Edward Warren Day.

One thousand years of Hubbard history, 866 to 1895. From Hubba, the Norse sea king, to the enlightened present online

. (page 1 of 52)
Online LibraryEdward Warren DayOne thousand years of Hubbard history, 866 to 1895. From Hubba, the Norse sea king, to the enlightened present → online text (page 1 of 52)
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Columbia <Bntoet*itp

THE LIBRARIES




is




Thousand

YEARS
of





HUBBARD
HISTORY



866




TO



1895

Compiled by

)Iq f Edward Warren M,




A HUBBABD
DESCENDANT.



PUBLISHED BY

HARLAN PAGE HUBBARD.

Trubner & Co., London, European Agents.



Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1895, by

HARLAN PAGE HUBBARD,
In the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.



H






G. W. RODGERS & CO..

Fine Art Printers,

409-413 pearl street, new york.




HARRIET (HUBBARD) DAY.

(Descended from George Hubbard of Middletown, Ct.)



<~4VL£*4U>*ts,







turves ^L~Wio{ s&Z&^Zz&C -VMs<r?%&i,j



£fcy n /



/



HUBBARD HISTORY AND GENEALOGY



SPECIAL NOTICE.



In statistical matter generations can be determined by the variations of type.
Paragraphs usually begin with the name of the person of a certain generation in
CAPITAL LETTERS. Tbe children of the succeeding generation will be found
mi SMALL CAPITALS. The following generation will be denoted hy Italic Letters.
The next ami succeeding generations will be printed in Roman Letters.



Letters of the alphabet in GOTHIC TYPE prefixed to names and numbered
...th small figures indicate that elsewhere the name will be found (with cor-
responding letters an.! figures), giving extended data.



ABBREVIATIONS.

Pvt, private; corpl, corporal; sergt, sergeant: Lt and Lieut, Lieutenant; Capt :
Captain; Col, Colonel: enl, enlisted; com'd, commissioned; dis anddisch. discharged;
must'd, mustered; regt, regiment; mchd, marched; nios, months; yrs, years;
rec'd, received; b, born; bap, baptized; m, married: m pub, marriage publishment:
unin, unmarried; d, died; d y, died young; bur, buried; abt, about; adm, admitted ;
rem, removed; dau, daughter; wid, widow: EL U., Harvard University: gr, granted:
gent, gentleman.



JV. B. — The publisher will be glad to receive additions and corrections, together
with interesting historical data, from any and all readers of this ivork. If at any
time they arc sufficient to warrant, a supplement may be issued or a revision made.

H. P. H.






CO

o

05



[For Index of Names see End of this Volume.]

CHAPTERS. Pages

Origin of the Name Hubbard 17-27

History of the Hubbard Coats of Arms 29-35

Prominent English Hubbards and Hobarts 37-45

Early Settlers — Extinct and Untraceable Lines 47-60

Long Island Hubbards — Descendants of James Hubbard of Gravesend 63-69

The Hulbard and Hulberd Hubbards 71-73

Descendants of John Hubbard of Pomfret, Ct 74-78

Virginia Hubbards 79-84

Descendants of Richard Hubbard of Salisbury, Mass 85-95

Military, Naval, and College Graduates 97-101

Descendants of Philip Hubbard of Kittery, Me 102-120

Revolutionary War Hubbard Patriots 123-148

Descendants of Edmund Hobart of Hingham, Mass 149-163

Some Hubbard Royalists 164-165

Descendants of William Hubbard of Ipswich, Mass 167-174

The L T nion's Defenders — Commissioned Officers 175-180

Descendants of Rev. William Hubbard and Mary Rogers 181-194

Hubbard Genealogists 195-197

Descendants of George Hubbard of Guilford, Ct 199-205

Old Hubbard Bibles 207-212

Descendants of John Hubbard and Mary Merriam 213-242

Old Homesteads 243-252

Descendants of Daniel Hubbard and Elizabeth Jordan 255 r 260

Six Hubbard Sisters 261-263

Descendants of William Hubbard and Abigail Dudley 264-265

Hubbard Places 267-268

Descendants of George Hubbard of Middletown, Ct 269-308

Prominent American Hubbards 311-344

A Line of Maryland Hubbards 347-350

Abridged Descent Lines 353-387

Unclassified Hubbard Data and Miscellany 399-448

Index of Names 449-495

Family Records 497-512

5



389905



6 HUBBARD HISTORY AX J) GENEALOGY.

ILLUSTRATIONS.

