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CITIES OF THE WORLD.



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11



VIEWS IN SAN FRANCISCO.

1, The Hall of Becords (North-west View) ; 2, Bank of California ; 3, Baldwin Hotel ; 4, Stock Exchange ;
5, The Lotta Fountain (looking West into Geary Street).



CITIES OF THE WORLD:



THEIR ORIGIN, PROGRESS, AND PRESENT ASPECT.



BY



EDWIN HODDER, F.R.G.S.,

AUTHOR OF " THE LIFE AND WORK OF THE SEVENTH EARL OF SHAFTESBl'RY, K.G.," ETC*



CAS SELL & COMPANY, LIMITED

LONDON, PARIS, NEW YORK 4- MELBOURNE.

[ALL BIGHTS RESERVE!-.]



ncroh Ubrary



CONTENTS.



SAN FRANCISCO. (By M. F. SWEETSER.)



California Sir Francis Drake The Spanish Galleons The Franciscan Missions Indians Converted and Dying
The Russians and the Hudson's Bay Company Conquest by the United States Discovery of Gold The Great
Immigration The Vigilance Committee Building a Town Site The Bay The Golden Gate The Docks Exports
The Italian Fleet Clipper-ships Local Manufactures Telegraph Hill Spanishtown Lone Mountain Kearney
and Montgomery Streets The Great Hotels California Street The Millionnaires Gambling The World-City
The Chinese Customs The Six Companies Chinatown Pagan Worship Asiatic Festivals The Christian Pro-
paganda The " Hoodlum "Theatres Woodward's Gardens Libraries Local Authors Newspapers Art The
Primitive Godlessness The Rising Churches Mission Dolores Charities The Hebrews The Climate The Trade
Winds Flowers and Trees A New Race Earthquakes Oakland The Mountains Golden Gate Park The Cliff
House The Fortifications The Dawn of Local Pride and Power 1

ROUEN.

Origin and Progress of the City Cotton Industry Situation The Old Town Modern Improvements Introduction
of Christianity The Cathedral : its Historical and Legendary Associations Among the Tombs Church of St.
Ouen A Tragical Story Other Churches of Rouen The Palais 'de Justice The Markets A Dragon Story -The
Place de la Pucelle, and Joan of Arc The Cloche d' Argent Fountains Gates Biographical Reminiscences-
Bridges 32

MADRID.

The River Manzanares Site of Madrid Its Early History and Development Aspect of the City The Puerta del
Sol The Streets and Public Places Scenes in the Plaza Mayor Autos de Fe Terrors of the Inquisition The
Prado The Churches of Madrid The Legend of Our Lady of Atocha The Palaces The Museum, and its
Marvellous Collection of Pictures Pleasure-places A Bull-fight The Escorial 55

CAIRO.

The Capital of Arabdom The "Victorious City" Fostat Improvements by Saladin The Mameluke Sovereignty-
Modern Cairo The Ezbekeeyeh Palaces of the Khedive The Citadel The Glory of the "After-glow" A Mar-
vellous View Mosques in the Citadel The Massacre of the Mamelukes Bazaars Oriental Customs Religious
Festivals Legendary Sites The Nile Nilometer Island of Roda Boulak and its Museum Heiiopolis The
Virgin's Tree The Pyramids The Sphinx Education in Egypt A School Interior Public Schools The Uni-
versity Population Copts and their Worship Fellaheen and their Cruel Bondage Taxation 83

TORONTO AND QUEBEC. (By M. F. SWEETSER.)

TORONTO : The Site The Harbour Governor Simcoe The Esplanade The Railways The Foundation of the City
The MacNab Old Wine in New Bottles The Streets Imperial Highways Yonge Street The North Osgoode
Hall Parliament House The Great Province The University Trinity College Knox College Upper Canada
College Queen's Park A Group of Veterans St. James's The American Attack The Canadian Cities.
QrKBEC: Its Topography The St. Lawrence River Business of the Port A Bric-d-Brac City The Citadel
A Cry of Wonder The New Forts The Walls of the City The Queen's Gift The Rampart DullVrin Terrace A
View in Lower Canada An Historic Sketch The Name Quebec The Discoverers Champluin Founds the City
Cargoes of Demoiselles Frontenac's Defiance The Fruitless American Siege Lord Dnfterin's Plans The
Basilica Champlain, Frontenac, and Laval- The Market Square The Jesuits The Seminary Laval University
The Ursuline Convent -The H6tel Dicu The Anglican Cathedral A Horn and a Prince Sutler Parliament
House The Lower Town Notre Dame des Victoires The Extra-mural Wards The British Victory on the
Plains of Abraham The Environs Lorctte Falls of Montmorenei Beauport La Bonne Ste. Anne The Isle
of Orleans ... 109

