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layman.^ However, these rules admitted of exceptions :
if anybody in joy and glory of our Saviour's natal day, or
of Easter, or in honour of any saint, vomited through
being drunk, and in so doing had taken no more than he
was ordered by his elders, it mattered nothing ; and if a
bishop had commanded him to be drunk he was likewise
innocent, unless indeed the bishop was in the same state
himself.''' If these attempts to encourage soberness pro-
duced any change for the better, it could only have been
temporary ; for some time afterwards intemperance was
carried to its greatest excess through the practice and
example of the Danes. ^ Under the influence of the
Normans, who were a more temperate race, drunkenness
for a time decreased in England ; but after a few reigns
the Saxons seem rather to have corrupted their conquerors
than to have been benefited by their example.^ As late as
the eighteenth century drunkenness was universal among
all classes in England. It was then as uncommon for a
party to separate while any member of it remained sober

^ PcBnitentiaU Pseudo - Theodori, (Wasserschleben, op. cit. p. 184).

xxvi. 4 (Wasserschleben, Die Buss- Posnitentiale Egberti, xi. 3 (Wasser-

ordnungen dey ahendlandischen sohleben, p. 242).

■ Kirche, p. 594). Posnitentiale Eg- ^ Pcenitentiale Theodori, i. i. 2

fcec^i, xi. 7 (Wasserschleben, p. 242) . (Wasserschleben, op. cit. p. 184).

^ Pcenitentiale Pseudo Theodori, Pcenitentiale Egberti, xi. 2 (Wasser-

xxvi. 5 (Wasserschleben, op. cit. p. schleben, p. 242).

594). Pcenitentiale Egberti, xi. 9 ^Pcenitentiale Theodori, i. I. 5

(Wasserschleben, p. 242). (Wasserschleben, op. cit. p. 184).

^Pcenitentiale Theodori, i. 1. i ''Pcenitentiale Theodori, i. i. 4

(Wasserschleben, op. cit. p. 184). (Wasserschleben, op. cit. p. 184).

Pcenitentiale Egberti, xi. i (Wasser- s Thrupp, op. cit. p. 299 sqq.

schleben, p.';242). » Ibid. p. 301 sj.

* Posnitentiale Theodori, i. i. 3


as it is now for any one in such a party to degrade himself
through intoxication. No loss of character was incurred
by habitual excess. Men in the position of gentlemen
congratulated each other upon the number of bottles
emptied ; and it would have been considered a very
frivolous objection to a citizen who aspired to the
dignity of Alderman or Mayor that he was an habitual

Though of late years drunkenness has been decreasing
among those European nations who have been most
addicted to it, and is nowadays generally recognised as a
vice, our civilisation is still, as it has always been, the great
source from which the poison of intoxication is pouring
over the earth in all directions, infecting or killing races
who previously knew nothing of alcohol or looked upon it
with abhorrence. Eastern religions have emphatically
insisted upon sobriety or even total abstinence from intoxi-
cating liquors. In the sacred law-books of Brahmanism
thirteen different kinds of alcoholic drinks are mentioned,
all of which are forbidden to Brahmanas and three to
Kshatriyas and Vaisyas ; ^ yet, though there be no sin in
drinking spirituous liquor, " abstention brings greater
reward." ^ A tvsdce-born man who drinks the liquor called
Sura commits a mortal sin, which vnll be punished both in
this life and in the life to come ; * the most proper penalty
for such a person is to drink that liquor boiling-hot, and
only when his body has been completely scalded by it is
he freed from his guilt.^ Among the modern Hindus
drunkenness is said to be detested by all but the very
lowest castes in the agricultural districts and some high
caste people residing in the great towns, who have learned
it from Europeans ; it is supposed to be destructive of
» caste purity ; hence a notorious drunkard is, or at least

1 Porter, Progress of the Nation, p. Gautama, ii. 20. Laws of Manu, xi.

239. Pike, History of Crime in 94 sq.

England, ii. 587. Massey, History of ' Laws of Manu, v. 56.

England during the Reign of George * lUd. ix. 235, 237 ; xi. 49, 55 ;

lU. ii.»'6o. xii. 56.