168 Different Subjects and 35 Engraved Chapter Headings.

Pages.

Annis Melinda Hubbard, Enfield, N. H 375

Autographs of Bubbards 404

A n bur J. Bubbard of Toledo, Ohio 438

Badges of Nine American Patriotic Societies 421

Hank of England, Rt. Hon. John Gellibrand Hubbard, Director-General 36

Battle Ground of Bubbardton, Vt 123

Benjamin D. Greene of Boston, Mass 193

Celia Lull (Hubbard) Gardner of New London, N. H 443

Clarence A. Hubbard of Lake City, Minn , 410

( harles Putnam Hubbard, Omaha, Neb 378

Chester Dorman Hubbard. M. C. Wheeling, W. Va 166

i , ;tt of Arms of Edward Hubbard of Burchanger, Essex, Eng 30

Coat of Arms of Thomas Bubbard of Calais 28

it of Arms of Rt. Hon. John Gellibrand Hubbard, Lord Addington 32

Coat of Arms of the Hubbards of Durham, Eng 36

Colman Smith Bubbard of New Haven, Ct 297

Concord Minute Man at Concord, Mass 142

1 laniel Hubbard of New London, Ct 52

1 (avid Bubbard Homestead at North Charlestown, N. H 434

Douglas Hubbard, Genealogist 16

Dr. Charles Hubbard of Brooklyn, N. Y 369

Dr. Frank Allen Hubbard of Taunton, Mass 352

I »r. < ieorge Whipple Hubbard of Nashville, Tenn 369

1 >r. Jacobus Hubbard, of Monmouth County, N. J 316

I >r. Jacobus Hubbard Homestead, Monmouth County, N. J 253

1 >r. Joseph Bubbard of Boston. Mass 106

Dr. William Henry Hubbard of Monmouth County, N. J 62

Early Hubbard Settlers Defending Their Families and Firesides 61

Edward Warren Day, Compiler 16

Edwin Bubbard, Genealogist. 16

Elmer Wilcox Hubbard, Lieutenant, U. S. A 96

Exterior and Interior Views of Norwich Cathedral, Norfolk, Eng 35

Pac-Simile of One of Edwin Hubbard's "Ancestral Registers" 198

Fa. -Simile of One of Douglas Hubbard's "Trees" 196

1 a. -Simile of a Letter from Rt. Hon. John Gellibrand Hubbard 22-23

Fairbanks Homestead— Oldest in New England 46

First Congregational Church of Middletown, Ct 273

First Meeting House of Middletown, Ct 271



ILLUSTRATIONS.