MARSEILLES,

An Ancient Mariner A Curious Wedding Karly and Later History of Marseilles The Marseillaise Hymn Present
Aspect of the City The Place Neuve- The Streets with their Legendary and Historical Associations The Prado
The Wonders of the Corniche Road Commerce of the City The Port Churches and Church Tradition-
Pageants and Festivals St. Victor Notre Dame de la Garde Fortifications Disappearance of Antiquities of
Marseilles The Tour de St. Paul Hotel d.T Villc The Palais dc Longchamps Hospitals and other Charitable
Institutions Local Industries The Great Men of Marseilles . . . 118



VI CITIES OY THE WOELD.

CALCUTTA, AND THE CITIES OF THE GANGES.

PAGE

Approach to Calcutta History Drawbacks The Maidan Fort William Government House The Strand Bazaars-
Places of Worship Missionary Memorials Barrackpore Serampore. MURSHIDABAD : The Ancient Capital of
Bengal The Garden of Happiness-Commerce. PATNA. BENARES: Its Antiquity Buddhism The Gh4ts
Sacred Bulls-Shrines Temples and Holy Places The Monkey Temple The Burning Ghat Story of Suttee.
ALLAHABAD : During the Mutiny Akbar's Fort A Pilgrim Festival. AGRA : The Capital of the Mogul Empire
The Citadel of Akbar The Audience Hall The Imperial Palace The Pearl Mosque The Taj Mahal Akbar's
Tomb at Sikundra. DELHI : Its Long History Its Architecture Palace of Shah Jehan During the Mutiny.
LUCKNOW : The British Residency The Imambara Recent Improvements. CAWNPORE : The Massacre The
Memorial Garden. History of the Cities of the Ganges 159

MUNICH AND NUREMBERG.

MUNICH : Church Possessions The Bridge at Vohring Foundation of Munich Development Munich of To-day
The Old and New Towns The Theresaen Wiese Churches The Palace The Max- Joseph-Platz The
Butcher's Leap The Ministry of War Statues, Obelisks, and Fountains The Gallery of Sculpture Picture
Galleries Bavarian National Museum. NUREMBERG : Early History- Cunning Craftsmen Witty Inventions
The Spirit of Poetry and Art The Bridge across the Pegnitz The Konigs-Strasse Picturesque Architecture-
Houses of Celebrities Albrecht Dlirer Hans Sachs Statues and Fountains The Old Rathhaus and its Memories
The Thirty Years' War The Castle Church of St. Sebald -Legends of St. Sebald Church of St. Lawrence
The Graves of Albrecht Diirer and Hans Sachs The Seilersgasse Relics The Library The City of Toys The
Venice of Germany 200

ST. PETERSBURG.

Peter the Great and his New Capital The Building of the City Inundations Streets and Street Scenes Cathedral of
St. Isaac The Fortress Church of St. Peter and St. Paul Story of Prince Alexis Peter's Boat Our Lady of
Kazan Churches and Monasteries Russian Heroes and their Tombs Royal Palaces, and Stories concerning
them The Czar Nicholas The Police and the Actor A Curious Code of Etiquette Picture-Hunting The
Hermitage The Cottage of Peter the Great Monuments Government Departments and Civic Institutions-
Curiosities of the Museum Libraries Feasting and Fasting Scenes on the Neva The Futuie 226

PEKIN

Early History Situation Cities within the City -On the Walls Beauty and Decay THE TARTAR CITY The Gates-
Military Defences General Appearance The Observatory Temple of Letters -Street Scenes Tribunal of Rites
Temple of Confucius Life and Teaching of the Philosopher Temple of the Thousand Lamas THE YELLOW
CITY The Bell Tower Temple of Fa-qua Sea of Roses The Coal Mountain A Tragic Story Buddhist Temples
THE RED, OR PROHIBITED CITY Imperial Palace The Grand Place Elephant Stables Roman Catholic
Mission Stations The Jesuits THE CHINESE CITY Streets and Shops, Trades and Tradesmen, Buyers and
Sellers The Place of Execution The Altar of Heaven The Altar of Shinnung, Founder of Agriculture
Chinese Beggars Pekin after Dark Marriages and Funerals Environs of Pckin European Cemeteries Altars,
Temples, and Palaces The Great Wall of China Canal System 251

LYONS.

