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Jonas, etc. On the other hand, the Arabians translated
native Hindu fables. See Weber, IS. iii. 327, _Ueber den
Zusammenhang griechischer Fabeln mit indischen_, and
_Indische Skizzen_, p. 111, and _Die Griechen in Indien_.
Arabia further drew on India for philosophical material, and
Alber[=u]ni himself translated Kapila's work (Weber,_loc.
cit_.).]

[Footnote 10: Whereby cows, snakes, cats (sacred to one of
the Çivaite 'mothers'), crocodiles, monkeys, etc, are
worshipped.]

[Footnote 11: Pantheists in name alone, most of the lower
caste-men are practically polytheists, and this means that
they are at bottom dualists. They are wont to worship
assiduously but one of the gods they recognize.]

[Footnote 12: Where Brahmanism may be said to cease and
Hinduism to begin can be defined but vaguely. Krishnaism is
rank Hinduism. But Çivaism is half Brahmanic. For the rest,
in its essential aspects, Hinduism is as old as the Hindus.
Only the form changes (as it intrudes upon Brahmanism).]

[Footnote 13: It is highly probable that the mention of the
Northwestern Ç[=u]dras in Mbh[=a]. VI. 9. 67 refers to the
Afghan S[=u]droi, and that the slave-caste as a whole, which
bears the name Ç[=u]dra, received this appellation first as
conquered tribes of Afghanistan.]

[Footnote 14: Brahmanism has always been an island in a sea.
Even in the Brahmanic age there is evidence to show that it
was the isolated belief of a comparatively small group of
minds. It did not even control all the Aryan population.]

[Footnote 15: We refer partly to literature, that of the
drama and novel, for instance; and partly to the fine arts.
But in connection with the latter it may be remarked that
painting, and the fine arts generally, are expressly
reckoned as the pursuit of slaves alone. For instance, even
as late a jurist as he that wrote the law-code of 'Vishnu'
thus (chap. ii.) parcels out the duties and occupations of
the four castes: The duty of a priest is to teach the Veda,
his means of livelihood is to sacrifice for others and to
receive aims; the duty of the warrior is to fight, his means
of livelihood is to receive taxes for protecting the other
castes; the duty of the V[=a]içya is to tend cattle, his
means of livelihood 1s gain from flocks, farm, trade, or
money-lending. The duty of a slave, Çudra, is to serve the
three upper castes; his means of livelihood is the fine
arts.]

[Footnote 16: It is this that has exaggerated, though not
produced, that most marked of native beliefs, a faith which
Intertwines with every system, Brahmanic, Buddhistic, or
Hinduistic, a belief in an ecstatic power in man which gives
him control over supernatural forces. Today this Yogism and
Mah[=a]tmaism, which is visible even in the Rig Veda, is
nothing but unbridled fancy playing with mesmerism and
lies.]

[Footnote 17: The Hindu sectarian cults are often strangely
like those of Greece in details, which, as we have already
suggested, must revert to a like, though not necessarily
mutual, source of primitive superstition. Even the sacred
free bulls, which roam at large, look like old familiar
friends, [Greek: aphetôn dniôn taurôn en tps tou IIoseidônos
Ierps] (Plato, _Kritias_, 119); and we have dared to
question whether Lang's 'Bull-roarer' might not be sought in
the command that the priest should make the bull roar at the
sacrifice; and in the verse of the Rig Veda which says that
the priests "beget (produce) the Dawn by means of the roar
of a bull" (vii. 79. 4); or must the bull be _soma_? For
Müller's defence of the Hindu's veraciousness, see his
_/India, What Can It Teach Us_, p. 34.]

[Footnote 18: Some exception may be taken to this on the
ground that moral laws really are referred to the Creator in
one form or another, This we acknowledge as a theory of
authority, but it so seldom comes into play, and there is so
little rapport between gods and moral goodness, that the
difference in this regard is greater by far than the
resemblance. A Christian sins against God, a Hindu sins
against himself. The Christian may be punished by God; the
Hindu punishes himself (the _karma_). The latter may say
that moral laws are of God, but he means that they are
natural laws, the violation of which has the same effect as
touching fire.]