7



Gardiner Greene of Boston, Mass 193

Gardiner Greene Hubbard, LL. D. , Washington, D. C 338

General James Hubbard of Salisbury, Ct 452

General George Washington 124

General Thomas Hamlin Hubbard, New York City 178

George David Read Hubbard of Brooklyn, N. Y 439

George Hubbard Homestead at Guilford, Ct 260

Governor Henry Hubbard of Charlestown, N. H 345

Governor John Hubbard of Hallowell, Maine 88

Governor Lucius Frederick Hubbard of Red Wing, Minnesota 177

Governor Richard Bennet Hubbard of Texas 84

Governor Richard Dudley Hubbard of Hartford, Ct 159

Group of Twenty-five Hubbards 397

Gurdon Saltonstall Hubbard of Chicago 329

Guy Homer Hubbard, Brooklyn, N. Y 445

Harlan Page Hubbard, Publisher 16

Harriet (Hubbard) Day, with Autograph Dedication 3

Henry Eugene Hubbard of Dansville, N. Y 411

Henry Griswold Hubbard of Middletown, Ct 309

Howard Hubbard of Maryland 346

Hubba Stone Priory, Hubbaston, England 25

Hubbard Free Library at Hallowell, Me 447

Hubbard Homestead (" Hubbard's Inn ") at Hatfield, Mass 241

Hubbard's Newspaper and Bank Directory of the World 407

James Hubbard of Mapleton, Ind. — A Centenarian 435

Jeremiah Hubbard of Middletown, Ct 305

Joel Douglas Hubbard, M. C, of Versailles, Mo 316

John Erastus Hubbard, Montpelier, Vt 441

John Henry Hubbard, M. C, Litchfield, Ct 331

Jonathan Hatch Hubbard, M. C, of Windsor, Vt 316

Joshua Roberts Hubbard, South Berwick, Me 105

Katherine Eggleston Hubbard of Dansville, N. Y 411

Kellogg-Hubbard Library Building, Montpelier, Vt 441

Landing of Hubba and Hingua on the Shores of Northumbria 21

Lemuel Hubbard of Maryland 346

Leverett Marsden Hubbard (ex-Sec'y of State) of Wallingford, Ct 160

Lewis Hubbard of Sandisfield, Mass., and Leroy, N, Y 285

Luther Prescott Hubbard of Greenwich, Ct 385

Martha (Coit-Hubbard) Greene of New London, Ct., and Boston, Mass 51

Mary (Greene) Hubbard of Boston, Mass 52

Mary Porter Hubbard of Middletown, Ct 262



HUBBARD HISTORY AND GENEALOGY.

illustrations-Continued. Pa ^ es

Memorial Tablet in the Old Hobart Church 152

Mrs Augustus Phillips (Anna Bubbard), of Ithaca, N. Y 262

Mrs. Chauncey Wetmore (Rebecca Hubbard), of Middletown, Ct 262

Mrs. ( lolman 3. Hubbard and Her Youngest Grandchildren 409

Mrs. Josiah Meigs Hubbard (Sarah Sill Hubbard), of Middletown, Ct 262

Mrs. Beth S. Ball (Phoebe Hubbard), of Middletown. Ct 262

Mrs. Uriah Hayden (Martha Hubbard), of Essex, Ct 262

Nebraska Bubbard Homestead 434

Nehemiah Hubbard of Middletown, Ct 141

Nehemiah Hubbard Homestead (Two Views) at Long Hill, Ct 254

Norse Galley in King Hubba's Fleet 19

Old Dutch Hubbard Bible, Owned by Dr. Chas. Hubbard, Brooklyn 206

Old Hubbard Bible (Two Views) Owned by Rev. George Henry Hubbard 209

Old Hubbard Chest, Guilford, Ct 395

Old Hobart Church at Hingham, Mass 150

Philip Hubbard Homestead and Estate, Three Views, at Kittery, Me 115

Philip Hubbard Garrison House at Kittery, Me 253

Phineas Hubbard of Cambridge, Mass 352

Prof. John Hubbard of Dartmouth College 369

Queen Elizabeth of England 211

Rev Bela Hubbard, D.D., New Haven, Ct 351

Rev. George Henr}' Hubbard of Foo Chow, China 369

Rev. George Warren Gardner, D. D., of New London, N. H 443

Rev. Thomas Swan Hubbard of Stockbridg-e, Vt 316

Rev. Warren Calhoun Hubbard of Rochester, N. Y 219

S imuel Birdsey Hubbard of Jacksonville, Fla 321

Samuel Brigham Hubbard of Holden, Mass 352

Samuel Dickinson Hubbard of Middletown, Ct opposite 288

Samuel Dickinson Hubbard Old Homestead at Middletown, Ct 252

Samuel Hubbard, LL. D., Boston, Mass 337

Silas i J raves Hubbard of Hatfield, Mass 352

Six Hubbard Sisters of Middletown, Ct 262

Statue of Governor Richard Dudley Hubbard, Hartford, Ct 87

Stella Laura Hubbard, West Haven, Ct 363

Theodore Sedgwick Hubbard of Geneva, N. Y 70

Thomas Greene of Boston, Mass 51

Thomas Hubbard, Treasurer Harvard College 95

Thomas Hill Hubbard, M. C, Utica, N. Y 313

Thomas Rumbold Hubbard of Maryland 346

Three Hubbard Books 405

Villaue Green at Guilford, Ct.— Old Cemetery Site 204

Walter Hubbard of Meriden, Ct 310

Wilbur Watson Hubbard of Maryland 346

William Arthur Hubbard of Dansville, N. Y 411

William Gilmer Hubbard of Columbus, Ohio 399

William Henry Hubbard of Duluth, Minn 293

William Lemuel Hubbard of Maryland 346

William Penn Nixon, Chicago, 111 387




f)/nPlJMENTS




"Nothing without labor.



