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The organization of the early Christian churches : eight lectures delivered before the University of Oxford, in the year 1880 online

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again the Christian communities tended to intensify
the evils which they cured. In the ordinary course
of society orphan girls would have married, and many
widows would have found for themselves a second home.
But there grew up in the Christian communities a
tendency, which many of the great preachers fostered,
towards perpetual virginity and perpetual widowhood.
To marry was indeed not a sin, but it was a confession
of weakness : to marry a second time was almost to
lapse from grace 40 . The number of virgins and widows
for whom the Church had to provide consequently
multiplied in an increasing ratio 41 . In addition to these

Euseb. E. E. 4. 23. 10 ; Clement. Epist. ad Jacob. 9 ; Tertull. Apol. 39, ad
Martyr. 1 ; St. Cyprian. Epist. 7 (36), p. 485, 62 (60), c. 4, p. 700. Const. Apost.
4. 9. 5. 1. Lucian, De Morte Peregrini, 12, caricatures the practice: cf. Libanius,
Orat. 16 in Tisam., Orat. de Vinctis, ii. 258, 445. So much stress was laid upon
it that Ambrose (De Offic. 2. 28) defended, and Justinian (Cod. 1. a. 22) legalized,
the sale of the eucharistic vessels in order to obtain the necessary funds.

39 Herm. Mand. 8. 10, Sim. 1. 8: 5. 3 : 9. 26, 27; St. Ignat. ad Smym. 6, ad
Polyc. 4 ; St. Polycarp. ad Philipp. 4 ; St. Justin M. Apol. 1.67; Clement. Epist.
ad Jacob. 8; Tertull. ad Uxor. 1. 8 ; St. Cyprian, Epist. 7 (36), p. 485 ; Const. A post.
frequently, e.g. 2. 26 : 3, 4, 6, 7, 14; 4, 2, 3, 8 : 8. 29. The claims of women to
special provision had been acknowledged by non-Christian communities; e.g. Le
Bas et Waddington, Nos. 226, 227, 228 = Corpus Inscr. Graec. Nos. 2S86, 28S3 c,
2885 d, are inscriptions in honour of those who had made distributions rati in vaov
yvvai£l /rat rdis rrapOevois.

40 Athenag. Dcprec. 28 6 Sevrepos \_yapoi\ evnpeirris eari /i«x«'« : so ' n effect
Origen, Horn. xvii. in Luc. Tom. iii. p. 953 erl. De la Rue.

41 In addition to providing for widows who were in need, the Church officers
had frequently to tako charge of the property of those who had it (e.g. St. Ambros.
De Officiis Ministr. ii. 29 : cf. 2 Mace. 3. 10, which shows that Jewish widows ha<J

44 Bishops and Deacons. [lect.

were the strangers who passed in a constant stream
through the cities of all the great routes of commerce
in both East and West. Every one of those strangers
who bore the Christian name had therein a claim
to hospitality. For Christianity was, and grew because
it was, a great fraternity. The name ' brother,' by
which a Jew addressed his fellow- Jew, came to be
the ordinary designation by which a Christian ad-
dressed his fellow-Christian 42 . It vividly expressed a
real fact. For driven from city to city by persecution,
or wandering from country to country an outcast or
a refugee, a Christian found, wherever he went, in the
community of his fellow-Christians a welcome and
hospitality. The practice of hospitality was enjoined
as the common virtue of all Christians : in the New
Testament itself stress is laid upon it by St. Paul,
St. Peter, and St. John 43 . But it was a special virtue

been in the habit of taking their money to the Temple), or to defend them in the
civil courts (e.g. Cone. Sardic. c. 7). The civil and the canon law combined to
make the functions which grew out of this an important part of a bishop's duties
in later times.

42 ' Brother,' of one Jew in relation to another, frequently in the Old Testament ;
e.g. Deut. 15. 12 : 17. 15 ; cf. Philo, ii. 285 a5t\<[>ui/ rov dfxoipvKov etntu, and Clem.
Alex. Strom. 2. 18, p. 473, ed. Pott. : so also in the New Testament, e.g. St. Matth.
5. 47 : 18. 15. For its use of Christians see e.g. St. Justin M. Apol. I. 65 ; Tertull.
Apol. 30: Iren. 2. 31. 2 j Clem. Alex. Strom. 2. 9, p. 450: cf. Lucian, De Morte
Peregrini, 13. The word was also used of the fellow-members of non-Christian
associations, e. g. Coo-pus Imcr. Lat. vol. iii. No. 2509. (But after the Arian
controversy it was superseded in general use by the word ' fidelis.')