^Institutes of Vishnu, xxii. 82, 84. = Ibid. xi. 91.


used to be, expelled from his caste.^ Buddhism interdicts
altogether the use of alcohol ; ^ "of the five crimes, the
taking of Hfe, theft, adultery, lying, and drinking, the last
is the worst." ^ Taouism condemns the love of wine.* In
Zoroastrianism the holy Sraosha is represented as fighting
against the demon of drunkenness,^ and it is said that the
sacred beings are not pleased with him who drinks wine
more than moderately f but it seems that the ancient
Persians nevertheless were much addicted to intoxication. ''
According to classical writers, some of the Egyptian
priests abstained entirely from wine, whilst others drank
very little of it ;^ and before the reign of Psammetichus
the kings neither drank wine, nor made libation of it as a
thing acceptable to the gods.^ The use of wine and
other inebriating drinks is forbidden by Islam,^^ and was
punished by Muhammed with flogging.^ It may also be
said of his followers that they for the most part have
obeyed this command, at least in country districts,^^ and
that the exceptions to the rule are directly or indirectly
attributable to the influence of Christians.

The condemnation of drunkenness is, of course, in the
first place due to its injurious consequences. The Basutos
of South Africa say that " there is blood in the dregs " —
that is, intoxication ends in bloody quarrels.^^ The Omaha
Indians made drunkenness a crime punishable with flog-
ging and loss of property, because it often led to murders.^*
Sahagun tells us of a Mexican king who severely ad-
monished his people to abstain from intoxication, as
being the cause of troubles and disorders in villages and

1 Caldwell, Tinnevelly Shanars, p. De Iside et Osiride, 6.

38. Dubois, op. cit. p. 116. Samuel- ' Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride, 6.

son. History of Drink, p. 46. ^^ Koran, ii. 216.

2 Oldenberg, Buddha, p. 290. ^'La.-ae, Modern Egyptians, -p. 122.
Monier-Williams, Buddhism, p. 126. ^ Burton, Pilgrimage to Al-Madi-

' Hardy, Manual of Budhism, nah and Meccah, ii. 118. Blunt,

P- 491- Bedouin Tribes of the Euphrates, ii.

'■'Douglas, Confucianism andTaou- 213. Polak, Pemejz, ii. 268. Lane,

ism, p. 266. Modern Egyptians, p. 298 sq. Pool,

^ Vendtddd, xix. 41. Studies in Mohammedanism, p. 283.

« Dtnd-t Matn6g-t Khirad, xvi. 62. " CasaUs, Basutos, p. 307.

' Herodotus, i. 133. 1* Dorsey, ' Omaha Sociology,' in

* Porphyry, op. cit. iv. 6. Plutarch, Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethn. iii. 370.


kingdoms, of misery, sorrow, and poverty .^ Of him who
drinks immoderately it is said in one of the Pahlavi
texts that infamy comes to his body and wickedness to
his soul.^ According to Ecclesiasticus, " drunkenness
increaseth the rage of a fool tiU he offend : it diminisheth
strength and maketh wounds." ^ We read in the Talmud,
" Drink not, and you will not sin." * Muhammed said
that in wine there is both sin and profit, but that the sin
is greater than the profit.^ Buddhism stigmatises drinking
as the worst of crimes because it leads to all other sins ;
from the continued use of intoxicating drink six evil con-
sequences are said to follow — namely, the loss of wealth ;
the arising of disputes that lead to blows and battles ;
the production of various diseases, as soreness of the eyes
and others ; the bringing of disgrace, from the rebuke of
parents and superiors ; the exposure to shame, from going
hither and thither unclothed ; the loss of the judgment
required for the carrying on of the affairs of the world.^
That drunkenness, in spite of the evils resulting from it,
nevertheless so frequently escapes censure, is due partly to
the pleasures connected with it, partly to lack of fore-
sight,'' and in a large measure to the influence of
intemperate habits. Why such habits should have grown
up in one country and not in another we are often unable
to tell. The climate has no doubt something to do with
it, although it is impossible to agree with the statement
made by Montesquieu that the prevalence of intoxication
in different parts of the earth is proportionate to the cold-
ness and humidity of the air.^ A gloomy temperament
and a cheerless life are apt to induce people to resort to
the artificial pleasures produced by drink. The dreariness
of the Puritan Sunday has much to answer for ; the evi-
dence given by a spirit merchant before the Commission
on the Forbes Mackenzie Act was " that there is a great

^ Sahagnn, Historiti general de las ' Koran, ii. 216.
cosas de Nueva Espana, ii. 94 sqq. ' Hardy, op. cit. p. 491 sq.