To my Hubbard Kinsfolk :

For many years I have been of the opinion that there was sufficient
material and data in regard to our family in general, which if properly
compiled would make a very interesting volume and add to the history
of our country and its records.

Some years ago I was urged by the late Edwin Hubbard, as well as
Douglas Hubbard, to aid in publishing a Hubbard Genealogy, but I was
firmly convinced, upon examination (and I am much more so now), that
while what they had done was most excellent, that it did not go far
enough to be broad, comprehensive and satisfactory to all the branches.

However, it is largely due to their patient work in exciting an interest
in keeping records which makes this book possible to-day. A letter
from each, to the publisher, after they had passed " three score and ten,"
will be found under miscellaneous on page 401, and both show that they
felt the incompleteness of their work.

A bright, intelligent man, loyal to the memory of his Hubbard mother,
was, however, already grown, who stood ready to pick up the broken
fragments and cement them, with other data, together into presentable
shape. I refer to Mr. Edward Warren Day, who modestly insists that
his title shall be simply " compiler." Fully as much credit is due to him
as to any one else, if not more, and I am sure that the army of Hubbards,
of all " clans " and " tribes," will not be slow in according it to him.

I have known of the careful and painstaking work which he has given

to all of the lines, taking up the broken and incomplete chains of Edwin

and Douglas (with their forty years work) at their death a few years

ago spending his time and money freely, traveling and buying records

9



IO



HUBBARD HISTORY AND GENEALOGY.



from t<>\vn, parish and probate clerks and other sources; and I have
i marveled at his patience and perseverance in untangling the mixed
threads, and keeping straight the mountains of dates and names.

When I had the opportunity, as a publisher of experience, of inspect-
ing the mass of highly interesting and instructive manuscript which Mr.
Day had prepared, in addition to the genealogical part, I felt sure that
the time had come to perpetuate it, and give to our family a record of
which all will be proud.

Here it is, not " absolutely perfect " perhaps, for we are only human,
but it is from the best possible obtainable records. The book is of ne-
sitya good deal like a good huckleberry pie, in that it will be found full
of good huckleberries and with but little crust. Interesting matter kept
coming up to the time of going to press, so that it has increased the
size of the book, by at least ioo pages, over what I anticipated. Hence
an increase of cost to me; hence the increase of price to all who did not
order in advance of publication.

As publisher, I have spared neither labor nor expense to produce a
book of highest grade and quality, as well as profuseness of illustration
and general mechanical excellence. I am proud of its appearance and
believe all other members of the "tribe" will be pleased with it. If
so, should like to hear from you, saying how much you are pleased.

I know that it is the part of a host who is entertaining a distinguished
company to see that the guests are properly introduced and grouped.
What is true in a social gathering is true in such an eclectic book as this.
Therefore I take pleasure in introducing all the Hubbardsto each other,
through this choicest mosaic history of one thousand years.
With kindest regards to each and all, I am,

Yours very trulv.



Descended from GEORGE of MIDDLETOWN.



38 Times Building, 41 Park Row, New York City.

Where " the latch string " is always out.

— — SPECIAL NOTICE.

The price ot this "Hubbard History and Genealogy," after publication (by express at purchaser's
■ . is :

Bound in Embossed Cloth $10.00

" Turkey Morocco Leather (back and cover) i 5 .oo

Full Russia Leather (embossed) 20.00

The above are printed on the finest super calendered paper.
\;i hdttion <ie luxe, limited to 50 copies, printed on heavy coated plate paper, bound only in full

leather. Price $.-5.00.
Name stamped on front cover in gold-leaf, $1.00.

t-f Those remitting check or money-order or cash with the order, which saves expense of collect.
later, will receive the book express charges prepaid to all railroad points.




ion-




With sharpen'd sight pale antiquaries pore,

The inscription value, but the rust adore.

This the blue varnish that the green endears.

The sacred rust of twice ten hundred years— Alexander Pope.



A FAINT frost of age is beginning to encrust this country, and saviors
of historical salvage must at once rescue from oblivion that which
will be precious and invaluable to posterity. The time is scarcely yet,
perhaps, but is fast approaching, when genealogy will be highly prized.
Genealogy and biography are the two eyes of history, yet the former is
generally assailed and ridiculed, as most incoming strange customs are.
Horses and dogs can have their pedigrees preserved with perfect pro-
priety, but apply the practice to humanity and it becomes an idle con-
ceit! So saith our worldly-wise neighbor. Yet preserved genealogical
records have restored to rightful heirs many millions in estates that
would otherwise have been lost to them.