43 Rom. 12. 13, 'given to hospitality': Heb. 13. 2, 'Be not forgetful to enter-
tain strangers': 1 Pet. 4. 9, 'Use hospitality one to another without grudging' :
3 John 5-7, commends Gaius for his charity to strangers which went forth for
His name's sake, 'taking nothing of the Gentiles.' It was a special qualification
of a widow, 'if she have lodged strangers,' 1 Tim. 5. 10. So in sub-Apostolic
literature: Clement of Rome, i.e. 2, speaks of the splendid hospitality of the
Corinthians, and holds up before them, c. 10-12, for their encouragement, the
examples of the hospitality of the patriarchs.

ii. J Bishops and Deacons. 45

of the eVtV/<:o7ro9. It was for him not so much a
merit as a duty 44 . Travelling brethren, no less than
the poor of his own community, were entitled to a
share in his distribution of the Church funds 45 . It is
natural to find that such a system was abused. The
common weaknesses of human nature asserted them-
selves. Even in Apostolic days there were ' false
brethren :' and later on the Apostolical Canons say in
reference to the practice that 'many things are done
in a spirit of plunder 46 .' But the abuses increased
the responsibility and the importance of the bishop.
A rule was adopted that although the bodily necessities
of travellers might continue to be relieved, no one
should be admitted to hospitality, in the fuller sense
of earlier times, without a certificate of membership
from his own community 47 . The officer who gave this
certificate was the eV/o-/co7ro? — who, in all probability,
also kept the roll: and his responsibility in relation
to it became greater when in course of time it became

44 1 Tim. 3. 2 : Titus r. 8 : cf. the description of a good bishop in Herm. Sim.
9.27: so e. g. St. August. Serm. 355 (Be Divers. 49), Opp. ed. Migne, vol. v. 1570,
* vidi necesse esse habere episcopum exhibere humanitatem quiscunque venienti'ms
sive transeuntibus.'

45 Can. Apost. 41. Conversely, when one church differed with another, its
bishop refused to admit the travelling members of that church to communion, and
if the difference were considerable he denied them even 'board and lodging' ('tec-
tum et hospitium,') as in the case of the difference between the African churches
and Stephen of Home, Epist. Firmil. ap. St. Cyprian. Op. Epist. 75. 25, p. 826.

16 Gal. 2. 4: Can. Apost. 33 iroWci yap kcltcL awafmayty yivtrai : see also c. 5 of
the Council of Nlmes in 394, first published from a Cologne MS. by Knust in
1839, afterwards by e.g. Hefele, ii. 57 'quia inuiti sub specie peregrinationis de
ecclesiarum conlatione luxoriant.'

47 The system of giving such letters, which seems to have also prevailed in the
philosophical Schools, Epict. Diss. 2. 3. 1 ; Diog. Laert. 8. 87, dates from Apostolic
times, Acts 18. 27 : 2 Cor. 3. 1 : but it does not seem to have been obligatory earlier
than Cone. Antioch. a.d. 341, c. 7, afterwards incorporated in Can. Apost. 12. 33.

46 Bishops and Deacons. [lect.

necessary to draw sharper lines of definition round the
circle of admissible beliefs.

In addition to the poor, the widows and orphans, and
the travelling brethren, there was the care of such of the
church officers as, not having means of their own, were
dependent on the Church funds for their subsistence 48 .
The roll of these, as of others, was probably kept by
the bishop : and in the great cities the number of those
who were entered upon it was large even when mea-
sured by a modern standard. We have some indication,
though a late one, of those numbers in the regulation
of the Emperor Justinian which limited the number of
officers for the four great churches of Constantinople
to 525, and enacted that if the bishop ordained more he
should provide for them at his own expense 49 .

Of this vast system of ecclesiastical administration
the €7rlaKOTro9 was the pivot and the centre. His func-
tions in reference to it were of primary importance.
He had no doubt other important functions, of which
I propose to speak on a future occasion : he was the
depositary of doctrine, and he was the president of
the courts of discipline. But the primary character of
these functions of administration is shown by the fact
that the name which was relative to them thrust out
all the other names of his office, and that most of the
abstract names for his office are names which directly
connote administration.

