Edward Shaw.

Shaw's Civil architecture; being a complete theoretical and practical system of building, containing the fundamental principles of the art online

. (page 26 of 35)
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architecture, hinted at a vessel of two thousand tons,
I am inclined to think his contemporary artists would
have branded him as a madman.



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BRIDGES.



133



WATERLOO BRIDGE.

Plate 95.

This bridge, thrown over the River Thames, at
London, was projected by Mr. George Dodd, about
the year 1805. Considerable time, however, elapsed
before the iiltimate arrangements necessary to carry
it into execution were made. The first act was ob-
tained in the month of June, 1809, and incorporated
the proprietors under the name of the " Strand Bridge
Company," empowering them to raise the sum of
£500,000 in transferrable shares of £100 each ; and
the further sum of £300,000, by the issuing new
shares, or by mortgage, in case it should be found
necessary. In July, 1813, a second act was passed,
enabling them to raise an additional sum of £200,000 ;
and in July, 1816, a third act was obtained, granting
the company further powers, and changing the name
from Strand Bridge to Waterloo Bridge, which name
it now bears.

IVIr. Rennie, having been appointed engineer to the
company on the 23d day of June, 1810, furnished two
designs, one of seven and the other of nine arches,
the latter of which was finally approved by the com-
mittee and ordered to be put in execution.

This noble bridge is situated about half way be-
tween the Bridges of Blackfriars and Westminster.
The river at this place is about 1326 feet wide at
high water ; and ordinary spring tides rise about 13
feet, and ordinary neap tides about 9 feet 6 inches.
The greatest depth at low water is about 9 feet. The
bed of the river is composed principally of a stratum
of sand and gravel resting upon clay.

The bridge is level, and consists of nine semi-ellip-
tical arches, each having a span of 120 feet, and a
rise of 35 feet ; thus leaving for the navigation 30
feet of clear height above the high water of spring
tides, and forming an ample water way of 1080 feet.
The abutments are 40 feet thick at the bases, and
diminish to 30 feet at the springing of the arches.
Their lengths, including the stairs, are 140 feet. The
piers are 30 feet broad at the base, and diminish to
tw^o thirds at the springing of the arches. Their
lengths at the bases are 87 feet. The points or sa-
lient angles of the piers are in the form of a Gothic
arch, and are terminated above by two three-quarter
columns, supporting an entablature which forms a
recess. The whole is surmounted with a balustrade
and a frieze and cornice of the Grecian Doric. The



columns are Doric also, and were selected on account
of the extraordinary strength of their proportions, as
being best suited to a structure of this magnitude :
they are 23 feet 9 inches high, or, rather, more than
four diameters.

The clear width between the parapets is 42 feet 4
inches, allowing 28 feet 4 inches for the carriage-way,
and 7 feet for each of the footpaths.

Four plying places, or stairs, for watermen, are
formed by circular wings, projecting at right angles
to the bridge, with archways leading to the road way.
These wings are ornamented with columns, entabla-
tures, &c., as before described.

The bridge being level, and of so great a length, it
became necessary to provide means for carrying off
the rain water. This is efiectcd by having circular
openings in the centre of each pier, which enter the
river immediately below low-water mark ; these open-
ings are connected with iron branch pipes up to the
level of the road-way, where gratings are placed to
receive the water.

The roads, or approaches, to each end of the pier
are 70 feet wide throughout, except just at the en-
trance into the Strand, and are carried over a series
of semicircular brick arches of 16 feet span each.
The Surry, or southern approach, is formed by 39 of
these, besides an elliptical arch of 26 feet span over
the narrow wall road, and a small embankment
about 165 yards long, having an easy and gradual
ascent of not more than 1 foot in 34 feet.

Feet.
The length of the brick arches in the Surry

approach is 766

Ditto of those in the Strand approach, . . 310
Total length of the bridge from the ends of

the abutments, 1380

Total length of the bridge and brick arches, 2456

Fig. 1 exhibits a longitudinal section of one of the
arches, the adjacent piers, and part of the next adja-
cent arches, with the elevation of one of the trusses
forming the centre. The curve of equilibrium passes
through the middle of the length of the arch stones,
or very nearly so. The hollows over the piers are
raised to the level of the summits of the arches by
parallel brick walls, and connected with blocks of
stone from wall to wall, for supporting the road-way.

