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CALIFORN/A

SAN DIEGO




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THE EARL OF SHAFTESBURY.

(From a Photograph by Messrs. Russell and Sons.')



B

THE



LIFE AND WORK



OF THE SEVENTH



EARL OF SHAFTESBURY E.G.



BY

EDWIN HODDER



POPULAR EDITION
WITH EIGHT FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS



CASSELL & COMPANY LIMITED

LONDON PARIS t MELBOURNE
isas

ALL RIGHTS BK8KBVEO



PREFACE TO THE ORIGINAL EDITION.



FOE many years Lord Shaftesbury resisted every appeal that was made to
him to allow his biography to be written. " No one can do that satisfactorily
bnt myself," he said, " and I have neither the time nor the inclination."
Towards the close of his life, however, it became apparent to him that a
biography was, to nse his own word, " inevitable," and it was then his wish
that it should be written with his co-operation. " If the story, snch as it is,
must be told," he said, " I should like it to be told accurately. That cannot
be done unless I furnish the means."

He accordingly placed at my disposal a mass of material, and, in addition,
he was good enough to allow me for many months to be in frequent personal
communication with him, when, pen in hand, I took down the record of his
life as he narrated it. His memory to the very last was surprising, and as
the scenes of his earlier life passed before him, he would recall facts and
figures, dates and words, with such accuracy that although, at his request, I
subsequently verified them, it was almost unnecessary to do so.

The conditions imposed upon me were simple and explicit, and were
expressed as nearly as possible in these words :

" I will give you every assistance in my power ; place letters, books, and
documents, in your hands ; give you introductions to those who know most
about me ; and tell you, from time to time, what I can remember of my past
Iii-t<>ry. I will answer any questions and indicate all the sources of iufor-
:i available to you. But I will not read a word of your manuscript, nor
pass a sheet for the press. When the book is issued to the public I will, if I
am alive, read it, but not till then. All I ask is, that the story of my life be
told in its entirety political, social, domestic, philanthropic, and religious."

I was aware that Lord Shaftesbury had kept voluminous Diaries, and
from the first was anxious that these should be placed in my hands. " They
are of no value to any one but myself," was his reply ; " they have never been
seen by anybody, and they never will be. They are a mass of contradictions ;
thnuirliH jotted down as they passed through my mind, and contradicted
perhaps on the next page records of passing events written on the spur of
the moment, and private details which no one could understand but myself."

In these circumstances I felt that I could not urge Lord Shaftesbury to



IV PREFACE.

entrust thorn to me, but he promised that he would, if possible, go through
them and furnish me with some extracts if he found any that were " worth
putting into print." But neither time nor opportunity came for this ; the
busy life was busy to the last, and increasing weakness made any effort of
this kind impossible.

For six months I continued my work, and in many long and intensely
interesting interviews gained much information and many important details
of his personal life. But I was conscious that without the aid of the Diaries
I stood only on the threshold of the subject, and he was conscious of this too.
I therefore lost no opportunity of urging him to let me have access to
them.

In June. 1885, warned by continued failure in health that the end was not
far off, Lord Shaftesbury yielded to these entreaties, and placed the first
volume of his Journals in my hands, promising to let me have the remainder
in succession.

"It was never my intention that a page or a lino should ever be pub-
lished," he said to me ; " but I have been looking through them again, and I
think it is possible that there are some portions of them that may do good.
At all events, I do not see how you can perform your task without them, for I
cannot give you the personal assistance I could have wished. Besides, all
that I could tell you, and much more, is written here, and I must leave it to
your discretion to make what use of them you like. Tou will find they were
written in hurried moments, just as thoughts or events arose. They were
true at the time, but I may have changed my opinions, or have found jif for-
wards that I had taken a wrong view of things. Tou are at liberty, of
course, to take any view you like of my actions, and to praise or blame them
as you will, but do not attempt to represent me as always in the right, or you
will inevitably break down in your task. Tou will find that the movements
in which 1 was engaged brought me at times into opposition with all classes,
even with those who were working with me, oftentimes with men I loved
dearly and greatly admired. I did not seek this opposition ; I could not help
it ; but do not represent me as having been always a man of a cantankerous
disposition because of this, unless you find the evidence overwhelmiri"- that
such was the case. Above all things and this is one of my strongest
motives for placing these volumes in your hands try to do justice to those
who laboured with me. I could never have done the few things I have, had
I not been supported by true, zealous, earnest men, who gave me their time
and their brains to help forward the different movements. My religious
views are not popular, but they are the views that have sustained and com-
forted me all through my life. They have never been disguised, nor have I
ever sought to disguise them. I think a man's religion, if it is worth any-
thing, should enter into every sphere of life, and rule his conduct in every
relation. 1 have always been and, please God, always shall be an Evan-



PREFACE. 7

pvliral of the Evangelicals, and no biography can represent me that does not
fully and emphatically represent my religious views."