There are two other considerations which so strongly

48 E.g. St. Cyprian. Epid. 41 (108), p. 588: Can. Apost. 4, Const. Apost. 1. 28.

49 Justin. Novell. 3, c. I, 2 : the numbers were to be sixty presbyters, a hundred
deacons, forty deaconesses, ninety sub-deacons, a hundred and ten readers, twenty-
four singers, a hundred doorkeepers.

ii.] Bishops and Deacons. 47

confirm this view that I regret that the necessary limits
of a lecture prevent me from doing more than indicating

1 . In the first place, there is the argument from the
abuses of the office. Just as in the science of physiology
the nature of the functions of an organ is often shown
by its lesions, so the nature of the functions of an
office is often shown by its abuses. But the larger
proportion of all the abuses of the episcopal office which
are provided against in both civil and canon law are
relative to the administration of the Church funds 5U .

2. In the second place, there is the argument from
current conceptions of the nature of the office. No
small part of the eulogies upon bishops, whether by

50 The offerings were in early times at the free disposal of the church officers :
and scandals appear very early, e.g. in the case of the presbyter Valens, at
Philippi (Polycarp. ad Phil, n), and of the deacons mentioned by Hernias {Sim. 9.
26): cf. Origen, Horn. 16 in Matth. c. 22, vol. iii. p. 752. In the fourth century
when administration had come to be centred in the bishops, the Apostolical Con-
stitutions remind them that though there is no human check, they are responsible to
God {Const. A post. 2. 24) : the Council of Antioch, c. 25, the Apostolical Canons,
c. 38-41, the African Code, c. 33, the code known as 'Statuta Ecclesiae Antiqua'
( = 4 Cone. Carth.) c. 31, 32, all find it necessary to remind the bishop that he
is a trustee for the poor, and that he is not at liberty to enrich himself or his
family out of the church funds. In time two checks were devised : (1) the bishop
was compelled to appoint a steward {oIkov6/ao$), Cone. Chalc. c. 26, so that the
administration of the funds should not be without a witness, and the property of
the church be scattered : (2) the offerings were divided in the West according to
a recognized scale, which, however, varied in different churches and at different
times: Cone. Aurel. a.d. 511, c. 14, 15 ; 2 Cone. Brae. a.d. 563, c. 7 ; St. Greg.
M. Epist. 4. 12 ; 12. 31 ; Cone. Emerit. a.d. 666, c. 14; ps-Gelas. Epist. ad Episc.
Lucan. c. 27, ap. Hinschius, JJecretales pseudo-Isidorianae, p. 650, which embodied
the ultimate rule of the canon law. In the civil law, the chief enactments are
those of Justinian, Cod. 1. 2. 14; 1. 3. 4 ; 2. 8. 7, and especially Novell. 3. 69,
which requires that none but childless persons shall be appointed, to prevent the
alienation of church property in favour of a bishop's children. (For a convenient
and trustworthy modern account of the bishop's relation to the administration
of Church funds see Loning, Geschichte dee deutschen Kirchenrechts, Bd. i. pp.

48 Bishops and Deacons. [lect.

contemporary writers, or by their biographers, or upon
their epitaphs, are relative to their care of the distressed,
and to their protectorate of the widow and orphan 51 .
They are summed up in the emphatic declaration of
St. Jerome : ' The glory of a bishop is to relieve the
poverty of the poor 5 V

There was probably a time in the history of the
Christian Church at which these functions of admin-
istration were the functions of a single class of officers.
The conception of the nature of Church office which is
found in the New Testament is divisible into two
parts — that of presidency and that of ministry. But