[Footnote 19: The _lex talionis_ is in full force in Hindu
law, even in the codes of Hinduism; for example, 'Vishnu,'
V. 19.]

[Footnote 20: Deceit of a foe is no sin in any system. "All
is fair in war."]

[Footnote 21: This idea may be carried out in other
instances. The bravery of civilization is not the bravado
that savages call bravery, and modesty is now a virtue where
boasting used to be reckoned as the necessary complement of
bravery. As for hospitality in the old sense, it is not now
a 'virtue' not to kill a guest.]

[Footnote 22: India's relations with Rome were late and
wholly of mercantile character.]

[Footnote 23: It is interesting, as showing incidentally the
close connection between Buddhism and Çivaism in other than
philosophical aspects, that the first Indic grotto-temple
mentioned by foreigners (in the third century A.D.) was one
which contained a statue of an androgynous (Çivaite) deity
(Weber, _Indische Skizzen_, p. 86, note).]

[Footnote 24: Rosaries are first mentioned in the AV.
Pariçista, XLIII. 4. 11 (Leumann, Rosaries).]

[Footnote 25: In Lamaism there is also the tiara-crowned
pope, and the transubstantiation theory; the reverence to
Virgin and Child, confessions, fasts, purgatory, abbots,
cardinals, etc. Compare David's _Hibbert Lectures_, p. 193.]

[Footnote 26: The literature on this subject is very
extensive (see the Bibliography). On Buddhism and
Christianity see Bohlen's _Altes Indien_, I. 334 (Weber,
_Indische Skizzen_, p. 92). At a recent meeting of the
British Association E.B. Tylor presented a paper in which is
made an attempt to show Buddhistic influence on
pre-Columbian culture in America. On comparing the Aztec
picture-writing account of the journey of the soul after
death with Buddhistic eschatology, he is forced to the
conclusion that there was direct transmission from Buddhism.
We require more proof than Aztec pictures of hell to believe
any such theory; and reckon this attempt to those already
discussed in the eighth chapter.]

[Footnote 27: It is a mooted question in how far the
influence in this line has been reciprocal. See _Indische
Studien_, iii. 128.]

[Footnote 28: The S[=a]nkhya has no systematic connection
with the 'numbers' of Pythagoras.]

[Footnote 29: Compare on the Çulvas[=u]tras, Thibaut, J.A.
Beng. xliv. p. 227; Von Schroeder, _Pythagoras und die
Inder; Literatur und Cultur_, p. 718 ff, who also cites
Cantor, _Geschichte der Mathematik_, p. 540, and refutes the
possibility, suggested by the latter, of the loan being from
Greece to India on the ground that the Çulvas[=u]tra are too
old to belong to the Alexandrine period, and too essentlal a
part of the religious literature to have been borrowed; and
also on the ground that they are not an addition to the
Çr[=a]utas[=u]tra, but they make an independent portion (p.
721, note).]

[Footnote 30: Compare Garbe (_loc. cit_. below), and his
_S[=a][.m]khya Philosophic_, p. 94.]

[Footnote 31: This view is not one universally accepted by
Sanskrit scholars. See, for instance, Weber, _Die Griechen
in Indien_. But to us the minute resemblance appears too
striking to be accidental.]

[Footnote 32: Lassen, and Weber, _Indische Skizzen, p_. 91.]

[Footnote 33: Garbe, in a recent number of the _Monist_,
where is given a _résumé_ of the relations between Greek and
Hindu philosophical thought.]

[Footnote 34: Weber, _loc. cit._]

[Footnote 35: The existence of a soul (spirit) in man is
always assumed in the Upanishads. In the pantheistic system
(the completed Ved[=a]nta) the verity of traditional belief
is also assumed. The latter assumption is made, too, though
not in so pronounced a manner, in the Upanishads.]