For the selection of the quotations from Lord Shaftesbury's Diaries I am
responsible. My object has been to make them illustrate, as much as
possible, every phase of life and opinion. If it should appear that, in some
instances, I have inserted passages which are of too purely a domestic
character, I can only plead that I have acted in the spirit of the instructions
given to me by Lord Shaftesbury. For example, on one occasion he had been
narrating to me some incidents in the life of the late Countess of Shaftesbury
in connection with his factory labours, and lamented how little the factory
people knew the extent to which they were indebted to " that blessed woman,"
as he called her. Then he spoke of her death. "But you will find it all
recorded in the Diaries," ho said. "Those entries would be far too private
and personal to put into print, would they not ? " I asked. " Not at all," he
answered ; " I should like you to use them. I should wish you to use them.
Her memory is far better worth preserving than mine." And then taking down
from a shelf in the library the " Shaftesbury Papers," edited by Mr. Christie,
he turned to a page in which the First Earl pays a tribute of affection to the
wife whose loss he mourns. " There," said he, " that, in my opinion, is the
thing in the book."

In his Diaries Lord Shaftesbury has unconsciously done what he so often
*.u<l 110 one but himself could do satisfactorily he has " written his own
life." It was by a mere accident, however, that the whole of these valuable
is were not destroyed. About the year 1880 he was suffering from ill-
ness, which confined him to the house, and he determined to occupy his enforced
leisure in looking through and burning old papers. The Diaries were con-
signed to a heap, awaiting destruction ; but in the meantime health returned,
the usual daily duties were resumed, and the books and papers were put away
to await another pause, and so escaped the threatened fate.

Only a few of the bulky quarto Diaries of Lord Shaftesbury, and four of
his Journals of Travels, had been placed in my hands, when the news came
from Folkestone of the alarming illness which terminated in his death. For
the privilege of perusing and making extracts from the remaining volumes,
for information supplying the defects of my own personal knowledge, for
access to his correspondence, for reading the proofs and examining the
extracts from the Diaries with the originals, and for other invaluable aid, I
am indebted to the great kindness and courtesy of his son, the Hon. Evelyn
Ashley.

Before Lord Shaftesbnry gave me the first volume of his Diaries to
. he intimated that it would, in his opinion, be of special advantage to

it,'- in my labours to have the assistance of some one who, apart from his own
family, had known him for many years, and in whose judgment he could
repose the fullest confidence. To this end he asked me to place myself in



VI PREFACE.

communication with Mrs. Corsbie, the daughter of the late Mr. Alexander
Haldane, one of his most intimate friends, with whom for thirty years he had
been in almost daily correspondence. To her careful and valuable assistance
in reading the proofs for the press, and for the kindness which placed at my
disposal the voluminous letters of Lord Shaf tesbury to her father, I am under
the deepest obligation.

The sources from which much of the information in this work has been
drawn have been extremely various, and I have to express my hearty thank*
to the Secretaries of Societies with which Lord Shaftesbury was connected ;
to co-workers with him in various departments of labour ; to personal friend*
and others, who have given me ready access to whole libraries of reports,
minutes, pamphlets, and other records, and have rendered mo important
service in many ways.

It has been my endeavour to let the record of Lord Shaftesbury's whole
life-work be told, as much as possible, in his own words ; and in doing so I
have not added to his opinions or founded conjectures upon his plans. My
aim has been to present him as he was : a Christian gentleman first, then a
patriot, a statesman, a social reformer, and all that is implied in the word he
liked so little a philanthropist.

" I have no desire whatever to be recorded," he wrote shortly before his
death ; " but if I must, sooner or later, appear before the public, I should like
the reality to be told be it good, or be it bad and not a sham."

I have made no endeavour, therefore, to tone down his strong Protes-
tantism, or his unshaken and unshakable belief in Scripture, in dogma, and in
prayer.

He was a man with a single aim ; his labours in the field of politics
sprang from his philanthropy ; his philanthropy sprang from his deep and
earnest religious convictions ; and every labour political, benevolent, and
religious was begun, continued, and ended, in one and the same spirit.



E. H.



21, CRAVEN PAHK, WILLESDEN, N.W.,
October, 1886.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER L ANCESTRY AND HOME.