IP Roman Times Successes and Reverses The City of To-day The Place Bellccour Principal Districts and Streets
The Fortress of St. John Legend of the Tour de la Belle-Allemande Rousseau in Lyons The Quays The
River and its Bridges- Clerical Influence Religious History of the City Churches, their Vicissitudes and
Associations The Cathedral Pilgrim Church of Notre Dame de Fourvieres- View from the Terrace Hotel
de Ville Bourse and other Public Buildings- Industries Silk-weaving and Weavers 275

CHICAGO. (BY M. F. SWEETSEE.)

The Red Men of the Prairies The Pioneers of France The Fur Traders The Massacre of the Garrison The
Anglo-Saxon Advance A Mournful Exodus The Rising Tide of Population The Great Fire of 1871 The March
of the Flames -Anarchy and Panic Driven into Lake Michigan The Loss -The Civic Phoenix Commerce
The River and its Fleet The Main Streets Public Buildings Lake Park The Refinements of Civilisation-
Newspapers The Churches The Residence Quarters The Schools Douglas The Urban Parks The Granaries
A City of Cattle The Trade in Timber The W r ater-works Problems in Drainage-The Great Western
Railway System- The Parks and Boulevards Suburban Towns- The Prairie 295



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



SAN FRANCISCO :

Views in San Francisco . . . .Frontispiece

The Hall of Records (North-west View).

Bank of California.

Baldwin Hotel.

Stock Exchange.

The Lotta Fountain (looking West into Geary
Street).

Union Square, San Francisco 1

Natural Bridge, Farallone Islands .... ib.

San Francisco and the Bay 5

Plan of San Francisco 9

Washington Alley 13

The City Hall 16

Montgomery Street The Palace Hotel in the

Distance 17

Interior of a Chinese Joss-house 21

The Old Church of Mission Dolores, built in 1776 . 25
Fisherman's Bay, Farallone Islands .... 31

ROUEN :

The Arms of Rouen

Rouen, from St. Catherine's Hill. . to face page

Plan of Rouen

Rouen Cathedral (West Front)

Tomb of Louis dc Breze

The Church of St. Ouen

The Palais de Justice

The Place de la Pucelle

Hotel Bourgtheroude

Rue de la Grosse Horloge

The Quai des Meules



MADRID :

The Royal Stables .
Plan of Madrid ....
Aguador on the Puerta del Sol
View of Madrid



32
33
33
36
37
40
44
45
48
49
53

55
57
60
61



Fountain of Neptune 61

Fountain of the Four Seasons, Prado ... 65

The Royal Palace 68

Statue of Philip IV. on the Plaza de Oriente . . 69

Nurses on the Prado 72

The Armoury 73

Velasquez 77

The Escorial to face page 79

Entry of the Bull-fighters into the Arena ... 80

The Bull-fight : Leaping the Barrier .... 81

The Plaza de Toros s-_>

CAIRO :

Old Cairo, from the Isle of Rod a 83

Sphinx from the Serapenm ib.

Mashrebceyeh or Lattice Window in Cairo . . 8f



CAIRO (continued) :

The Citadel of Cairo 8.5

Plan of Cairo 88

Roumeyleh Place, with the Mosque of Hassan

to face page 89

Public Drinking Fountain 89

The Nile at Old Cairo 92

The Tombs of the Caliphs !

The Nilometer 95

The Island of Roda 96

The Great Pyramid and the Sphinx .... 100
The Second and Third Pyramids . . . .101
Entrance to the Pyramid of Cheops . . . .104

Obelisk of the Temple of the Sun at Heliopolis . 105

TORONTO AND QUEBEC:

The Arms of Toronto 109

Map of Toronto 113

King Street 116

The Colleges of Toronto :

Trinity College 117

University College ib.