^Dtnd-t MainSg-i Khirad, xvi. 63. ' Cf. supra, i. 281, 309 sq.
' Ecclesiasticus, xxxi. 30. ' Montesquieu, De I'esprit des lois,

* Deutsch, Literary Remains, p. 58. xiv. 10 {CEuvres, p. 303 sq.).


demand for drink on Sunday," and that " this demand
must be suppHed." ^ Ennui was probably a cause of the
prevaiHng inebriety in Europe in former days, when there
was difficulty in passing the time not occupied in fighting
or hunting ; ^ and the monotony of life in the lower ranks
of an industrial community still tends to produce a similar
effect. Other causes of drunkenness are miserable homes
and wretched cooking. Mr. Lecky is of opinion that if
the wives of the poor in Great Britain and Ireland could
cook as they can cook in France and in Holland, a much
smaller proportion of the husbands would seek a refuge
in the public-house.^

The evil consequences of intoxication have led not only
to the condemnation of an immoderate use of alcoholic
drink, but also to the demand for total abstinence, in
consideration of the difficulty many people have in avoid-
ing excess. But this hardly accounts in full for the
religious prohibition of drink which we meet with in the
East. Wine or spirituous liquor inspires mysterious fear.
The abnormal mental state which it produces suggests
the idea that there is something supernatural in it, that
it contains a spirit, or is perhaps itself a spirit.* More-
over, the juice of the grape is conceived as the blood of
the vine^ — ^in Ecclesiasticus the wine which was poured
out at the foot of the altar is even called " the blood of
the grape " ; ^ and in the blood is the soul. The law of
Brahmanism not only prohibits the drinking of wine, but
also commands that " one should carefully avoid red
exudations from trees and juices flowing from incisions."''
That spirituous liquor is bdieved to contain baneful
mysterious energy is obvious from the statement that if the
Brahnian (the Veda) which dwells in the body of a Br^h-
mana is even once deluged with it, his Brahmanhood for-
sakes him, and he becomes a Sudra ;S holy persons are, of

1 Hessey, Sunday, p. 378. the Belief in Supernatural Beings ;

'Cf. Spencer,- Principles of Ethics, Frazer, Golderi Bough, i. 359.
'■ 445- 5 Frazer, op. cit. i. 358 sq.

"Lecky, Democracy and Liberty, ^Ecclesiasticus, 1. 15.
": J38. ' Laws of Manu, v. 6.

' bee supra, i. 278, 281 ; infra, on « Ibid. xi. 98.


course, most easily affected by the mysterious drink, owing
to the dehcate nature of holiness. Muhammedans likewise
regard wine as " unclean " and polluting ; ^ some of them
dread it so much that if a single drop were to fall upon a
clean garment it would be rendered unfit to wear until
washed.^ In Morocco it is said that by drinking alcohol
a Muhammedan loses the baraka, or holiness, of " the
faith " and a scribe the memory of the Koran, and that
if a person who drinks alcohol has a charm on him, its
baraka is spoiled. The fact that wine was forbidden by
the Prophet might perhaps by itself be a sufficient reason
for the notion that it is unclean. But already in pre-
Muhammedan times it seems to have been scrupulously
avoided by some of the Arabs,^ though among others it
was much in use and was highly praised by their poets.*

As for the Muhammedan prohibition of wine, the sug-
gestion has been made by Palgrave that it mainly arose
from the Prophet's antipathy to Christianity and his desire
to broaden the line of demarcation between his followers
and those of Christ. Wine was raised by the founder of
Christianity to a dignity of the highest religious import.
It became well-nigh typical of Christianity and in a
manner its badge. To declare it " unclean," an " abomin-
ation," and " the work of the devil," was to set up for
the Faithful a counter-badge.'^ This view derives much
probability from the fact that there are several unequivo-
cal indications of the same bent of policy in Muhammed's
system, showing a distinct tendency to oppose Islam to
other religions. But at the same time both a desire to
prevent intoxication and the notion that wine is polluting
may very well have been co-operating motives for the

' Lane, Modern Egyptians, p. 299. und Monchtum, i. 93.