The centring was composed of eight trusses. It
is 1250 feet long, has nine elliptical arches of 120 feet



134



RURAL VILLA.— CHURCH EDIFICE.



span over the river, with piers 20 feet thick, built en-
tirely of granite, and forty brick arches for a cause-
way on the Surry side. This plate is given with a
view of showing the construction of masonry, as gen-
erally applied to bridge building. The geometrical
principle of constructing arches, and drawing the
joint Lines so as to be perpendicular to the curve, is
sufficiently explained in plate 101.

Fig. 2. The horizontal section showing the brick
walls, as a, a, &c., which arc covered with stone ;
also, the foundation of the piers at b, b, &c.



RURAL VILLA AT MILFORD, MASS.

Plate 96.

On this plate we have given a front elevation, with
a transverse section, together with the entrance and
chamber-story plans of a villa that we have erected
during the past year, in the town of MUford, Mass.,
for A. C. Mayhew, Esq. It was our intention at
first to place at the last part of this work a series of
six designs for buildings of this character, with their
plans and detailg ; but upon further consideration we
have concluded to omit them, and, at some future
time, publish them in a form more in keeping with
a work of a rural character; this plate, however,
being made, we have inserted it as plate 96.
The size of the building will be readily seen by
the figures on the drawing. The outside walls
are of hard-burnt bricks, and are twelve inches
in thickness, which are vaulted, or having an air
space of four inches between the exterior and inte-
rior courses. The angles of the buUding are laid
solid, as are also the sides of the openings in the
walls, such as the sides of the doors, windows, &e.
The vaulted portions are connected together by
means of ties of brick in every two feet in length.
The exterior walls are covered with stucco cement,
and colored in imitation of drab stone. The exte-
rior wood work is painted, and sanded with beach
sand. — Editors.



CHURCH EDIFICE AT MILFORD, MASS.

Plate 97.

On this plate will be found the t%vo plans, and the
front elevation of a small church which was erected



under our superintendence in 1850, for the Pearl
Street Universalist Society of JMilford, Mass. We
do not present it as containing any thing of pecu-
liar merit or of costly design ; but the arrangement
of the plans and tlie general features of the build-
ing having received the approval and approbation
of building committees and others interested in
such matters, we have, at their urgent solicitations,
and at the suggestions of many others, inserted this
plate for the benefit of those seeking the information
the plate and its description may contain. The fol-
lowing description of this edifice appeared in the
Trumpet and Universalist Magazine at the time the
budding was dedicated ; and, with a few slight alter-
ations, we transcribe it entire, as the description of
plate 97.*

ARCHITECTURAL DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW MEET-
ING-HOUSE IN MILrORD, IIASS.

This building is built of wood, erected upon a brick stylobate or
basement, and is of the following dimensions, viz., length, 72 feet
8 inches; width, 51 feet, outside; with a projecting vestibule on
the front end, 13 feet wide by 26 feet long, and the posts are 25 feet
in height. Upon the roof of the vestibule stands a pedestal, 19 feet
square and 13 feet high, finished with suitable projections ; upon
this is a clock tablet, 15 feet square and 12 feet high, covered with
a roof showing an entablature and pediment on each side ; the tab-
let is finished with heavy mouldings, and a recess 8 inches deep is
made on each side, to receive a dial 7 feet in diameter. Rising from
this is an octagonal bell tower, 12 feet in diameter and IG feet high,
including its base and entablature ; on each of its sides are arched
openings, 3 feet 3 inches in width, and in each of which is a balus-
trade, composed of heavy-turned balusters. Upon this tower is an
octagonal pedestal, 6 feet high and 11 feet in diameter, with deep
panels on each side, which is surmounted by a spire 45 feet high,
crowned with a carved finial, making the entire height from the line
of the grading 136 feet. The style of architecture Is the Roman-
esque, which is a combination of the Roman and the late Norman,
the latter being the prevailing style of the 11th century. The cor-
ners of the building, together with the vestibule, are finished with
heavy pUasters 2 feet 9 inches wide, in each of which is a deep
circular-headed panel ; upon these rests a dentil corniced entablature,
5 feet deep. The cornice of the entablature is continued up the
rakes of the main building and vestibule, which finish gives the
whole an imposing and massive appearance.

