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Edward Tyas Cook.

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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



m

la



Ex Libris
C. K. OGDEN



L



HANDBOOK



THE NATIONAL GALLERY



THE NATIONAL GALLERY is open to the Public on week-days through-
out the year. On MONDAYS, TUESDAYS, WEDNESDAYS, and
SATURDAYS admission is free, and the Gallery is open during the
following hours :



January .

February .

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October .

November

December



From 10 A.M. until 4 P.M.
From 10 A.M. until 5 P.M.
From 10 A.M. until 6 P.M.

From 10 A.M. until 7 P.M.

From 10 A.M. until 6 P.M.
From 10 A.M. until dusk.



On THURSDAYS and FRIDAYS (Students' Days] the Gallery is
open to the Public on payment of Sixpence each person, from n A.M.
to 4 P.M. in winter, and from n A.M. to 5 P.M. in summer.

83T Persons desirous of becoming Students should address the Secretary
and Keeper, National Gallery, Trafalgar Square, S. W.



A POPULAR HANDBOOK



TO THE



NATIONAL GALLERY



INCLUDING BY SPECIAL PERMISSION

NOTES COLLECTED FROM THE WORKS OF
MR. RUSKIN



COMPILED BY

EDWARD T. COOK

WITH PREFACE BY JOHN RUSKIN, LL.D., D.C.L

FOURTH EDITION
REVISED, RE-ARRANGED, AND ENLARGED

^London

MACMILLAN AND CO.

AND NEW YORK
1393

All rights re sewed



A picture which is worth buying is also worth seeing. Every
noble picture is a manuscript book, of which only one copy exists,
or ever can exist. A National Gallery is a great library, of which
the books must be read upon their shelves (RUSKIN : Arrows of the
Chace, i. 71).



First Edition printed 1888
Second Edition printed 1889

Third Edition printed 1 890
Fourth Edition printed 1893




Obrafy



CONTENTS



PREFACE BY JOHN RUSKIX .....

PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION, WITH SOME ACCOUNT
OF THE NATIONAL GALLERY

GUIDE TO THE GALLERY AND PLAN OF THE ROOMS

INTRODUCTIONS TO THE SCHOOLS OF PAINTING :

NORTH VESTIBULE (the Marbles, Early Greek Portraits, etc. ]

THE EARLY FLORENTINE SCHOOL : Room IV. .

THE FLORENTINE SCHOOL : Rooms I. and III. .

THE SIENESE SCHOOL : Room II.

THE FERRARESE SCHOOL : Room V.

THE UMBRIAN SCHOOL : Room VI.

THE VENETIAN SCHOOL : Room VII.

THE PADUAN SCHOOL : Room VIII.

THE LOMBARD SCHOOL : Room IX.

THE LATER ITALIAN SCHOOLS : Room XIII. .

THE EARLY GERMAN AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS : Room XI.



PAGE

vii



8

14
16

iS

21

28

30



VI CONTENTS



THE DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS : Rooms X.

and XII. ...... 42

THE FRENCH SCHOOL : Room XIV. ... 47

THE SPANISH SCHOOL: Room XV. . . 51

THE BRITISH SCHOOL: Rooms XVI.-XXI. . . 55

THE TURNER GALLERY : Room XXII. ... 65

NUMERICAL CATALOGUE, WITH BIOGRAPHICAL AND DE-
SCRIPTIVE NOTES . . ... 84

PICTURES ON LOAN, ETC. ..... 760

SCULPTURES AND MARBLES ..... 765

EAST BASEMENT (Miscellaneous Pictures and Turner Drawings) 766

WEST BASEMENT (Copies from Old Masters; Drawings, etc.) 767

APPENDIX I. INDEX LIST OF PAINTERS (with the titles of

their pictJires) .... 777

,, II. INDEX LIST OF PICTURES . . 804




PREFACE BY MR. RUSKIN

So far as I know, there has never yet been compiled,
for the illustration of any collection of paintings
whatever, a series of notes at once so copious, care-
fully chosen, and usefully arranged, as this which has
been prepared, by the industry and good sense of
Mr. Edward T. Cook, to be our companion through
the magnificent rooms of our own National Gallery ;
without question now the most important collec-
tion of paintings in Europe for the purposes of the
general student. Of course the Florentine School
must always be studied in Florence, the Dutch in
Holland, and the Roman in Rome ; but to obtain
a clear knowledge of their relations to each other,
and compare with the best advantage the characters
in which they severally excel, the thoughtful scholars
of any foreign country ought now to become pil-
grims to the Dome (such as it is) of Trafalgar
Square.