[Footnote 36: The Upanishad philosopher sought only to save
his life, but the Buddhist, to lose it.]

[Footnote 37: This is not a negative 'non-injury' kindness.
It is a love 'far-reaching, all*pervading' (above, p. 333).
The Buddhist is no Stoic save in the stoicism with which he
looks forward to his own end. Rhys Davids has suggested that
the popularity of Tibet Buddhism in distinction from
Southern Buddhism may have been due to the greater weight
laid by the former on altruism. For, while the earlier
Buddhist strives chiefly for his own perfection, the
spiritualist of the North affects greater love for his kind,
and becomes wise to save others. The former is content to be
an Arhat; the latter desires to be a Bodhisat, 'teacher of
the law' (_Hibbert Lectures_, p. 254). We think, however,
that the latter's success with the vulgar was the result
rather of his own greater mental vulgarity and animism.]

[Footnote 38: Hurst's _Indika_, chap. XLIX, referring to
_India Christiana_ of 1721, and the correspondence between
Mather and Ziegenbalg, who was then a missionary in India.
The wealthy 'young men' who contributed were, in Hurst's
opinion, Harvard students.]

[Footnote 39: The Portuguese landed in Calcutta in 1498.
They were driven out by the Dutch, to whom they ceded their
mercantile monopoly, in 1640-1644. The Dutch had arrived in
1596, and held their ground till their supremacy was wrested
from them by Clive in 1758, The British had followed the
Dutch closely (arriving in 1600), and were themselves
followed soon after by the Germans and Danes (whose activity
soon subsided), and by the French. The German company, under
whose protection stood Ziegenbalg, was one of the last to
enter India, and first to leave it (1717-1726). The most
grotesquely hideous era in India's history is that which was
inaugurated by the supremacy of the Christian British. Major
Munroe's barbaric punishment of the Sepoys took place,
however, in Clive's absence (1760-1765). Marshman, I, p.
305, says of this Munroe only that he was "an officer of
undaunted resolution"! Clive himself was acquitted by his
own countrymen of theft, robbery, and extortion; but the
Hindus have not acquitted him or Hastings; nor will
Christianity ever do so.]

[Footnote 40: For specimens of the sacred Kural of
Tiruvalluvar N[=a]r[=a]yana*N[=a]yan[=]r, see the examples
given by Pope, _Indian Antiquary_, seventh and following
volumes. The Sittars, to whom we have referred above, are a
more modern sect. Their precept that love is the essential
of religion is not, as in the case of the Hindu idolators,
of erotic nature. They seem to be the modern representatives
of that Buddhistic division (see above) called S[=a]ugatas,
whose religion consists in 'kindness to all.' In these sects
there is found quietism, a kind of quakerism, pure morality,
high teaching, sternest (almost bigoted) monotheism, and the
doctrine of positive altruism, strange to the Hindu idolator
as to the Brahman. The Prem S[=a]gar, or 'Ocean of Love,' is
a modern Hindu work, which illustrates the religious love
opposed to that of the Sittars, namely, the mystic love of
the Krishnaite for his savior, whose grace is given only to
him that has faith. It is the mystic rapt adoration that in
expression becomes erotic and sensual.]

[Footnote 41: Hinduism itself is unconsciously doing a
reforming work among the wild tribes that are not touched by
the Christian missionary. These tribes, becoming Hinduized,
become civilized, and, in so far as they are thus made
approachable, they are put in the way of improvement; though
civilization often has a bad effect upon their morals for a
season.]

[Footnote 42: The substitution of the doctrine of redemption
for that of _karma_ is intellectually impossible for an
educated Hindu. He may renounce the latter, but he cannot
accept the former. The nearest approach to such a conception
is that of the Buddhistic 'Redeemer' heresy referred to
above. In all other regards Samaj and pantheism are too
catholic to be affected; In this regard they are both
unyielding.]