Upper Canada College ib.

Knox College ib.

Normal School Buildings ib.

St. James's Church 121

The Citadel and Ramparts of Quebec :

St. John's Gate 125

Inside Gate ib.

Citadel from the Wharf ib.

Old Hope Gate, Block, and Guard House . . ib.

Kent Gate ib.

Shell Guns ib.

Chain Gate i b.

Plan of Quebec 128

Dufferin Terrace and Laval University, Quebec

Beaupre and Laurcntian Mountains in tlio

Distance to face pnijc 129

Old French House 129

The Esplanade 133

Market-place ib.

Caleche, or Canadian Hansom 136

Champlain Steps 140

Views in Quebec:

Laval University and Grand Battery . . .Ill

The Spot where Montgomery FeD . . ib.

Beauport Church ib.

Parliament Building ib.

The Seminary ib.

Jesuit College, Fabriqiie Street (lately di-mo-i

lished) ib.

The Falls of Montinorenei H">

Kfartello Tower on the Plains of Abraham . . 147



VI 11



PAGE

MARSEILLES :

The Arms of Marseilles 148

Plan of Marseilles 152

The Cathedral of Marseilles 153

General View of Marseilles 157

The Harbour, Marseilles 165

CALCUTTA, AXD THE CITIES OP THE GANGES :

Diamond Harbour, on the Hooghly . . . .169

The Port of Calcutta 172

The Esplanade, Calcutta . . .to face page 173

Calcutta Water-carriers 173

House in the European Quarter 177

Map of Calcutta and the Ganges 181

The Festival of Ganesa, Benares .... 184
Window of the Man Munder, Benares . . .185

Gardens of the Taj Mahal, Agra 189

The Mausoleum of Akbar, Sikundra . . . .192
The Throne-room in the Palace of Delhi . . .193
The British Residency, Lucknow .... 196
The Martiniere, Lucknow 197

MUNICH AND NUREMBERG :

The Towers of Munich Cathedral . . . .200

Munich 201

The Marienplatz, with Old and New Hathhaus . 205

The City Walls, Nuremberg 209

The House of Hans Sachs 212

The Beautiful Fountain 213

The Hangman's Passage 210

Tomb of St. Sebald, Nuremberg . . to face page 217

St. Sebald's Church 217

The Parsonage of St. Sebald's Church . . .219
The Karolinen-Strasse and Church of St. Law-
rence . . . 220

Plan of Nuremberg 221

Porch of the Frauenkirche 224

The Menagerie Tower 225

ST. PETERSBURG:

The Arms of St. Petersburg 226

Plan of St. Petersburg 228

The Cathedral of St. Isaac 229

The Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan . . .232

The Nevski Prospect 233

The Winter Palace 237

The Statue of Peter the Great , 240



ST. PETERSBURG (continued) :

The Column of Alexander, St. Petersburg

to face page 243

The Triumphal Arch of Narva 245

The Nicolai Bridge across the Neva .... 249

PEKIN :

Triumphal Arch on the Bridge over the Lakes of

the Palace 251

Pekin : The Tartar City 253

The Tsien-Men Gate 256

Plan of Pekin 257

Chinese Mandarin 261

Mussulman Mosque (now disused) in the Red City 264

Entrance to the Temple of the Moon .... 265

Street Scene in Pekin . . . . to face page 267

Chinaman Selling the Pekin Gazette .... 269

Pekin Tragedians 272

LYONS : -

The Arms of Lyons 275

Lyons 277

General View of Lyons . . . . to face page 281

The Place Perrache . 281

The Place Bellecour 284

Plan of Lyons 285

Notre Dame de Fourvieres 289

The H6tel de Ville .293

CHICAGO :

Chicago River, from Rush-Street Bridge . . . 295

Plan of Chicago 297

Lake-Shore Drive 300

The Arms of Chicago 301

Views in Chicago :

Court-House 305

State Street N., from Madison Street . . . ib.

Interior of Chamber of Commerce . . . ib.

Chamber of Commerce ib.

Custom-house and Post-office .... ib.

St. James's Episcopal Church 308

University of Chicago 309

Chicago Water-works 313

Views in Chicago :

View in South Park 317

Rustic Bridge ib.

