraHzed by baryta gives beautiful flat prisms iormed of
buWro-acetate of baryta. These crystals have a greasy feel, and when pulveriaed
and thrown into water they acquire a gyratory motion similar to butyrate of baryta.
In this case the two acids, acetic and butyric, are evolved in the natemt state, and
combines to form the btUyro-aeetic acid in question.




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%n C. F. AuBtin on' the Sphagna of New Jersey.



Abt. XXVIIL — Observations on the Sphagna of New Jersey, iMh
Description of a New Species ; by 0. F. AUSTIN, Curator of Dir.
Torrey's Herbarium, Columbia College.

The region in New Jersey known as "The Pines" Is literally
a region <m Sphagna, Nine of the ten specieb and most of the
varieties noticed in this paper were collected there by the writer
in October last, in the vicinity of Manchester in Ocean cotfnty,
within the radius of less than half a mile, — ^the fruits of a feW
hours search. One of Aem, Sphagnum SuUiTxintianum, is new to
science ; another, S. molluscum, to the American Continent.

The bottoms of the ponds in this region ai^e ooVered to a gretft
extent (often to the exclusion of all other plants whidh tsually
grow in such places) with Sphagnum cuspidatum var. Ihrreyanum,
isl macrophyllum^ large forms of S, Pvkesti and with S. SuUivantia-
num. They are entirely submerged (when at a depth of more
than three or four feet), or have their tips just peeping from the
BUriftoe of the water, and were all brought up together on the
boat's oar in the pond at Manchester, from a deiXh of at least
six feet

The more or less inundated marshes on the borders of the
ponds are filled with Sphtignum cuspidatum, running into the
var. recurvum in the cedar swamps, where this variety abounds,
and into the var. plwnosum in shallow water, — and this appears
to pass regularly into the var. Torreyanum in deep water. The
forms of this species which run into the var. recurvum have a
slender state of & cymbifolium abundantly, and of S. moUuscutf^
sparingly, mixed with them. The common forms of S. acutifih
hum and S, cymbifolium form deep extensive turfs in the cran-
berry boM, — these places seeming to be made iip of their remains.

In sanay, grassy Dogs, forming matted masses, S cyclophyUum
and S. Pykesii are abundant. S. rigidum, var. humile, occurs
Bparingly on the dry margins of the ponds.

Considering the hmited time and space over which the search
extended, and the number of species collected, it is reasonable
to suppose that others may yet be found in the same locality.*

The following brief synopsis includes, I believe, all the Sphagna
that have thus mr been found in New Jersey.*

1. Sphagnum aoutifouum Ehrh. — Fruits ahundantly on the borden
of sandy swamps, where it is of rather a low stature ; the taller forms
which ffrow in peat bogs appear to produce only male flowers ; color be-
low whitish ; above, brownish tinged with red, often chaniging to bright

* 8. ttfftftfeimdMm is common in other portions, of the State, and may be looked for
in the same locality as weU as all the American species not pecnliar to high latitudes.

* Since writtne Uie above, I learn from Mr. Siuliyant that be has /8. tabulate tnm
Quaker Bridge, New Jersey.



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C F. Austin an the Sphagna of Nm§ Jersey.

purple in drjing. A oroeroot-green, rather loosely spreading, sterile Ibrm
tt found in miry swamps.

2. Sph. SuLLivANTiAifUM (sp. nov.) : Speciosnm robastum sabraersutn
tel flaitans: caulis pedalis et ultra firmus simplex vel semel dtvisos,
straio corttcali triplici et quadruplici e ceilulis hyalinis spirali-fibrillosis
porosis formato; ramali S-d-^osciculati, quorum 2^ recnrfo-patentea
densi julaceo-foliosi basi attenuati, 1-3 deflexi cauli adpressi gracilioros
laxius foliosi, ceilulis corticalibus sptraliter fibrillosts band porosis in st^ato
duplici disposttis : fdia caulina obovato-qnadrata toto margine fimbriato,
eellulissine poris et fibrillis ; folia ramulorum patulorum inferiora parvula
Semicirculan-ovata, otttera multo majora, media orbiculata eoeblearifbrmi-
concava, terminalia elongato-ovata Jaxiuscula, omnia arete imbricantia
angustissime marginata, basi nngnieulata, dorso ad apicem cuctrilatam
papilloso, toto ambit« (foliis terminalibos exceptis) eleganter fimbriata,
rete inferne elongato-rhomboideum apicem yersns rborabeum, ceilulis
hjalinis fibriliosis et poris roajuscnlis instnictis, ceiluKs chlorophyllosis ad
concavam folii faciem positis inqne seotione transversaK triangularibtn:
frucius et flores ignoti.— -Manchester Pond, Ocean Co., New Jersey ; col-
lected October, 1862.