[Footnote 43: We question, for instance, the advisability of
such means to "fill up the church" as is described in a
missionary report delivered at the last meeting of the
Missionary Union of the Classis of New York for the current
year: "A man is sent to ride on a bicycle as fast as he can
through the different streets. This invariably attracts
attention. Boys and men follow him to the church, where it
is easy to persuade them to enter." But this is an admission
of our position in regard to the classes affected. The
rabble may be Christianized by this means, but the
intelligent will not be attracted.]

[Footnote 44: After the greater part of our work had passed
the final revision, and several months after the whole was
gone to press, appeared Oldenberg's _Die Religion des Veda_,
which, as the last new book on the subject, deserves a
special note. The author here takes a liberal view, and does
not hesitate to illustrate Vedic religion with the light
cast by other forms of superstition. But this method has its
dangers, and there is perhaps a little too much straining
after original types, giant-gods as prototypes and totemism
in proper names, where Vedic data should be separated from
what may have preceded Vedic belief. Oldenberg, as a
ritualist, finds in Varuna, Dawn, and the Burial Service the
inevitable stumbling-blocks of such scholars as confuse
Brahmanism with early Vedism. To remove these obstacles he
suggests that Varuna, as the moon, was borrowed from the
Semites or Akkadians (though be frankly admits that not even
the shadow of this moon lingers in Vedic belief); explains
Dawn's non-participation in _soma_ by stating that she never
participates in it (which explains nothing); and jumps over
the Burial Hymn with the inquiry whether, after all, it
could not be interpreted as a cremation-hymn (the obvious
answer being that the service does imply burial, and does
not even hint at cremation). On the other hand, when
theoretical barbarism and ritualism are foregone, Oldenberg
has a true eye for the estimation of facts, and hence takes
an unimpeachable position in several important particulars,
notably in rejecting Jacobi's date of the Rig Veda; in
rejecting also Hillebrandt's moon-_soma_; in denying an
originally supreme Dy[=a]us; in his explanation of
henotheism (substantially one with the explanation we gave a
year ago); and in his account of the relation of the Rig
Veda to the (later) Atharvan. Despite an occasional
brilliant suggestion, which makes the work more exciting
than reliable, this book will prove of great value to them
that are particularly interested in the ritual; though the
reader must be on his guard against the substitution of
deduction for induction, as manifested in the confusion of
epochs, and in the tendency to interpret by analogy rather
than in accordance with historical data. The worth of the
latter part of the book is impaired by an unsubstantiated
theory of sacrifice, but as a whole it presents a clear and
valuable view of the cult.]

* * * * *




ADDENDA.


Page 154, note 3: Add to (RV.) x. 173, AV. vi. 88.

Page 327, third line from the top: Read Buddhaghosha. According to
Chalmers, as quoted by T.W. Rhys Davids in his recent lectures, traces
of mysticism are found in some of the early texts (as yet
unpublished). The fact that the canonical P[=a]li books know nothing
of the controversy (involving the modification of traditional rules)
of the second council gives a terminus to the canon. Senart, on the
other hand, thinks that the vague language of the Açoka inscriptions
precludes the fixing of the canon at so early a date.

Page 340, note 4: The gods here are priests. The real meaning seems to
be that the Brahman priests, who were regarded as gods, have been put
to naught in being reduced to their true estate. Compare Senart,
(revised) _Inscriptions de Piyadasi_, third chapter. Açoka dismissed
the Brahman priests that his father had maintained, and substituted
Buddhist monks.

Page 436, note 2: From B[=e]r[=u]n[=i] it would appear that the Gupta
and Valabh[=i] eras were identical (319-20 A.D). See Fleet, Indian
Antiquary, xvii. 245. Many scholars now assign Kum[=a]rila to the
eighth century rather than to the end of the seventh.

* * * * *




BIBLIOGRAPHY.[1]


GENERAL WORKS.