The building is Ughted on either side by three circular-headed win-
dows, which arc composed of two circular-headed parts, and separated
by a large mullion ; and the front of the main building, on either side
of the vestibule, by one of the same style, and of two thirds the width

* To OUn BELOVED FRIENU, THE ReV. HeNRT A. EaTON, PAS-
TOR OP TUE SOCIETY, AND UNDER WHOSE MINISTRATIONS TUB
BUILDING WAS ERECTED, THIS PLATE IS RESPECTFULLY DEDI-
CATED, A3 A SMALL TRIBUTE OF RESPECT AND ESTEEM, BY THE
ARCHITECTS.

THOMAS W. SILLOWAY,
GEORGE M. HARDING.



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CHURCH EDIFICE.



of those on the sides, making them adapted to their location. The
choir-room, which is on the second floor of the vestibule, is lighted
by a largo window, composed of one in its centre, similar to those
before described ; to which is added on either, side another of one
half its width, and a proportionate height, and separated from it by
pilasters, the capitals of which are so disposed that the centre ■win-
dow is stilted 1 foot 6 inches ; the i\idth of the entire window is 1 1
feet. Beneath this window, on the front of the vestibule, is the
main entrance to the building, which is by three circular-headed
doors, the centre one of which is 5 feet wide suid 13A feet high ; the
arch of this door is stilted 3 feet. Those of cither side are 34 feet
wide and 10 feet 3 inches high; making an actual space in width
of 12 feet, which is 1 foot 6 inches more than the whole width of the
church aisles. The doors are entered by five steps, which are buUt
of southern pine, and extend the entire length of the vestibule, in-
cluding a buttress 3 feet wide at either end. This brings us to the
interior of the building.

As has been before stated, the entrance was but five steps from
the grading on the front end, so that the entrance floor is five feet
lower than the pew floor ; a space of four feet is left at the entrance
on the inside, the entire length of the vestibule, 24 feet. And at
that distance from the doors, a flight of eight stairs, 13 feet long,
lead up to the entry of the church ; which entry is 74 feet wide,
and runs the entire width of the church on the inside. These stairs
are very easy of ascent, and, being 13 feet long, amoimt to 24 feet
more than the width of all the aisles, so that these, together with
the outside doors, insure against any jam being produced in the
entry of the building, which is one of the evUs with which the
architect has often to contend.

On either side of the main stairs to the church arc those leading
to the vestry ; these are each 44 feet wide, making a passage-way
of 9 feet ; they are built of southern pine, as are also the floors of
all the entries, and are oiled over, leaving the natural color of the
wood. A large mahogany rail and southern pine balusters com-
mence at the foot of those to the vestry, and are continued up
around the well-room over those to the church, and returns at
the top railing in the space on the upper entry, which is not
occupied by those leading to the entrance floor.

An arch is sprung over each of the three openings at the top of the
church stairs ; these openings are made by a square pillar coming
down at the head of the stairs on either side, so that, beneath these
three arches, the whole space is open on the church entry floor the
entire ^vidth of the vestibule, which gives to the whole a spacious
and airy appearance. From this floor, stairs on either end lead to
the singing gallery. Beneath this entry, on the vestry floor, is one
of the same width, and from it is a door 4 feet wide, leading to the
outside of the building ; one leading to a room 12 feet square, for
wood and coal, beneath the church stairs ; also two others leading
to the vestry, the dimensions of which are 42 by 49 feet, and 1 1 feet



high in the clear ; connected with which arc two ante-rooms, each
20 feet 6 inches by 22 feet. Attached to each of these rooms is a
closet, 4 feet wide and U feet long. The ante-rooms are separated
from the vestry by largo doors, which move on castors, so that the
whole may be thrown into one large room.