^ Winterbottom, Native Africans * Goldziher, Muhammedanische

in the Neighbourhood of Sierra Leone, Studien, i. 21 sqq.

i. 72. ^ Palgrave, fourney through Cen-

' Diodonis Siculus, Bibliotheca his- tral and Eastern Arabia, i. 428 sqq.
torica, xix. 94. 3. Zockler, Askese




It seems that man, like many other animals, is naturally-
endowed with a certain tendency to cleanliness or aversion
to filth. Of Caspar Hauser — the boy who had been kept
in a dungeon separated from all communication with the
world from early childhood to about the age of seventeen
— Feuerbach tells us that " uncleanliness, or whatever he
considered as such, whether in his own person or in others,
was an abomination to him." ^ And the savage boy of
Aveyron,' though filthy at first, soon became so scrupu-
lously clean in his habits that " he constantly threw away,
in a pet, the contents of ifis plate, if any particle of
dirt or dust had fallen upon it ; and, after he had
broken his walnuts under his feet, he took pains to clean
them in the nicest and most delicate manner." ^

Many savages are praised for their cleanliness.^ The
Veddahs of Ceylon wash their bodies every few days, as
opportunity occurs.^ Among the South Sea Islanders

1 Feuerbach, Caspar Hauser. p. Erskine, Cruise among the Islands of
62. the Western Pacific, pp. no (Sa-

2 Itard, Account of the Discovery moans ; cf. Turner, Nineteen Years
and Education of a Savage Man, in Polynesia, p. 205), 262, 264
p- 58. (Fiiians). Percy Smith, ' Futuna,'

' Colquhoun, Amongst the Shans, p. in Jour. Polynesian Soc. i. 35.

298 sq. Man, Sonthalia and the Son- Markham, Cruise of the " Rosario,"

thals, p. 84. Foreman, Philippine p. 136 (Polynesians).

Islands, p. 189 (domesticated na- * Nevill, ' Vaeddas of Ceylon,' in

tives).Boyle,Z)yaftso/Bo»'Meo,p.242. Taprobanian, i. 187.



bathing is a very common practice ; the Tahitians bathe in
fresh water once or twice a day,^ and the natives of Ni-afu,
in the Tonga Islands, are said to spend half their life in
the water.2 So, also, many Indian tribes both in North,
Central, and South America are very fond of bathing.^
The Omahas generally bathe every day in warm weather,
early in the morning and at night, and some of them also
at noon.* Among the Guiana Indians it. is a custom for
men and women to troop down together to the nearest
water early in the morning and many times during the
day.* The Tehuelches of Patagonia not only make
morning ablutions and, when encamped near a river,
enjoy bathing for hours, but are also scrupulously careful
as to the cleanhness of their houses and utensils, and will,
if they can obtain soap, wash up everything they may be
possessed of.^ The Moquis and Pueblos of New Mexico
are remarkable both for their personal cleanliness and the
neatness of their dweUings. '' Cleanliness is a common
characteristic of many natives of Africa.^ The Negroes
of the Gold Coast wash their whole persons once, if not
oftener, during the day.^ The Meg6, a people subject
to the Monbuttu, wash two or three times a day, and
when engaged in work constantly adjourn to a neigh-
bouring stream to cleanse themselves.^" The Marutse-
Mabundas, rather than lose* their bath, are always ready

^ Ellis, Polynesian Researches (ed. "Musters, At Home with the Pata-

1829), ii. 113 sq. gonians, p. 173.

' Romilly, Western Pacific, p. 145. ' Bancroft, op. cit. i. 540. See also

' Bancroft, Native Races of the ibid. i. 267 (some Inland Columbians) .