#Journals#: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Soctety (JRAS.);[2] Journal of
the German Oriental Society (Zeitschrift der Deutschen
Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, ZDMG.); Journal Asiatique (JA.);
Journal of the American Oriental Society (JAOS.); Branch-Journals of
the JRAS.; Calcutta Review; Madras Journal; Indian Antiquary (IA.).
Some of the articles in the defunct Zeitschrift für die Kunde des
Morgenlandes (ZKM.), and in the old Asiatick Researches (AR.) are
still worth reading. Besides these, the most important modern journals
are the transactions of the royal Austrian, Bavarian, Prussian, and
Saxon Academies, the Muséon and the Revue de l'histoire des religions.
Occasional articles bearing on India's religions or mythology will be
found in the American Journal of Philology (AJP.); the Wiener
Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes (WZKM.); the Babylonian and
Oriental Record (BOR.); Kühn's Zeitschrift für vergleichende
Sprachforschuhg (KZ.); Bezzenberger's Beiträge (BB.); and the
Indogermanische Forschungen (IF.).

#Histories, studies, etc.#: Prinsep, Essays (Indian Antiquities);
Lassen, Indische Alterthumskunde. Histories of India by Elphinstone
(religious material, chapters iv book i, and iv book ii), by
Elliot, by Marshman (complements Elphinstone), and by Wheeler
(unreliable); The Rulers of India; Hunter's Indian Empire and Brief
History. Mill's excellent History of India is somewhat prejudiced.
Dutt's History of Civilization in Ancient India is praise-worthy
(1890). Invaluable are the great descriptive Archaeological Surveys by
Cunningham, Burgess, and Bühler, and Hunter's Statistical Account of
Bengal. Literary History:[3] Colebrooke, Essays, reedited by Cowell,
with notes by Whitney; Wilson, Essays; Weber, Indische Studien (IS.);
Benfey, Orient and Occident (OO.); Müller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature
(ASL.), Science of Religion; Weber, Vorlesungen über Indische
Literaturgeschichte (also translated), Indische Streifen, Indische
Skizzen; L. von Schroeder, Indiens Literatur und Cultur; Whitney,
Oriental and Linguistic Studies, Language and the Study of Language;
Duncker, Geschichte des Alterthums (third volume, may be bought
separately); Williams, Indian Wisdom (inaccurate but readable).


VEDIC RELIGION.

#Literature#: Roth, Zur Literatur und Geschichte des Weda;[4] Benfey,
Vedica und Verwandtes; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben (AIL.);
R[=a]jendralala Mitra, Indo-Aryans(unreliable); Bergaigne, La Religion
Védique (also JA. ix, xiii); De Gubernatis, Letture sopra la Mitologia
Vedica; Pischel and Geldner, Vedische Studien;[5] Regnaud, Le Rig Veda
et les origines de la mythologie indo-européenne, and Les hymnes du
Rig Veda, sont-ils prières? (Ann. d. Mus. Guimet, Bibl. d'études, t.
i, and special studies). Regnaud's point of view renders nugatory most
of what he writes on the Veda.[6] The most useful collection of Vedic
and Brahmanic Texts that illustrate Hindu Mythology and Religion is to
be found in Muir's Original Sanskrit Texts (OST.), especially the
fourth and fifth volumes.[7] For the Sacred Books of the East (SBE.)
see Hems below.

#Translations of the rig veda#: Complete, by Grassmann and by Ludwig;
partial, by Roth, Benfey, Langlois, Bergaigne; in English chiefly by
Wilson, Müller, Muir, Peterson, Griffith. Of these the German
translation of Grassmann is often inaccurate;[8] that of Ludwig, often
unintelligible. Benfey has translated a number of specimens, OO., BB.,
i, vii, and in Kleinere Schriften. The incomplete translation of
Wilson has been carried on by Cowell; those of Peterson and Griffith
are publishing in India; Langlois' is useless. Müller's partial
translations will be found in various volumes, Ancient Sanskrit
Literature, India: What Can it Teach Us, Chips, Hibbert Lectures,
JRAS. ii. 448, iii. 199, etc.; and all the Hymns to the Maruts, SBE.
xxxii. Whitney has translated the cosmogonic hymn, PAOS., May, 1882;
and Deussen has just published the philosophical hymns, Geschichte der
Philosophie, i, 1. A group of Vedic hymns in English dress will be
found in Muir, OST. v.; extracts (without connection) are given by
Bergaigne, in La Religion Védique, and special essays in JA. (above).
In German a capital little collection is the Siebzig Lieder of Geldner
and Kaegi. The best general introductory manual for the study of the
Rig Veda, accompanied with frequent translations, is Kaegi's Der Rig
Veda (translated into English by Arrowsmith).