The floor of the church contains 82 pews, 2 feet 10 inches wide,
and 9 feet 7 inches in length, which provides 19 inches to a person,
allowing G persons to a pew, making the house capable of seating in
all, including the gallery, 650 persons. Tlie side aisles are 3 feet
wide ; the one in the centre, 44 feet.

The pulpit is of an original design, and is in strict accord-
ance with the architectural character of the edifice. It is an im-
itation of rosewood, and the seven circular-headed panels on the
front are lined with garnet plush. The sofa connected with the
pulpit is of rosewood, and was designed for the place it occupies ;
the trimmings of the sofa, pulpit, and chairs are also of garnet
plush.

There is a choir gallery at the end of the church, over the
entrance, connected with which is a room for the choir's rehear-
sals, 24 by 12 feet, and 12 feet high. There ia a dado in each
of the side aisles of the main floor, to the height of the window
sUls, which is returned at the sides of each window, making a
pedestal of sufficient width to include the window and the fresco
pilasters at its sides. This dado has a capping and base, which,
together with the doors of the church, are grained black walnut.

The windows of the whole building, above the basement, are
furnished with blinds on the inside, and are painted Paris green.
The walls of the principal room arc 24 feet high, and these, with the
whole interior of the church, are finely painted in distemper fresco,
in the following manner : The side walls have a fine fluted Corin-
thian pilaster on each side of all the windows, which support an
entablature 3 feet deep, extending entirely around the church walls ;
between each of these is a sunken panel, and inside of these is one
which is raised ; over the windows is a rich moulding ornamented
with a console, and ending at the pilasters with an acanthus lea£
On the back end, on either side of the recess, back of the pul-
pit, is painted a niche standing on a pedestal, and finished like the
windows. In the recess back of the pulpit is represented an arched
panelled recess or passage, leading to a rotunda, in the centre of
which stands a large cross ; the celling is very finely decorated by
large panels, and at the angles are ornaments of Roman foliage,
extending some 11 feet either way. In the centre of the ceiling is
a cast-iron register, 3 feet in diameter, to admit the foul air to one
of Emerson's ventilators, (which efi'ectually ventilates the room;)
around this is a beautiful design of foliage, and on two of its sidei
is seen a harp, supported by the leaves and scroUs. The tint of the
ground is a gray lilac. The building was raised in November last,
and has been entirely completed since that time. It has cost,
including the land and furnishing, not far from $10,500.

T. W. S.



136



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE.



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE



Gotliic, or what may be termed, with more pro-
priety, English architecture, is that style which im-
mediately succeeded the Norman, and the most
prominent feature of which is the pointed arch,
slender columns, and a predominancy of vertical
lines. Wc should have been pleased to have given
a full description of this kind of architecture ; but
our limits not permitting, we shall content ourselves
with simply giving a synopsis of some of its char-
acteristics; and to those of our patrons who may
wish for a more extensive knowledge of this branch
of the science, we would refer them to a work
known as the Glossary of Architecture, the fifth
edition of which was published in London the past
year. This work contains a very elaborate description
of all that pertains to this branch of the science, and
is a production of inestimable value. We have
stated that this species of architecture immediately
succeeded the Norman — indeed, it is a work of
some nicety to draw the dividing line between them ;
but, before proceeding further, we will remark that
the Rev. Mr. Millers, of England, has divided the
architecture on which we treat into three distinct
classes, and his classification has met the approval
of Rickman and Pugin, who are among the principal
architectural \\Titers of England. The first style he
terms the Early English, the second the Decorated,
and the third the Perpendicular. We shall follow
him in this respect, and shall describe each style re-
spectively hereafter.