This fine species has the appearance of an ovei^own state of Spk,
eymln/oliumy and possesses tn a superlative degree most of the distinctive
characters of that species, but is at once distinguished by its elavate
branchee with elegantly fringed leaves which are very abruptly contracted
below into a claw-like 6a«e, and have the back at the apex conspicuously
dark-colored, with cross-section as in S. aeutffoliwn. The stem-leaves are
also quite distinct, being usually nearly quadrate, but little if any longer
titan broady and copknisly frmged^

3. Sph. otmbifolium. Dill. — AUt he specimens that I have examined,
both from this country and Europe, have the stetn-leaves reticulated on
the border above,^-^he network 6ften broad and extending slightly be*
yond the margin, frequently giving the leaf a strongly fring^ appearance,
—'-and have the lower branch-leaves slightly spinulose-toothed ; 8phiul»
short, distant, erect-appressed, somewhat club-shaped, with the apex
slightly recurved. The following are the forms that I have observed in
New Jersey, precisely the same as are found in Europe : —

a. Densely cespitose, low or tall, mostly of a pale reddish-brown
color ; stems erect ; branches short, thick, straightish, remote or crowded ;
tbe loosely imbricated or spreading leaves straight on the back. — (^, con-
denscUum 0. MOll. Synop, 1, p. 92.) — ^Peat bogs and borders of sandy
swamps ; fruits occasionally ; runs into

§, More robust, rather loosely cespitose, mostly of a pale elaucous-
greeii color; stems ereotish; branches attenuated, recurv^, the lower
rather distant, the upper crowded ; stem leaves with the cells usually des-
titute of pores and spiral fibres; branch-leaves slightly recurved above
the middle, (a. pycnoeladum C. MQll. Synop. 1, p. 92).«^Border8 of
swamps and in pastures. Very rare in fruit ; runs into

y. Loosely spreading and of a dark bluish-green color; stems ^gt^g;
branches less crowded above, — the leaves acuminate, the upper half some'
what tubular and recurved-squarrulose. (/. squofrulonHn C. Mtyi Synop.
1, p* 92).— Miry swamps partly inundated ; sterile.
ijc. JouB. Sol— Sbcond Skries, Vol. XXXV, No. 104.— Mabch, 186S.
S3



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354 C F. Austin on the Sphagna of New Jersey.

4. 8ph. ctolophtllum, SuI]. & Lesqx. — Foliis pericbietiilibiis ut cttteris
capsulam globosam includentibus. — Apparently a very distinct species;
stem and branch-leaves much larger than in any other, often 2 lines or
more broad by 2^3 lines long, with a dasping-perfoliate, constricted,
distinctly heart-shaped base. — brassy bogs about Manchester. I have
seen dwarf forms of this species from Quaker Bridge distributed as *' S,
sedoides Brid."

5. Sph. P7L.A8II, Brid. — Also apparently a very distinct species, and,
with the preceding (with which it grows, forming thin strata), very dis-
tinct from S. sedoide«. — Color blackish-green ; stems 6 inches long with
few short recurved-spreading branches. Runs into a large dusky-black
form in the water with stems 1-2 feet long.

6. Sph. riqidum, Schimp., var. bumilb. {S. humile Schimp.) — Stenss
low, 1 inch high, very compact; capsule nearly included. — Dry margin
of the pond at Manchester.

7. Sph. subsbcundum, Nees & Homsch. — ^Rather loosely cespitose,
8-6 inches high ; color above, a beautiful golden-brown, below, whitish ;
branches in fours and fives, somewhat crowded, thickish towards the base,
somewhat attenuated, more or less contorted and of uuequal lengths;
branch-leaves ovate, acuminate, unequally truncate and about 5-toothcd
at the apex, varying from closely imbricated to spreading, mostly recurved,
— some are much so, while others on the same branch are straight or even
slightly incurved ; cells of leaves larger than in any specimens that I have
seen from other localities, — with numerous small pores. — Meadows and
pastures in springy places; sterile. — A form growing in sunken holes, in
woods partly inundated, is of a pale green color; stems 6-8 inches long,
with rather distant branches arranged in fives and sixes; perichieth lateral.
At a casual glance it might be mistaken for eitlier S. cymbifolium or
S,*acuiifoliumy but particulariy for S, cuspidatum ; but it is at once dis-
tinguished from the first, with which it grows, by its smaller size and acute
branch-leaves ; from the second by its thickish branches with the leaves
irregularly imbricated and recurved ; from the last it is very difficult to
distinguish it when fresh, but in a dry state this is readily done, for it
then has the leaves straight (not wavy) on the margin ; male plant very
different from the female, as follows:

Compactly cespitose, 2-4 inches high; color brownish-green tinged
with yellow ; branches very short and thick, ovate-lanceolate, very acute,
nearly straight, the deflexed ones are closely appressed beyond, but not
at, the tumid base ; branch-leaves large, orbicular-ovate, rounded at the
6-12 toothe<l apex, very compactly imbricated, — the cells mostly withont
pores. — Very diflicult to distinguish from small forms of Sph, eymhifo-
lium^ var. a, with which it grows. Bogs and wet meadows : Bergen Co.