Via PREFACE BY MR. RUSK IN

We have indeed be it to our humiliation remem-
bered small reason to congratulate ourselves on the
enlargement of the collection now belonging to the
public, by the sale of the former possessions of our
nobles. But since the parks and castles which were
once the pride, beauty, and political strength of
England are doomed by the progress of democracy
to be cut up into lots on building leases, and have
their libraries and pictures sold at Sotheby's and
Christie's, we may at least be thankful that the
funds placed by the Government at the disposal of
the Trustees for the National Gallery have permitted
them to save so much from the wreck of English
mansions and Italian monasteries, and enrich the
recreations of our metropolis with graceful interludes
by Perugino and Raphael.

It will be at once felt by the readers of the
following catalogue that it tells them, about every
picture and its painter, just the things they wished
to know. They may rest satisfied also that it tells
them these things on the best historical authorities,
and that they have in its concise pages an account of
the rise and decline of the arts of the Old Masters,
and record of their personal characters and worldly
state and fortunes, leaving nothing of authentic tradi-
tion, and essential interest, untold.

As a collection of critical remarks by esteemed
judges, and of clearly formed opinions by earnest
lovers of art, the little book possesses a metaphysical
interest quite as great as its historical one. Of course



PREFACE BY MR. RUSKIN ix

the first persons to be consulted on the merit of
a picture are those for whom the artist painted it :
with those in after generations who have sympathy
with them ; one does not ask a Roundhead or a
Republican his opinion of the Vandyke at Wilton,
nor a Presbyterian minister his impressions of the
Sistine Chapel : but from any one honestly taking
pleasure in any sort of painting, it is always worth
while to hear the grounds of his admiration, if he
can himself analyse them. For those who take
no pleasure in painting, or who are offended by
its inevitable faults, any form of criticism is insolent.
Opinion is only valuable when it

gilds with various rays
These painted clouds that beautify our days.

When I last lingered in the Gallery before my
old favourites, I thought them more wonderful than
ever before ; but as I draw towards the close of life,
I feel that the real world is more wonderful yet :
that Painting has not yet fulfilled half her mission,
she has told us only of the heroism of men
and the happiness of angels : she may perhaps
record in future the beauty of a world whose mortal
inhabitants are happy, and which angels may be
glad to visit.

J. RUSKIN.

April 1888.




PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION

WITH SOME

ACCOUNT OF THE NATIONAL GALLERY

SINCE the publication of the last edition of this Hand-
book extensive additions have been made to the National
Gallery. Nearly one hundred new pictures many of
great importance have been acquired by gift, bequest,
or purchase, while twenty more, which had been lent to
other institutions, have been reclaimed and hung in the
Gallery. These additions have necessitated very consider-
able alterations in the hanging and arrangement of the
Galleries. The Trustees and Director have for some
years pressed upon the Government of the day the urgent
necessity for enlarging the National Gallery, with a view
both to providing adequate accommodation for newly -
acquired pictures, and to the better classification of the
works according to their historical order. There is some
reason to believe that this extension of the Gallery will not
be delayed much longer ; and when it is carried out
further re-arrangements of the collection on an extensive
scale will doubtless be made.



PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION XI

Under these circumstances, it has been deemed de-
sirable to alter the arrangement which was observed
in previous editions of this Handbook. Hitherto the
enumeration of the pictures, with the biographical and
descriptive notes, has followed the order in which a
visitor, going round each room, would actually encounter
the several pictures on the walls. This order was, in
the case of each successive edition, revised up to the
date of going to press; and so long as no considerable
alterations occurred in the hanging of the pictures, the
arrangement adopted had many and great advantages.
But it seems no longer suitable, in view of the circum-
stances described above ; and in the present edition the
arrangement of the Handbook has been completely recast,
in accordance with suggestions from many, quarters, which
the compiler takes this opportunity of gratefully acknow-
ledging.