Pacific States, i. 83, 696, 722, 760. * Waitz, Anthropologic der Natur-

Domenech, Seven Years' Residence volher, ii. 86 (Negroes of Accra,

in the Great Deserts of North Amer- Krus), 464 (Western Fulahs). Tor-

ica, ii. 337. von Humboldt, Personal day and Joyce, ' Etlmography of

Narrative of Travels to the Equi- the Ba.-Hua.na.,' in Jour. Anthr. Inst,

noctial Regions of the New Continent, xxxvi. 292. Rowley, Africa Un-

iii. 237 (Chaymas). von Martins, veiled, p. 153. Ashe, Two Kings of

Beitragezur Ethnographic Amerika's, Uganda, p. 305; Wilson and Fel-

i. 600 (Uaupfe), 643 (Macusis). kin, Uganda, i. 184. Casati, Ten

Molina, History of Chili, ii. 118 ; Years in Equatoria, i. 122 (Mon-

Smith, Araucanians, p. 184. Dob- buttu). Holub, Seven Years in

rizlioffer. Account of the Abipones, South Africa, ii. 208 (Manansas).

ii. 53. 9 Cruickshank, Eighteen Years on

* Doisey, ' Omaha Sociology,' in the Gold Coast, ii. 283 sq.

Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethn. iii. 269. ^" Burrows, Land of the Pigmies,

* Im Thurn, Among the Indians of p, 119,
Guiana, p. 191.


to run the risk of being snapped up by crocodiles, and
they are in the habit of keeping their materials in well-
washed wooden or earthenware bowls or in suitable baskets
or calabashes.-*^ The cleanliness of the Dinka in every-
thing that concerns the preparation of food is said to be
absolutely exemplary.^ Among the Bari tribes the dwell-
ings " are the perfection of cleanliness." ^ So also the
Bachapins, a Bechuana tribe, are remarkable for the clean-
liness of their dwellings, showing the greatest carefulness
to remove all rubbish and everything unsightly ; but at
the same time they are lacking in personal cleanHness.*

We commonly find that savages who are clean in
certain respects are dirty in others. The Wanyoro bathe
frequently and always wash their hands before and after
eating, but their dwellings are very filthy and swarm with
vermin.^ The Nagas of India ® and the natives of the
interior of Sumatra, ' though cleanly in their persons, are
very dirty in their apparel. The Mayas of Central
America make frequent use of cold water, but neither in
their persons nor in their dwellings do they present an
appearance of cleanliness.^ So also the Californian Indians,
whilst exceedingly fond of bathing, are unclean about their
lodges and clothing.^ The Aleuts, though they wash
daily, allow dirt to be piled up close to their dwellings,
prepare their food very carelessly, and never wash their
household utensils.^" The New Zealander, again, whilst
not over-clean in his person, is very particular respecting
his food and also keeps his dwelling in as much order as
possible.^ On the other hand there are very many
uncivilised peoples who are described as generally filthy
in their habits — for instance, the Fuegians,^^ many

1 Holub, op. cit. ii. 309. « Bancroft, op. cit. i. 654.

2 Casati, op. cit. i. 44. » Powers, Tribes of California, p.
^ Baker, Albert N'yama, i. 89. 403. Bancroft, op. cit. i. 377, 407.
'Burchell, Travels in the Interior i" Veniaminof, quoted by Dall,

of Southern Africa, ii. 521. 553. Alaska, p. 398. See also Bancroft,

■^ Wilson and Felkin, op. cit. ii. 46. op. cit. i. 267 (Flatheads).

Baker, Albert N'yama, ii. 58. u Dieffenbach, Travels in New

" Stewart, ' Northern Cachar,' in Zealand, ii. 58.

Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, xxiv. 616. 12 Snow, Two Years' Cruise off

' M.ars4pn, ffiftory of Sumatra, p. Tierra del Fuego, i. 345.





Indian tribes in the Pacific States,^ several Eskimo tribes,^
various Siberian peoples,^ the Ainu of Japan,* most hill
tribes in India,^ many Australian tribes,^ the Bushmans,'''
and, generally, the dwarf races of Africa.® But although
these peoples never or hardly ever wash their bodies, or do
not change their dress until it is worn to pieces, or eat out
of the same vessels as their dogs without cleaning them,
or feed on disgusting substances, or regard vermin as a
deHcacy — ^we may assume that their toleration of filth is
not absolutely boundless.