It is not an indication of vain-gloriousness or empty conceit that
prompts us to record the careers of our ancestors, environ their memo-
ries with circlets of laurel, or disparage the plebeian at the expense of
the patrician. The great Cicero was of plebeian birth, though a monu-
ment of nobility of character, and quite fittingly did he crush the pomp-
ous patrician who said to him, " I am a patrician; you are a plebeian."
" True," replied the grand Roman, " but the nobility of my family be-
gins with me; your's ends with you."

George Lillo, a London dramatist, once said: "A respectable birth
and fortune, though they make not a bad man good, yet they are a real
advantage to a worthy one, and place his virtues in the fairest light."
The compiler firmly believes this, and also that fifty years hence will
find the published family genealogy occupying the centre-table or
library shelf with the Bible, Shakspeare, and other standard literature.
Our ancestors paid too expensively in sweat, suffering, and blood to



12



HUBBARD HISTORY AND GENEALOGY.



cement the foundation stones of the governmental superstructure we
now so peacefully and prosperously occupy to be forgotten, slighted, or
ignored by succeeding generations, so largely made up of vandals and
mammon-worshippers, and in whose breasts no Divine spark burns for
things noble, holy, venerable, or antiquated, but, instead, a consuming
fire to possess those riches of the earth that so often " take unto them-
selves wings and fly away like an eagle toward heaven." America is
now peopled with restless spirits who " haven't time " for research, rest,
or recreation — animation to-day, clay to-morrow ! This is the condition
of the present age. O tcmpora ! O mores ! We are told, also, that we
are not "progressive" when we live in the past or indulge in retrospec-
tion, though the philosopher does it to learn his lessons in philosophy.
The philosopher lives in the past, the animal in the present, the am-
bitious in the future. The writer rejoices that he is not in harmony
with the spirit of the present times. He loves to exhume, wonder at,
and admire the antiquated. He wants landmarks preserved and rever-
enced, be they old houses, decaying graveyards, ancient books, or ven-
erable trees. Republishing historic literature, legends and traditions,
building memorial monuments to the heroic, and perpetuating family
names meet with his hearty approbation. William Makepeace Thack-
eray said: "As you like your father to be an honorable man, why not
your grandfather and his ancestors before him ?" Let us, then, venerate
their memories, reset their falling tombstones, record their achieve-
ments — simple or great — chronicle their names and virtues, and avoid a
prospective charge of being a generation of ingrates. The stimulation
of such inward reflections brings forth this book, imperfect, and sprinkled
here and there with errors, as it doubtless is. From those unused to
untwisting genealogical tangles the compiler expects but little compas-
sion for mistakes, but from those familiar with such distracting compli-
cations he looks for some charity. The novelist and the poet have much
the advantage over the historian. They can let fly ubiquitiously their
harmless darts of fancy, tipped and plumed with sentiment and poesies >
but the chronologist must always abide in the domain of prosaic facts, a
prey ever for the watchful, ambushed critic, who mercilessly trips him
at every opportunity, and with malignant joy points out his errors.
Verily there are but few roses, yet many thorns encountered in the
genealogist's path. Volunteers to assist in such labors are few, finan-
cial donators still more scarce (philanthropists donate to libraries,
not to the makers of libraries), and the votary must comfort himself
with the solacing thought that " the reward of good works is like dates —
sweet, and ripening late."

EDWARD WARREN DAY-



As it is the commendation of a good huntsman to find game in a ride wood, so it is no imputa-
tion if he hath not caught all— Plato.