51 In livea of bishops, e. g. St. Pontii Vita S. Cyprian, c. 6 ; Bymnus in Natalf
S. Zenon., Proleg. ad Op. ed. Ball. p. cxciv ; St. Paulin. Vita S. Ambros. c. 30 ; Posaid.
Vita S. Augustin. c. 23: Uranii Epist. de obitu, S. Paulin. Nolan, c. 6, 7; te-
nant. Fortun. Vit. S. German. Paris, c. 74 ; Joann. Diac. Vita S. Greg. M. ii. 55,
57; Pauli Emerit. De Vita Patrum Emerit. c. 8 (ap. Migne, Patr. Lat. vol. lxxx.
135) ; Anon. Vita S. Desider. Cadure. c. 9 (ap. Migne, vol. Ixxxvii. 227) ; Anon.
Vita S. Elig. ii. 25 (ap. Dachery, Spicilegium, vol. ii. 113), where the people are
represented as crying out at his funeral, ' Eligi, dulcedo tu pauperum, fortitudo
debilium, tu protector et impar egentium consolator : quis post te eleemosynam
sicut tu dabit largam : vel quis nostri erit protector sicut tu, bone pastor V On
epitaphs, e.g. ap. De Rossi, Bullefino di Arch. Christiana, 1864, p. 55 ' Haec mihi
cura fuit nudos vestire petentes, Fundere pauperibus quidquid concesserat annus:'
St. Tetricus of Dijon, ap. Le Blant, Inscriptions Chretiennes de la Gaule, No. 3,
' Esca inopum, tutor viduarum, cura minorura, Omnibus officiis omnia pastor eras : '
a bishop of Gaeta, circ. a.D. 529, ap. Mommsen, Insrr. Regni Neapolitani, No.
4138 ' Hospitibus gratus se ipsum donavit egenis, Illosque eloquio hos satiavit

53 St. Hieron. Epist. 52 (2) ad Nepot. c. 6. vol. i. p. 261, ed. Vail. A third con-
sideration may probably be added to the above, viz. that the Gnostics seem to have
had no organized system of philanthropy : (as a corollary of this, they, with the
exception of the Marcionites, did not apply to their officers the name of either
bishop or deacon : cf. (Munter) Versuch uber die kirchl. Allerthumcr der Gnosfi-
ker, p. 1 2 : for their actual organization, see a recent treatise by Koffmane, Die
Gnosis nach ihrer Tendenz und Organization, Ereslau, 1881). The contrast between
orthodox and heterodox teachers in respect of philanthropy is probably made first
by St. Ignat. ad Smyrn. 6. 2.

II.] Bishops and Deacons. 49

the two parts are not yet divided : the favourite terms
by which St. Paul designates himself and his work
are those of ' minister ' and ' ministry 5 V But very soon
a division of labour became imperative. Early in the
history of the community at Jerusalem ' seven men of
honest report' had been appointed to relieve the Apostles
of the 'business' of serving tables. No title is given
to these men : their work, like the work of Matthias,
or the work of Archippus, is spoken of as a ' ministry :'
but they themselves are only ' the seven 5 V But they
served as the prototype of a class of officers who were
soon forced into existence, and who have since been
permanent in the Christian Churches. For before the
Apostolic age had passed we find not one class of
officers but two. The one was that of which I have
already spoken — the eTrlo-KOTroi : the other was that of
the ministers — or Skxkovoi. The two classes are in
close relatiou : they are for the most part spoken of
together : in the Pastoral Epistles the qualifications of
the one are difficult to distinguish from the quali-
fications of the other : and it is not until we pass from
the Apostolic age to that which succeeded it, that the
nature of the division of labour between them becomes
clearly defined.

The landmarks amid a sea of floating evidence are
Justin Martyr and Poly carp in the middle of the second

** Aia/fovoy, Sianovia, Rom. II. 13 ; 1 Cor. 3. 5; 2 Cor. 3. 6; 4. I ; 6. 3, 4 ; II.
8, 33; Ephea. 3. 7; Col. 1. 23, 25.

54 Acts 6. 3, 'seven men of honest report,' ib. 21. 8, 'one of the seven:' Siaicovia
is used of ' the daily ministration' ib. 6. 1, and of ' the ministry of the word*
ib. 6. 4, cf. SiaKovuv rpanifais, ' to serve tables,' ib. 6. 2 : it is also used, with
anoaroXT), of the office of Matthias, ib. 2. 25, and of Archippus, Col. 4. 17.


50 Bishops and Deacons. [lect.

century, and the Clementines at the beginning of the

i. In the general meetings of the community, as
they are described by Justin Martyr, the offerings
were received and blessed by one officer, but they
were distributed among the people by others 55 . The
name which those who distributed bore (Skxkovoi) was
not only a common name for those who served at table,
but seems to have been specially applied to those
who at a religious festival distributed the meat of the
sacrifice among the festival company 56 . In this respect
the deacons held a place which they have never lost :
in all Churches which have been conservative of ritual,
those who assist the presiding officer at the Eucharist
are known — whatever be their actual status, archbishop,
bishop, or presbyter — as deacon and sub-deacon.