The Early English, then, is the style which is
nearest to the Norman, and it may be said to have
grown out of it ; and here we beg leave to differ
from the opinion that has at times found warm
advocates, which is, that the form of the arch which
characterizes this species of architecture was sug-
gested by the intersection of branches of trees. This
idea is, without doubt, the production of a fertile
imagination, and, like the famous story of Callima-
chus and the vase at Corinth, it may be regarded as
a play of the fancy and a freak of ideality. One of
the principal features of the Norman architecture is



the very frequent use of the Roman arch ; and, by
describing a second semicircle with a point in the
circumference of one already drawn as a centre, we
produce what is familiarly known as the Gothic arch,
and a series of these we term intersected arches.
This also is of firequent occurrence in the later
Norman architecture ; and we deem it no departure
from the principles of logic to deduce from this fact
that the arch used in the English architecture was
no invention, but simply a transfer to it from the
Norman, and that, even with those with whom it
originated, it was the result of accident rather than
design. We thus give our reasons for the intrusion
we make upon the favorite speculations of those
who may differ from us, for we do so with all re-
spect to their love of the ideal, and we would be the
last to deprive them of the pleasure they may de-
rive from the idea that those with whom one of the
most beautiful of the productions of architecture had
its origin were men endowed with great inventive
talent, and that, too, which often manifested itself to
an astonishing degree. But to proceed: we will
again remark, that the first style is the Early English,
and is, as its name suggests, the earliest of the three.
The intersecting arches to which we have before
referred characterized the Norman, as it was about
to merge into it, and, in some instances, we find
examples of the poiiited arch in the Norman, entirely
by itself; thus the one has produced the other.

The time when this style may be said to have had
its rise was about the year 1200, and continued from
this period to 1300, which extended through the reigns
of John, Henry III., and Edward I. It is stated that,
during the reign of Henry III. alone, no less a num-
ber than one hundred and fifty-seven abbeys, priories,
and other religious houses were founded in England ;
and the erection of these was considered as among
the most effectual means of obtaining the forgiveness
of sins, and, consequently, the favor of Heaven.
The principal characteristic of this style is, in the
language of Gwilt, as follows : The arches are
sharply lancet pointed, and lofty, in proportion to



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE.



137



their span. In the upper tiers, two or more are com-
preliended under one, finished in trefoil or cinquefoil
heads, instead of points, the separating columns
being slender. Columns on whicii the arches rest
are very slender in proportion to their iieight, and
usually consist of a central shaft, surrounded by
several smaller ones. The base takes the form of
the cluster and the capital is frequently decorated
with foliage, very elegantly composed. The tcin-
doics are long, narrow, and lancet-shaped, whence
some \\Titers have called this style the Lancet Gothic.
They are divided by one plain mullion, or, in upper
tiers, by two at most, finished at the top with some
simple ornament, as a lozenge, or a trefoil. They
have commonly small marble shafts on each side,
both internally and externally ; two, three, or more,
together, at the eas't or west end, and tier above tier.
Roofs arc high pitched, and the ceilings vaulted,
exhibiting the first examples of arches with cross
springers only, which, in a short period, diverged into
many more, rising from the capitals of the columns,
and almost overspreading the whole sm-face of the
vaulting.

The longitudinal horizontal line which reigned
along the apex of the vault was decorated with
bosses of flowers, figures, and other fancies. Walls
much reduced in thickness from those of the pre-
ceding period ; they arc, however, externally strength-
ened with buttresses, which, as it were, lean against
them for the purpose of counteracting the thrust
exerted by the stone vaults which form the ceil-
ings, and which the walls and piers, by their own
gravity, could not resist. The buttresses are, more-
over, aided in their office by the pinnacles, adorned
with crockets at their angles, and crowned with
fiuial flowers, by which they are surmounted. The
ornaments now become numerous, but they arc sim-
ple and elegant. The mouldings are not so much
varied as in the Norman style, and are generally,
perhaps universally, formed of some combination of
leaves and flowers, used not only in the cuxumference
of arches, especially of windows, but the columns or
pilasters are completely laid down with them — ti-e-
foils, quatrefoils, cinqucfoils, roses, mullets, bosses, pa-
terae, &c., in the spandrils, or above the keystones of
the arches, and elsewhere. The ornamental pinna-



Online LibraryEdward ShawShaw's Civil architecture; being a complete theoretical and practical system of building, containing the fundamental principles of the art → online text (page 26 of 35)