The one fixed point in the arrangement of the National
Gallery is the numbering of the pictures. The numbers
affixed to the frames, and referred to in the Official
Reports and Catalogues, are never changed. This is an
excellent rule, the observance of which, in the case of
some foreign galleries, would have saved no little incon-
venience to students and visitors. In the present edition
of the Handbook advantage has been taken of this fixed
system of numbering; and in the pages (85 to 759)
devoted to the Biographical and Descriptive Catalogue the
pictures are enumerated in their numerical order. The
introductory remarks on the chief Schools of Painting
represented in the Gallery are brought together at the
beginning of the book, and are arranged under the various
Rooms in the Gallery in which the pictures belonging to
the several schools are for the most part hung. The
visitor who desires to make an historical study of the



xii PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION

Collection may thus, if he will, glance first at the general
introduction given to the pictures in each Room ; and
then, as he makes his survey of it, note the number on
the frame of each picture, and refer to the Numerical
Catalogue following the series of introductions. On the
other hand, the visitor who does not care to use the Hand-
book in this way has only to skip the preliminary passages,
and to pass at once, as he finds himself before this picture
or that, to the Numerical Catalogue. For the conveni-
ence, again, of visitors or students desiring to find the
works of some particular painter, the full and detailed
Index of Painters, introduced in the Third Edition, has
here been retained (see Appendix I.). References to all
the pictures by each painter, and to the page where some
account of his life and work is given, will be found in this
Index. Finally, a concise Numerical Index is given (see
Appendix II.), wherein the reader may find at once the
particulars of acquisition, the provenance, and other circum-
stances regarding every picture in the possession of the
National Gallery.

" For the purposes of the general student, the National
Gallery is now," says Mr. Ruskin, "without question the
most important collection of paintings in Europe." Forty
years ago Mr. Ruskin said of the same Gallery that it was
" an European jest." The growth of the Gallery from jest
to glory 1 may be traced in the final index to this book,
where the pictures are enumerated in the order of their

1 Mr. Ruskin himself was converted by the acquisition of the great
Perugino (No. 288). In congratulating the Trustees on their acquisition
of " this noble picture," he wrote : " It at once, to my mind, raises our
National Gallery from a second-rate to a first-rate collection. I have
always loved the master, and given much time to the study of his works ;
but this is the best I have ever seen" (Notes on the Turner Gallery,
p. 89 n.}.



PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION Xlll

acquisition. Many incidents connected with the acquisition
of particular pictures will also be found chronicled in the
Catalogue ; l but it may here be interesting to summarise
the history of the institution. The National Gallery of
England dates from the year 1824, when the Angerstein
collection of thirty -eight pictures was purchased. They
were exhibited for some years in Mr. Angerstein's house in
Pall Mall; for it was not till 1832 that the building in
which the collection is now deposited was begun. This
building, which was designed expressly for the purpose by
William Wilkins, R.A., was opened to the public in iSsS. 2
At that time, however, the Gallery comprised only six
rooms, the remaining space in the building being devoted
to the Royal Academy of Arts whose inscription may still
be seen above a disused doorway to the right of the main
entrance. In 1860 the first enlargement was made con-
sisting of one new room. In 1869 the Royal Academy
removed to Burlington House, and five more rooms were
gained for the National Gallery. In 1876 the so-called
" New Wing " was added, erected from a design by E. M.
Barry, R.A. In that year the whole collection was for the
first time housed under a single roof. The English School
had, since its increase in 1847 by the Vernon gift, been
exhibited first at Marlborough House (up to 1859), and
afterwards at South Kensington. In 1884 a further
addition of five rooms was commenced under the superin-
tendence of Mr. J. Taylor, of Her Majesty's Office of
Works; these rooms, the present "New Rooms" (L, II.,

1 See, for instance, Xos. 10, 61, 193, 195, 479 and 498, 757, 790,
896, 1131, 1171 ; and the Turner Gallery (p. 74).

" The exterior of the building is not generally considered an archi-
tectural success, and the ugliness of the dome is almost proverbial. But
it should be remembered that the original design included the erection of
suitable pieces of sculpture such as may be seen in old engravings of the
Gallery, made from the architect's drawings on the still vacant pedestals.



xiv PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION

III., V., VI.), with a new staircase and other improvements,
were opened to the public in 1887; and the Gallery now
consists of twenty-two rooms, besides ample accommoda-
tion for the offices of the Director and the convenience of
the students. 1