The prevalence of cleanly or dirty habits among a
certain people may depend on a variety of circumstances :
the occupations of life, sufficiency or want of water,
climatic conditions, industry or laziness, wealth or poverty,
religious or superstitious beKefs. Castren observes that
filthiness is a characteristic of fishing peoples ; among the
Ostyaks only those who live by fishing are conspicuous for
their uncleanliness, whereas the nomads and owners of

' Bancroft, op. cit. i. 83, 102, 184,
231, 492, 626.

'^ Ibid. i. 51. Seemann, Voyage of
" Herald," ii. 61 sq. (Western
Eskimo). Kane, Arctic Explora-
tions, ii. 116 (Eskimo of Etah).
Cranz, History of Greenland, i. 155.

' Sarytschew, ' Voyage of Dis-
covery to the North-East of
Siberia,' in Collection of Modern and
Contemporary Voyages, v. 67 (Kam-
chadales). Krashenirmikoff, History
of Kamschatka, pp. 176 (Kam-
chadales), 226 (Koriaks). Sauer,
Expedition to the Northern Parts of
Russia performed by Billings, p. 125
(Jakuts). Georgi, Russia, ii. 398
(Jakuts) ; iii. 59 (Kotoftzes), 112
(Tunguses) ; iv. 37 (Kalmucks), 134
(Burats). Liadov, in Jour, Anthr.
Inst. i. 401 ; Bergmann, Nomad-
ische Streifereien unter den Kal-
miiken, ii. 102, 123 sq. ; Pallas,
quoted in Spencer's Descriptive
Sociology, ' Asiatic Races,' p. 29

*Batchelor, Ainu of Japan, p. 24
sqq. Mac Ritchie, Ainos, p. 12 sq.

' Spencer, Descriptive Sociology,
' Asiatic Races,' p. 29. Grange,
' Expedition into the Naga Hills,' in

Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, ix. 962.
Stewart, ibid. xxiv. 637 (Kukis).
Mason, ' Physical Character of the
Karens,' ibid. xxxv. pt. ii. 25.
Butler, Travels in Assam, p. 98.
Anderson, Mandalay to Momien, p.
131 (Kakhyens). Moorcroft and
Trebeck, Travels in the Himalayan
Provinces, i. 321 (Ladakhis).

' Breton, Excursions in New South
Wales, p. 197. Barrington, History
of New South Wales, p. 19 (natives
of Botany Bay). Angas, Savage Life
in Australia, i. 80 (South AustraUan
aborigines). Chauncy, in Brough
Smyth, Aborigines of Victoria, ii.
284 (West Australian aborigines).

' Mofiat, Missionary Labours in
Southern Africa, p. 15. Barrow,
Travels into the Interior of Southed
Africa, i. 288.

* Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pascha ins
Herz von Afrika, p. 451. For other
instances of uncleanliness in savages
see Crawfurd, History of the Indian
Archipelago, i. 39 ; St. John, Life in
the Forests of the Far East, i. 147
(some of the Land Dyaks) ; Anders-
son, Lahe Ngami, pp. 50 (Herero),
470 (Bechuanas).


reindeer are not.^ It has been observed that the inland
negro is clean when he dwells in the neighbourhood of
rivers.2 In West AustraHa those tribes only which live
hy large rivers or near the sea are said to have an idea of
cleanliness.^ Concerning the filthy habits of the Kukis
and other hill peoples in India, Major Butler remarks that
they may probably be accounted for by the scarcity
of water in the neighbourhood of the villages, as also by
the coldness of the climate.* Dr. Kane believes that
the indifference of many Eskimo to dirt or filth is largely
due to the extreme cold, which by rapid freezing resists
putrefaction and thus prevents the household, with its
numerous dogs, from being intolerable.^ Their well-known
habit of washing themselves with freshly passed urine
arises partly from scarcity of water and the difficulty of
heating it, but partly also from the fact that the ammonia
of the urine is an excellent substitute for soap in
removing the grease wdth which the skin necessarily
becomes soiled.^ A cold climate, moreover, leads to
uncleanliness because it makes garments necessary ;'' and
among some savages the practice of greasing their bodies
to protect the skin from the effects of a parching air
produces a similar result.^ Lord Kames maintains that
the greatest promoter of cleanliness is industry, whereas
its greatest antagonist is indolence. In Holland, he
observes, the people were cleaner than all their neighbours

Online LibraryEdward WestermarckThe origin and development of the moral ideas → online text (page 36 of 89)