PAOB

The Coopers and the Ashleys Anthony Ashley Cooper His College Days and Mar-
riageSketch of His Career Raised to the Peerage Made Lord High Chancellor
Committed to the Tower The Habeas Corpus Act Indicts the Duke of York
as a Popish Recusant Flies to Holland Death Various Estimates of his Cha-
racterThe Second Earl Education entrusted to John Locke Letter from his
Son The Third Earl Author of the " Characteristics "Nature of his Philo-
sophyThe Fourth Earl Handel Fifth and Sixth Earla St. Giles's House, the
Hereditary Seat of the Ashleys The Park and Pleasure Grounds St. Giles's
Church Its Monuments Almshouses Village of Wimborne St. Giles ... 3

CHAPTER EL CHILDHOOD AND EARLY YEARS.

Birth Home Influences Maria Millis The First Prayer Dawn of Religious Life
Manor-House School, Ch is wick Harsh Treatment His First Great Grief Mis-
taken Views of Education A Sad Childhood Removed to Harrow New Influ-
encesState of his Mind on Religious Questions First Visit to St. Giles's House
Love of Country Scenes Cranborne Chase A Strange Scene at Harrow-
Determines to Espouse the Cause of the Poor An Autobiographical Fragment-
Oxford Takes First-Class in Classics Extracts from an Early Diary" Fugitive
and Desultory Notes "Elected Member for Woodstock at age of Twenty-flve
Bin Inlay Thoughts Supports the King's Government Canning's Eloquence
Letter from Mrs. Canning Friendship with the Duke of Wellington Early
Labours in Parliament "Cursed with Honourable Desires "Diary Self-depre-
ciation Change of Ministry Canning, Premier Place Offered Office Declined
Grounds of Refusal State of Political Affairs At Strathfleldsayc Letter from
Duke of Wellington Death of Canning In Wales Studies Welsh Misgivings
as to Public Career Letter from Lord Bathurst Wellington, Head of New Ad-
ministrationAppointed Commissioner of India Board of Control Suttee-
Schemes for the welfare of India Catholic Emancipation Desires to Devote
his Life to Science Called to Another Career 19

CHAPTER HI. 1828-1833.

Treatment of Lunatics State of the Lunacy Laws Mr. Robert Gordon First Im-
portant Speech in Parliament Diary Letter from Lord Bathurst Appointed
Commissioner in Lunacy Investigation into State of Asylums Efforts in Litera-
ture Work for India Bishop Heber With the King Works of Charity For-
giveness Scientific Pursuits Family Affairs Astronomy and Sir James South
Catholic Disabilities Foreshadowings of Future Career Self -depreciation and
Despondency Robert Souther Elected Member for Dorchester Marries Emily,
Daughter of the Fifth Earl Cowper Successfully Contests Dorset Election
Expenses in 1831 Correspondence with Duke of Wellington Petition Against
the Dorset Election Pecuniary Embarrassments Letter from Ernest Duke of
Cumberland A Second Triumph Letters from Southey Condition of the
Working Classes State of the Times Sir Robert Peel's Policy Cotton Supply
and Manufacture Progress of Inventions Condition of the Lancashire Opera-
tivesChild-Jobbers and Child Labour The Apprentice System Outline of
Early Factory Legislation Michael Thomas Sadler, M.P. for Newark Mr.
Sadler Loses his Seat in Parliament Lord Ashley becomes Leader in the Factory
Agitation The Parting of the Ways- Pays Tribute to Mr. Sadler and Other
Labourers States his Views on the Factory System Explains Principles on
which the Agitation shall be Conducted Letter from Mr. J. R. McCulloch
Opposition of Master Manufacturers Address of the Operatives of England and
Scotland Report of Commission' of Inquiry Introduces Bill to Limit Hours of
Labour "for Women and Young Persons" to Ten Hours a Day Opposition of
Lord Althorp Bill Defeated, but Principle Established that Labour and Educa-
tion should be Combined . 50



Vlll CONTESTS.

CHAPTER IV.-lTALY -1833.

First Travel-Diary Plains of Burgundy Jura Mountains Geneva Protestant and
Papal Switzerland Brieg The Siinplon Milan High Mass in Cathedral A
Retrospect Venice Her Sun Set Bologna A Wayside Accident Rome St.
Peter's The Forum and Coliseum St. John Latcran Guide's Aurora The
Shortest Day Christmas Eve Ceremonies at St. Peter's Te Deum at the Gesa
St. Agostino Catacombs Pusey and Bunsen Viterbo Siena Florence Sar-
dinia Nice A "Kingdom of Italy" Home 91

CHAPTER V.-1834-1838.