This growth in the Galleries has, however, barely sufficed
to keep pace with the growth of the pictures, which have
increased during the last fifty years nearly tenfold. In
1838 the total number of national pictures was still only
150. Ten years ago the number was 926 ; to-day it is
nearly 1400. This result has been due to the combination of
private generosity and State aid which is characteristic of
our country. The Vernon gift of English pictures in 1847
added over 150 at a stroke. Ten years later Turner's
bequest added (besides some 19,000 drawings in various
stages of completion) 100 pictures. In 1876 the Wynn
Ellis gift of foreign pictures added nearly another hundred.
By the terms of his will they were to be kept together for
ten years. This period has now elapsed, and their dis-
persal among the rest of the collection has greatly facilitated
the recent re-hanging of the Gallery. Particulars of other
bequests may be gathered from the final index ; but it should
be added that the Parliamentary grants have of late years
been supplemented by private subscriptions and bequests
of money. Thus in 1890 Messrs. N. M. Rothschild and
Sons, Sir Edward Guinness, Bart, (now Lord Iveagh), and
Mr. Charles Cotes each contributed ,10,000 towards the
purchase of three important pictures (1314-5-6). Mr.
Francis Clarke left ,23,104, and Mr. T. D. Lewis
;i 0,000, the interest upon which sums was to be ex-
pended in pictures. Mr. R. C. Wheeler left a sum of
,2655, the interest on which was to purchase English
pictures; and finally Mr. J. L. Walker left ,10,000, not

1 The several extensions of the Gallery are shown in the plan on p. xxiii.



PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION xv

to form a fund, but to be spent on "a picture or pictures."
It is interesting to note that this growth of the Gallery
by private gift and public expenditure concurrently is
strictly in accordance with the manner of its birth. The
Gallery came into existence, as we have said, by the
purchase of Mr. Angerstein's collection, but one of the
factors which decided Lord Liverpool in favour of the
purchase was the generous offer of a private citizen Sir
George Beaumont.

Sir George's gift, as we shall see from a little story
attaching to one of his pictures (61, p. 149), was not of
that which cost him nothing in the giving. The generosity
of private donors, which that little story places in so pleas-
ing and even pathetic a light, has been accompanied by
public expenditure at once liberal and prudent. The total
cost of the collection so far has been about ^"600,000 ;
at present prices there is little doubt that the pictures so
acquired could be sold for several times that sum. It will
be seen in the following pages that there have been some
bad bargains ; but these mostly belong to the period when
responsibility was divided, in an undefined way, between
the Trustees and the Keeper. The present organisation
of the Gallery dates from 1855, when, as the result of
several Commissions and Committees, a Treasury Minute
was drawn up appointing a Director to preside over the
Gallery, and placing an annual grant of money at his
disposal. The curious reader may trace the use of this
discretion made by successive Directors in the table of
prices given in the final index a table which would
afford material for an instructive history of recent fashions
in art. The annual grant has from time to time been
supplemented by special grants, of which the most notable
were those for the purchase of the Peel collection, the
Blenheim pictures, and the Longford Castle pictures



xvi PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION

respectively. The Peel collection consisted of seventy-
seven pictures and eighteen drawings, and was bought by
the nation in 1871. The vote was proposed in the House
of Commons on March 20, 1871, by Lord Sherbrooke,
then Chancellor of the Exchequer, and in supporting it
the late Sir W. H. Gregory (one of the trustees of the
Gallery) alluded to " the additional interest connected with
the collection, for it was the labour of love of one of our
greatest English Statesmen, and it was gratifying to see
that the taste of the amateur was on a par with the sagacity
of the minister, for throughout this large collection there
could hardly be named more than two or three pictures
which were not of the very highest order of merit, a
compliment which could be paid to few private galleries."
The price paid for this collection, ^70,000, was exceed-
ingly moderate. The " princely " price given for the two
Blenheim pictures is more open to exception ; but if the
price was unprecedented, so also was the sale of so superb
a Raphael in the present day unprecedented.

The result of the expenditure with which successive
Parliaments have thus supplemented private gifts has been
to raise the National Gallery to a position second to that
of no single collection in the world. The number of pictures
now on view in Trafalgar Square, exclusive of the water-
colours, is about I2OO. 1 This number is very much smaller
than that of the galleries at Dresden, Madrid, and Paris
the three largest in the world, and somewhat smaller than
that of the Galleries at Berlin, Munich, and St. Petersburg.
On the other hand no foreign gallery has been so carefully

1 Of the 200 pictures thus unaccounted for (the total number belonging
to the Gallerj being nearly 1400), some are on loan to provincial institu-
tions (see Appendix II.), and others are hung in rooms not accessible to
the public. These latter are distinguished in the Numerical Catalogue
by being printed in italics.



PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION xvil

acquired, or so wisely weeded, as ours. An Act was passed
in 1856 authorising the sale of unsuitable works, whilst
another passed in 1883 sanctioned the thinning of the Gallery
in favour of Provincial collections. There are still many
serious gaps. In the Italian School we have no picture by
Masaccio the first of the naturalisers in landscape ; only
one doubtful example of Palma Vecchio, the greatest of the
Bergamese painters ; no portrait by Tintoret ; and no
specimen at all of Fra Bartolommeo, famous in history as
the friend of Savonarola, and in art as the first to use a
lay figure. The French School is hardly represented at
all. There is no picture by "the incomparable Watteau,"
"prince of Court painters " ; nor any example of the modern
French school of landscape. There is a wide field here for
the generous donor. The specimens of the Spanish School are
very few in number ; whilst amongst the old masters of our
own British School there are gaps too numerous to be
mentioned, which we must hope that some future Mr.
Vernon will fill up. But on the other hand we can set
against these deficiencies many painters who, and even
schools which, can nowhere in one place be so well
studied as in Trafalgar Square. The works of Crivelli one
of the quaintest and most charming of the earlier Venetians
which hang together in Room VIII. ; the works of the
Brescian School, including those of its splendid portrait
painters Moroni and II Moretto ; the series of Raphaels,
showing each of his successive styles ; and in the English
School the unrivalled and incomparable collection of
Turners, are amongst the particular glories of the National
collection. And not only have we many things peculiar to
ourselves, but historically the collection is remarkably in-
structive. This is a point which successive Directors have,
on the recommendation of Royal Commissions, kept steadily
in view ; and which has been very clearly shown since the

b



xviii PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION

admirable re-arrangement of the Gallery after the opening
of the new rooms in 1887.



It is in order to help visitors to take full advantage of
the opportunities thus afforded for historical study that I
have furnished some general introductions on the various
Schools of Painting represented in the National Gallery
(see pp. i to 82). With regard to the notes in the
Numerical Catalogue, my object has been to interest the
daily increasing numbers of the general public who visit
the National Gallery. A Handbook, with such an end
in view, must have two principal limitations. The full
descriptions and historical details, which are necessary for
the identification of pictures, and which are most admirably
given in the (unabridged) Official Catalogue would
obviously be out of place in a book designed for popular
use. Nor, secondly, would any elaborate technical criticism
have been in keeping even had it been in my power to
offer it with a guide intended for unprofessional readers.
It is only one side of the pictures in the National Gallery
that I have even attempted to touch. C. R. Leslie, the
father of the present academician, tells how he " spoke one
day to Stothard of his touching picture of a sailor taking
leave of his wife or sweetheart. ' I am glad you like it,
sir,' said Stothard ; ' it was painted with japanner's gold
size.' " A Handbook to the National Gallery by an artist
for artists remains to be written, and would, I imagine, be
of great interest and value. But this guide is written by a
layman for laymen. I have been mainly concerned, there-
fore, with the sentiment of the pictures, and have for the
most part left the "japanner's gold size" alone.

To some extent, however, technical criticisms have been
admitted to the following pages. It had often occurred to



PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION Xlx

me, as a student of Mr. Ruskin's writings, that a collection
of his scattered notes upon painters and pictures now in
the National Gallery would be of great value. I applied
to Mr. Ruskin in the matter, and he readily permitted
me to make what use I liked of any, or all, of his writings.
The generosity of this permission, supplemented as it was
by constant encouragement and counsel, makes me the
more anxious to explain clearly the limits of his responsi-
bility for the book. He has not attempted to revise, or
correct, either my gleanings from his own books, or the
notes added by myself from other sources. Beyond his
general permission to me to reprint his past writings, Mr.
Ruskin has, therefore, no responsibility for this compilation
whatever. I should more particularly state that the
chapters upon the Turner Gallery were not even glanced
at by him. The criticisms from his books collected in
those chapters represent, therefore, solely his attitude to
Turner at the time they were severally written. But,
subject to this deduction, the passages from Mr. Ruskin
arranged throughout the following pages will, I hope, enable
the Handbook to serve a second purpose. Any student



Online LibraryEdward Tyas CookA popular handbook to the National Gallery : including by special permission notes collected from the works of Mr. Ruskin → online text (page 1 of 81)