Douglas Monument ib.

Swan Island ib.

Washington Square ib.




Trinity Church.



UNION SQUABE, SAN FRANCISCO.



Emanuel Synagogue,



CITIES OF THE WORLD.



SAN FRANCISCO.

California Sir Francis Drake The Spanish Galleons The Franciscan Missions Indians Converted and Dying The
Russians and the Hudson's Bay Company- Conquest by the United States Discovery of GoldThe Great Immigration
The Vigilance Committee Building a Town Site The Bay The Golden Gate The Docks Exports The Italian
Fleet Clipper-ships Local Manufactures Telegraph Hill Spanishtown Lone Mountain Kearney and Montgomery
Streets The Great Hotels California Street The Millionnaires Gambling- The World-City The Chinese-Customs
The Six Companies Chinatown -Pagan Worship Asiatic Festivals The Christian Propaganda The " Hoodlum "-*
Theatres Woodward's Gardens- Libraries -Local Authors Newspapers Art The Primitive Godlessness The Rising
Churches Mission Dolores Charities The Hebrews The Climate The Trade Winds Flowers and Trees A New

Race Earthquakes Oakland The Mountains -Golden Gate Park The Cliff
House The Fortifications The Dawn of Local Pride and Power.

BOUT midway between Central America and Alaska, and
on a line drawn from the Sandwich Islands to Quebec
(nearly equi-distant from either of those points), there
is a notable break in the American coast-line of the
Pacific. A deep and narrow sfrait cuts through the iron-
bound shore, and gives entrance to a spacious gulf, whose
waters penetrate for many leagues into a rich and beautiful
country, prolific in grain, wiue, and gold, and blessed with
a climate of wonderful serenity. The peninsula formed
by this gulf on the east and the Pacific Ocean on the
NATURAL BRIDGE, FARALLONE ISLANDS. west is nearly forty miles long, with an average width
41




CITIES OF THE WOKLD. [San Francisco.

of above twelve miles; and on its northern point, where it narrows to four miles across,
and is bounded by the ocean, the strait, and the gulf, stands the city of San Francisco,
the chief port of the western coast of the Americas, the metropolis of the State of California,
and a city of nearly a quarter of a million of inhabitants.

The name California, which has for several decades been heard so much throughout
the world, was invented by an obscure Spanish romance-writer, and appeared in his semi-
chivalric story (written about the time Cortez conquered the Mexican Empire), as applied
to an imaginary land on the north-west of the Aztec dominions. The term was soon affixed
to the great mountainous peninsula whose rugged shores front the Pacific; and the present
American State subsequently received the name of Upper California. But many silent
years passed away before this mysterious realm was visited by Christian men. Cabrillo's
caravels crept timidly up the coast in 1542; and in 1579 that gallant mariner of Bideford
town, Sir Francis Drake, with his ships laden deep under the plundered treasures of Mexican
and Peruvian fleets and cities, cast anchor in a harbour near the Bay of San Francisco.
There are people who believe that the present name of the city is but a Spanish and
Catholic modification of Sir Francis's Bay, commemorating the name and the explorations
of the valiant English sailor. Nearly twenty years later the Spanish galley San Augustin,
sailing from Manilla to examine the route of the treasure-galleons, was wrecked on this
coast; and its pilot, by strange chance saved from the sea and the savages, conducted
a naval expedition from Acapulco to the disastrous shore.

At the close of the long and desperate wars between England and France, in 1763,
the former Power remained in control of the great French colonies in Asia and America
Pondicherry and Canada and her navigators were everywhere exploring more distant
seas, to establish new centres of British power. Spain, suddenly aroused to a fear lest
these intrepid sea-kings should seize upon the neglected coast of California, made
haste to send religious colonies there, hoping to found new cities and provinces, which
should avert the imagined danger. From the prayerful cloisters of San Fernando, groups
of ascetic Franciscan monks, the Methodists of Catholicism, moved forward into the
unknown land, attended by little bauds of soldiers, and founded the Missions, primarily
intended for the Christianisatiou of the heathen tribes, and after that to be the nuclei
of new Spanish cities. Chief among these dark-robed evangelists were Junipero Serra
and Padre Palou, from Majorca, in the Mediterranean grim, patient, and self-abnegating
heroes of the Cross. From the first-founded Mission, San Diego, a band of monks and
soldiers marched northward for several days, in 1769, until they discovered the Golden
Gate and the Bay. Palou thus recorded what he considered the miracle of the event :
"As soon as I read this news, I attributed their failure to find the harbour of Monterey
to a Divine disposal that they should continue their course until they should arrive at
the port of San Francisco, for the reason that I am about to state : When the venerable
father, Friar Junipero, was consulting with the illustrious inspector-general, about the
first three Missions which we directed him to found in his New California, seeing the
names and the patrons which he had assigned to them, he said to him, f Sefior, and is
there no Mission for our Father ?' [St. Francis], to which Galvez replied, ' If St. Francis de-
sires a Mission, let him see that his port is found, and it will be placed there/ The expedition