THE compiler of this volume claims not that it is a Hubbard Geneal-
ogyper se. It is, to be more exact a compendium, or Hubbard Hand-
book. A genealogy, pure and simple, of all Hubbard lines, completed
to date, would rival Webster's Dictionary in both size and expense.
Such a volume will never be compiled. The obstacles are too great.
Descendants will not answer letters, promptly or at all, furnish neces-
sary data, or subscribe freely to the^e enterprises, so something less
must we fain be content with. It is hard to stir the stagnant pools of
genealogical indifference into a boiling enthusiasm. Better talent
should have been secured to concrete these historical and genealogical
scraps, but volunteers do not materialize. The mantles of Edwin
Hubbard and Douglas Hubbard (veteran and painstaking genealogists)
seem to have fallen to the ground. Both died very poor. They lived
not long enough to enjoy appreciation or the harvest time. With them
genealogy was an applied science, with the writer a diversion only, and
he cheerfully admits that without their blazoning marks on the trees in
the dense forest of genealogy he would have been many times hope-
lessly lost.

Beginning with the first ancestor of each line in this country, there
are to-day seven or more distinct Hubbard branches. By adding to
these the " Hobart " line, the " Hulbard-Hubbard " line, a ''Line of
Maryland Hubbards " and the line of "Virginia Hubbards," we have
about a dozen lines producing Hubbards to enrich this great Common-
wealth. The compiler is in correspondence with representatives of all
these lines, and there may be still other lines extant. If so, they have
so far escaped his winnowings. It is possible John Hubbard, son of
Anthony Hubbard of Dedham, may have a living posterity; also the
male children of widow Elizabeth Hubbard of Boston, and the issue of
Benjamin Hubbard of Boston, who returned to England and there died,
13



I4 HUBBARD HISTORY AND GENEALOGY.

though signs indicate that some of his children came back, possibly
Thomas and Richard. This can not yet be positively proven, those
surnames being very common among early Hubbard families.

It being so easy to become bewildered in tracing genealogical threads,
it is hoped the difficulty has been somewhat lessened by interspersing
miscellaneous Hubbard matter between different branches. Blank
leaves have also been added to permit descendants to take up their lines
where the compiler leaves them.

The sources of information herein utilized are too numerous to more
than briefly mention. A considerable portion came from England, the
major portion directly from town clerks' records, probate records and
early deeds, and from professional genealogists, a little from published
histories, some from Bible and prayer-book registrations, some from
tombstone inscriptions and some from "trees" loaned.

The compiler would be unmindful of the requirements of gratitude
not to herewith record his deep obligations to Robert vSage Griswold,
William Henry Hubbard and Hon. Gardiner Greene Hubbard for their
loyal support and substantial encouragement. Without their contribu-
tions and devotion to this enterprise the volume would have been
longer delayed in appearance and less satisfactory in contents. Mr.
Griswold is a great grandson of Jeremiah Hubbard (through Bathsheba
Hubbard) and also of Constant Griswold, both Revolutionary War par-
ticipants. He is a member of the Sons of the American Revolution, a
genuine antiquary, and loyal to genealogists, who write to him from
every locality, and lives in Cromwell, near Middletown, Ct. Mr. Wil-
liam Henry Hubbard is a leading manufacturer of Duluth, Minn, (see
Descent Line), a genealogist himself of no small attainments, and has
contributed voluminous data to this book. Gardiner Greene Hubbard,
President of the National Geographic Society (see Prominent Ameri-
can Hubbards), as soon as he became satisfied of the good faith of the
enterprise, gave timely financial aid, and personally attended to pro-
curing valuable genealogical matter outside of the compiler's reach.
Such support can not be overrated or overlooked.

Non-contributors of family or ancestral data should not feel disap-
pointed if much of their family data should happen to be omitted in
this volume, or be printed incorrectly. Over 3,000 Hubbard descend-
ants have been invited by circular to contribute their genealogical
possessions, yet few have responded. Knowing full well that errors
spring up like mushrooms, while truth rises but slowly, the compiler
claims only correctness approximately in the contents of this volume.
Many dates copied from miscellaneous sources he mistrusts, yet has had
no means of verification.



PREFACE. i-

He also presents his sincere thanks to the following- subscribers for
encouragement and data contributed: Mrs. Thomas Scranton Hubbard,
Urbana, 111.; Mrs. Lucy Lyman Hubbard, Kenilworth, Ohio; Lieut.
Elmer Wilcox Hubbard, U. S. A.; John Gordon Hubbard, Dracut,
Mass. ; Hon. Bela Hubbard and Collins Baughmann Hubbard, Detroit,



Online LibraryEdward Warren DayOne thousand years of Hubbard history, 866 to 1895. From Hubba, the Norse sea king, to the enlightened present → online text (page 1 of 52)