#Translations of the atharva veda# are all partial. The handiest
collection is Grill's Hundert Lieder des Atharva Veda. Specimens will
be found translated by Aufrecht, IS. i. 121 (book xv); (Roth) Bruce,
JRAS. 1862, p. 321 (book xii. 1); Kuhn, Indische und Germanische
Segensspriiche, KZ. xiii. 49, 113; Weber, IS. iv. 393, v. 195, 218,
xiii. 129, xvii. 178 (books i-iii, xiv); Grohmann, _ib._ ix. 381;
Ludwig, vol. iii, of his translation of the Rig Veda; Zimmer, AIL.:
Victor Henry, books vii and xiii (Les hymnes Rohitas);[9] Bloomfield,
Seven Hymns, and Contributions AJP. vii. 466, xi. 319, xii. 414, JAOS.
xv. 143, xvi. 1; ZDMG. xlviii. 541; Florenz, BB. xii. 249 (book vi.).
Of The S[=a]ma V[=e]da: Stevenson (1842) in English (inaccurate) and
Benfey (1848) in Gcrman have made translations. On the Yajur Veda
see Schroeder, Literatur und Cultur, and below.

#Vedic mythology#: Windischmann, Ursagen der Arischen Völker, Bay.
Ak., 1858; Kuhn, KZ. iv. 88, Herabkunft des Feuers (Prometheus);[10]
Roth, Die höchsten Götter der Arischen Völker, ZDMG. vi. 67 (_ib._
vii. 607); Wilson, Preface of Langlois: Cox, Aryan Mythology; Whitney,
Oriental and Linguistic Studies, ii. p. 149, JAOS. iii. 291, 331;
Müller, Second Series of Science of Language, Biographies of
Words.[11] General interpretation of divinities, Müller, Muir,
Bergaigne, Kaegi, Pischel-Geldner, _loc. cit._ The last books on the
subject are Oldenberg's scholarly volume, Die Religlon des Veda (note,
p. 571, above), and Phillip's The Teaching of the Vedas (1895), the
work of a charlatan.

SPECIAL STUDIES OF VEDIC DIVINITIES:

#Aditi#: Roth, IS. xiv. 392; Hillebrandt, Ueber die Göttin Aditi;
Müller, SBE. xxxii. 241; Colinet, Étude sur le mot Aditi, Muséon, xii.
81. [=A]dityas, Roth, ZDMG. vi. 67 (above); Darmesteter, Ormazd et
Ahriman.

#Agni#: L. von Schroeder, Apollon-Agni, KZ. xxix. 193[12] (see epic,
below).

#Apsaras# (see Gandhanas).

#Aryaman# (Açvins, Mitra, etc.): Bollensen, ZDMG. xli. 494.

#Asura# as Asen, Schrader, p. 599; P. von Bradke, Dy[=a]us Asura. See
Dy[=a]us.

#Açvins#: Myriantheus, Die Açvins oder Arischen Dioskuren; _not_
Dioskuroi, Pischel, Vedische Studien, Preface, p. xxvii; as
constellation, etc., Benfey, OO. ii. 245, iii. 159; Gemini, Weber,
last in R[=a]jas[=u]ya, p. 100; as Venus, 'span-god,' Bollensen, ZDMG.
xli. 496; other literature, Muir, OST. v. 234; Colinet, Vedic Chips,



Online LibraryEdward Washburn HopkinsThe Religions of India Handbooks on the History of Religions, Volume 1, Edited by Morris Jastrow → online text (page 51 of 55)