2. Outside the general meetings, as we gather from
clear statements of the Clementines, the division of
labour was closely analogous. The alms for the relief
of those who were in distress were in the hands of the
bishop : but the officers who actually sought them out
and relieved their necessities were the deacons 57 .

3. But both the Clementines and the letter of Poly-
carp show, what must also be inferred from the Pastoral
Epistles, that the deacons shared with the bishop and

65 Justin M. Apol. 1. 55, 57.

56 An inscription at Anactorium {Corpus Inter. Graec. No. 1793 6. add.) gives a
list of the officers of a festival : they are the Upo&vrris, who sacrificed the victims,
the fiayapos, who cooked or carried the portions that were to be eaten, the Si&kovos,
who distributed the flesh, the apxtoiv6xoos, who distributed the wine. Deacons and
deaconesses are also found as officers of a temple at Metropolis, in LviHa, 0. 1. G.
No. 3037.

67 Clement, Epist. ad Jacob. 5, Horn. 3. 67 : cf. Const. Apost. 3. 19.

II.] Bishops and Deacons. 51

his council the duties not only of administration but of
discipline. Of the nature of that discipline something
will be said in the succeeding Lecture : the relation of
the deacons to it was analogous to their relation to ad-
ministration : in the latter sphere of action the bishop
was in the position of a chairman and treasurer, the
deacons in that of outdoor relieving officers : in the
former the bishop and his council were in the position
of superintendents and judges, the deacons in that of
officers of enquiry 68 .

Between these two classes of officers the relation was
necessarily one of subordination : though the subor-
dination was by no means so great as it afterwards

58 St. Polycarp. ad Philipp. 5 ofxoiws Stanovoi dfttfi-irroi Ka.rtvwTtt.ov avrov rrjs
oiHaioawrjs, (lis Qeov not Xpiorov Si&kovoi /ecu ovk dv9punwv fi^ otafiuAot, fifj SiKoyoi,
a<pt\6.pfvpoi, iyKpaTfts rrtpl iravra, tvanXayxvoi, imptKHs, noptvofxtvoi kotcI ttjv
d\rj0(iav rov Kvpiov bs tyivero Smhovos tt&vtcuv. These characteristics, which
closely resemble those given in 1 Tim. 3. 8-12, clearly imply disciplinary duties:
the deacons are to be ' blameless,' in order that they may be themselves, like the
bishops, free from the faults which they are to note in others ; they are to be ' not
slanderers, nor double-tongued,' because they stood in the relation of accusers.
Their functions in this respect are clearly stated in the Clementines, Epist. ad
Jacob. I 2 : they are to be the bishop's ' eyes,' reporting to him any one who seems
to be in danger of sinning, ' in order that being admonished by the president he
may perhaps not accomplish his sin:' ibid. Horn. 3. 67, they are to go about
among the brethren and report to the bishop about the souls as well as the bodies
of the brethren. Similarly in the Apostolical Constitutions, e.g. 3. 19, 'you
deacons ought to keep watch over all who require w atching, and also in the case
of those who are in distress, and to report to your bishop : ' the lighter cases the
deacon might, on the deputation of the bishop, decide by himself, ibid. 2. 44.
The existence of disciplinary powers on the part of the deacons is also clearly im-
plied in St. Cyprian, Epist. 14 (5), p. 512, ed. Hartel, 16 (9), p. 520; 17 (11), p.
522 : they might in certain cases readmit penitents, ibid. 18 (12), p. 524. There
is the same combination of functions in the Damasine inscription on a Roman
archdeacon, 'primus levitarum,' which has recently been brought to light again by
De I-iossi {Roma Sotteranea, vol. iii. p. 242) :