San Francisco.] THE MISSION AND THE INDIANS.

went up, arrived at the port of Monterey, stopped and planted the cross, without any of
the party recognising it ; went up forty leagues farther, found the port of our Father St.
Francis, and recognised it immediately by its agreement with the marks they had. In
consideration of these facts, what shall we say but that our Father wished to have a
Mission at his port ? "

In 1775 the San Carlos, under command of Lieutenant Ayala, sailed into the Bay
of San Francisco, and remained there forty days, exploring the delightful shores and
streams, and the vast and fruitful solitudes which surrounded the inland sea. This was
the first vessel to enter the Golden Gate, the pioneer keel of myriads which were destined
to bring hither a new nation. On June 27th, 1776, while the British Colonies on the
Atlantic coast were in full war against England, a little Spanish expedition, marching from
Monterey, founded San Francisco. There were two monks, seven laymen, and seventeen
dragoons, with their families. As soon as the buildings were ready, the friars celebrated
mass and chanted a Te Deum, while salvoes of artillery saluted the new civic daughter of
Spain. The Indians of the San Francisco region burst into tears and waitings when they
saw the Spanish explorers, as if some dark prophetic vision of their approaching dispersion
and extinction had appeared before them. In commemoration of this mystery, Don
Portala named the harbour near by Llorones, meaning " The Cry-babies/' The new
ecclesiastico-military establishment was entitled the Mission de los Dolores de Nuestro Padre
San Francisco, which was familiarly shortened into Mission Dolores.

In the morning hours of its existence, San Francisco was composed of two sections
the Mission, with the church and its Indian village, and the Presidio, or garrison, existing
only for the protection of the monks. Hundreds of red-skinned converts were made, some
attracted by the peace and plenty of the new establishment, and others torn from their
distant hill-fastnesses by military expeditions, and led in as captives. Education seems not
to have been thought of; but at sunrise every day there was an imposing service of mass,
which all the Indians were careful to attend. The natives came to be recorded as wards,

O *

owning the Mission and country, of which the friars, who lived simply and dressed meanly,
were but the guardians. The etiquette of the establishments decreed that when a monk
met an Indian, he should say, " Love God, my son ; " and the other should answer, " Love
God, father." The power of the clergy was absolute and despotic, but mildness and
charity ruled its exercise; and the aborigines were never so happy and well-provided as
when under their care. In 1813 upwards of 1,200 Indians dwelt at Mission Dolores, and
they owned 14,000 head of domestic animals. Objectionable as some of their methods
undoubtedly were, the Franciscans reached a higher measure of success than has rewarded
any of the other religious and philanthropic organisations which have tried to civilise the
native Californians. The race was doomed, and the deaths far exceeded the births in
number, year after year, as if Providence had decreed that these children of nature,
narrow in capacity and slow to learn, were to be swept from the land, in order that the
new civilisation might have free course. League by league the Indians retired to and
through the mountains, before the advance of the white shepherds and cow-boys; and
these in turn were slowly pushed back by the settlements of the wheat-farmers, by the
vineyards of the south and the orchards of the north. An enthusiastic Calif ornian sees



4 CITIES OF THE WOKLD. [San Francisco.

in the final economic result a horticulture which combines the energy of New England
with the scientific training of Europe, on a soil as fertile as that of Egypt, and in a climate
as genial as that of Italy. But little sympathy is expended on the victims of this conquest,
the Canaanites of this land of Israel.



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