8. Sph. molluscum, Bruch. — Was found mixed with, small forms of
Sph, cuipidaium from about Manchester, and detected by its elliptical,
never cuspidate nor recurved, branch-leaves, which are not wavy on the
margin when dry ; those towards the apex of the branches are smaller
than the rest, but of the same outline (not narrowed as in most species).
Resembles S, tahulare Sull., but is a more slender plant, with cross-sec*
tion of leaf as in S, cuspidaium.

9. Sph. cuspid atum, Ehrh. — Rather loosely cespitose; large and robust



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C. F, Austin on the Sphagna of New Jersey. SW

or small and weak; oolor whitish and greenish ; stems erect, or spreading,
5-8 inches long ; branches thickish, none closely appressed ; stem and
perichaetal leaves not fibril lose ; the latter crowded at the base of the
lateral perichseth, often inclnding the capsule ; branch-leaves rather large,
lanceolate acuminate, broadly margined. — Runs into the var. plumoMum.
— In an inundated peat bog in Bergen Co., there occurs a slender pale-
green form with loosely spreading and fibrillose perichsetal-leaves, which
seems to connect this and the var. plumosum with var. laxifolium,

Var. RKCURVUM. {S. reeurvum Beauv.). — Densely cespitose, robust;
color pale straw-yellow ; stems erect, 5 or 6 inches high ; branches in fours
and fives^he 2 spreading ones very uniformly recurved, the 2 or 3 deflexed
ones closely appressed; branch-leaves small, oblong-lanceolate, strongly
recurved and conspicuously arranged in 5 straight ranks. Perichaeth
terminal. Runs into the preceding or typical fortn. — Cedar swamps
about Manchester. — There is a deep green, loosely cespitose form in Ber-
gen Co., which seems to connect this var. with the var. laxifolium.

Var. PLUMOSUM. — Larger than the preceding and much more attenuated
in all its parts. Sometimes this variety is found scattered and creeping
on the banks of the small streams in the cedar swamps, when it is much
condensed, with short, very thick, contorted and much crowded branches,
giving to the stems an obese appearance, suggestive of huge caterpillars.
— Shallow water about Manchester.— >Very rare in fruit ; runs insensibly
into

Var. ToRaRTANUM. {S. Torreyanum Sull., in MemoirB Amer. Acad.
Arts and Sciences, new series, iv, p. 174). — This fine variety (it appears
to be nothing more) and the var. reeurvum seem to represent the two
extremes of this species, between which there are all manner of inter-
mediate forms. — Deep water about Manchester. — Probably does not fruit
except when it occurs in water holes that are partially exsiccated during
the late summer and early fall months.

Var. LAXIFOLIUM. {S. laxifolium C. Mlill. Sy^iop. 1, p. 97). — Nearly
as large as the last and resembling it except in color, which is deep green,
stem and perichsetal leaves fibrillose except the margins below, the latter
loosely spreading; commonly sterile, but I have a number of fine fruiting
specimens from partially exsiccated water holes, in low sandy woods in
Bergen Co., where this variety is common.

10. Sph. macrophtllum, Bernhardi. — This species is often found float-
ing free, and has much the appearance of the var. Torreyanum of the
preceding one, and c-aunot be distinguished from it when in the water
except by its blackish stem and leaves. It is very apt to be mistaken for
a decaying state of that plant ; for, owing to the complete absence of the
elastic spiral fibre in the utricles of the leaves, it has a characteristic dead
appearance when removed from the water, and goes into a shapeless
mass, — feels as if rotten, and resumes its former fine symmetrical outline
but slowly, if again restored to its native element. — Abundant in the
ponds in Ocean Co., where only the large sterile form was found.

New York, January, 1868.



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SM Foreign Camspanienu.



Abt, "^"^y — Foreign Oorrespcndence.

1. On the Seienee of the Intematitmal Exhibition, In a letter from O. C.
Marsh, B. A., to Profl Silliman, dated London, Nov. 25, 1862.

Tbk Internationa] Exhibition, which has just closed, contained many
objects of considerable scientific interest ; and, in accordance with your
request, I shall endeavor to give a short account of those which seemed
most worthy of notice.



Online LibraryEdward S. (Edward Samuel) FarrowThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 32 of 61)