' Non ilium sublimiB honor non extulit ordo

Edomuit rigidos plus pietate magis,
J usticiae cultor, vitae servator honestae,

Pauperibus dives, sed sibi pauper erat.'
E 2

52 Bishops and Deacons. [leot.

became 59 . For in course of time while, on the one
hand, the status of the bishop was raised by causes
which will be explained in a subsequent Lecture, the
status of the deacons, on the other hand, came to be
affected by two circumstances : in the first place, when
the analogy between the Christian ministry and the
Mosaic priesthood asserted itself, the deacons were
regarded as corresponding to the Levites, and as being
thereby subordinate to bishops and presbyters, in the
same way as Levites had been to priests : in the second
place, the increase of the scale upon which the Christian
Churches existed, and the increase, which was in a still
greater proportion, of the number of those for whom
the Christian Churches undertook to provide, brought
about a change, which has since become permanent, in
the mode of relieving the distressed. In primitive
times every case of poverty or suffering had been sepa-
rately known to the bishop, and personally relieved by
the deacon ; in later times grew up the system of insti-

M The Apostolical Constitutions, 2. 30, compare the relation to that which
existed between Moses and Aaron. At Rome, when a bishop was in peril of im-
mediate martyrdom, it was to a deacon, and not to his council of presbyters, that
he committed the church funds : so Cornelius to Stephen, Libw Fontificalis, Vit.
S. Cornel, p. 22 : Lucius to the same Stephen, ibid., Vit. S. Lucii. p. 23 : Stephen
himself to Sixtus, ibid., Vit. S. Steph. p. 24. Hence when Sixtus was martyred,
the civil authorities naturally supposed his deacon Laurence to be in possession of
the church funds, and arrested him with the view of compelling him to surrender
them (S. Ambros. de Offic. ii. 41). And, also at Rome, it was so much the custom
that a deacon, and not a presbyter, should be elected bishop that in the blank
forms of the certificates of election which are given in the Liber Diumus, ii. 3, 4,
pp. 14, 17, ed. Gain., the word ' archidiaconum ' is inserted after the blank which
is left for the name of the newly-elected bishop : there is a curious illustration of
the same fact in the reason which Eulogius of Alexandria (ap. Phot. Biblioth.
Cod. 280, Migne, Pair. Gr. vol. civ, 354) gives for the opposition of Novatian to
Cornelius, viz. that Cornelius had ordained him as presbyter, and thereby taken
away his legitimate expectation of succession to the bishopric.

ii.] Bishops and Deacons. 53

tutions. The sick Christian, at least in the great cities,
was no longer visited by the deacon bringing him from
the church his share in the church offerings : the whole
body of the sick poor were gathered together into
hospitals : orphans were gathered into orphan-homes :
infants into infant-asylums : the aged into almshouses .
the poor into poor-houses : and strangers into guest-
houses 60 - Each of these institutions was managed bv
its appropriate officers 61 . The deacons do not appear

*■" HoffoKOfiua. are mentioned in Pallad., Vit. S. Chrysost., c. 5, Justin. Cod. 1. 2.
15 : first established in the West by Fabiola according to St. Hieron. Epist. 77 (30)
ad Ocean, vol. i. 461, ed. Vail. : Ifxpavorpo^eta, Cod. Justin. Cod., 1.2. 19 ; Novell.
17.1: Leo, Novell. 84 : ppttporpotytia, Justin. Cod. 1. 2. 19, 22 ; Novell. 7. 1 : ftpov
roKopiela, Justin. Cod. 1. 2. 19: Novell. 7. i: nrcoxoTpcxpcTa, vrwxfta, St. Basil.
Epist. 142 (374), c. 8, p. 235 ; St. Greg. Naz., Epist. 211, vol. 11, p. 176, ed. Ben. ;
Sozom. H. E. 4. 20; Cone. Chalc. c. 8 ; Justin. Cod. 1. 2. 15, 1. 2. 19, 1. 2. 33, § 7 ;
£tvodoxfia St. Chrys. Horn- 45 in Act. c. 4, Op. ed. Migne, vol. ix. 319;
Epiph. Haeres. 75, p. 905; Justin. Cod. 1. 2. 15, 19, 22, 33, Novell. 59. 3, 131.
10; Theodoret. II. E. 5. 19; St. Augustin. Tract. 97 in Joann. c. 4, Op. ed.
Migne, vol. iii. 1879 ; St. Hieron. Epist. 66 (26) in Pammach. c. 11, Op. vol. i. 401.
For the splendid foundation of Basil, see St. Greg. Naz. Orat. 43 in laudem Basil. M.
e. 63, Op. vol. i. 816 ; Sozora. H. E. 6. 34 : and for the imitation of the Christian

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