Diary Resumed Letter from Southey A Stormy Political Horizon Alma Mater
Installation of Duke of Wellington as Chancellor Introspection Change of
Ministry A Note-Book of Passing Events Correspondence with Sir Robert
Peel Appointed a Lord of the Admiralty Painstaking Diligence A Short-
lived Ministry The Church Pastoral Aid Society Founded Difficulties Con-
cerning it Factory Act of 1833 in Operation Trials from Friends Harassed by
Fruitless Correspondence The Ten Hours Agitation Grows Mr. Poulett
Thompson's Bill Opposed and Withdrawn Mr. Charles Hindley's Bill A
Pledge from the Government Richard Cobden and Factory Legislation " De-
luded and Mocked " by the Government Factory Question Actively Resumed
An Able Speech Letter from Charles Dickens Word-Portrait of Lord Ashley in
1838 101

CHAPTER VL-1838-1839.

Commencement of Diaries Lord Melbourne Lockhart's Life of Scott Appoint-
ment of Vice-Consul at Jerusalem Lord Lindsay's Travels A Case in Lunacy
Success of Pastoral Aid Society At Windsor Castle Progress of Science The
State and Prospects of the Jews Religious and Political Action in Jerusalem-
Letter from Sir Robert Peel Fall of the Melbourne Administration Sir Robert
Peel Sent for The " Bedchamber Question " Appointment in Royal Household
offered to Lord Ashley Peel urges its Acceptance Attempt to Form a Ministry
Fails Lord Melbourne Recalled Board of Education, consisting of a Com-
mittee of the Privy Council, Appointed Letter from Duke of Wellington Lord.
Stanley's Motion to Revoke the Order in Council Supported by Lord Ashley
The Measure Attacked as Adverse to the Constitution, and as Hostile to the
Church and to Revealed Religion Lord Stanley's Amendment Lost The Esta-
blishment of the Committee of Council on Education 123

CHAPTER VH. SCOTLAND 1839.

The Bull Ring, Birmingham Poverty and Luxury in Liverpool Boldness The
Slave Trade Southey Carlisle Afternoon Service Sir Walter Scott Archi-
tecture of Kirks Churches, Ancient and Modern Extempore Prayer Edin-
burgh Castle Annals of Scotland In the Trossachs Melancholy without
Despondency Charm of Scott's Genius Rossie The Carse of Gowrie Dunkeld
Fanaticism of Early Reformers Gaelic Life The System of Gleaning Oban
Scotch Architects Glasgow Factories Dr. Macleod Rev. Robert Montgomery
Blindness In Courts and Alleys Sir Archibald Alison Cora Linn Chilling-
ham Red Deer and Wild Cattle The Duchess of Northumberland Ravens-
worth Van Mildert, Bishop of Durham Fountains Abbey Ripon Cathedral
Newby York Cathedral Services Castle Howard Chatsworth Haddon Hall
Home Letter from Daniel Webster An Estrangement Marriage of Lord
Palmerston to Lady Cowper Happy Close of the Year 133

CHAPTER VIH.-1840.

Announcement of the Queen's Marriage A Magistrate The Old Story Renewed
The only Conservative Principle Marriage of the Queen Letter from Daniel
Webster Attempt upon the Queen's Life Church Extension Chimney Sweeps
Early Legislation Various Acts for Protection of Climbing Boys Lord Ashley
Takes up the Question Mr. Steven Labours In and Out of the House Law
Suits as "Test' Cases A Rescued Boy Progress of the Factory Movement-
Mr. Oastler Appointment of a Select Committee Children not Protected by the
Factory Acts Commission Granted to Inquire into the Employment of Children
The Syrian Question Mehemet Ali and Ibrahim Pasha Prospects of the
Jewish People Etforts for their Protection Return to their Own Land Conflict
with France Anticipated Memorandum to Lord Palmerstpn The "Bear''
Etlice Thiers and Guizot Fall of Acre At Broadlands Article in Quarterly
on " Infant Labour "Socialism and Chartism 121



CONTENTS. IX

CHAPTER IX. 1811.

PAOK

Indifference of the Clergy Sympathy with the Poor- Practical Christianity Pro-
gress of Children's Employment Commission The Second Chamber Lord
Morpeth'8 Registration BUI (Ireland) Admissibillty of Jews to Municipal Offices
The Duke of Wellington Anecdotes A Dissolution Threatened Sir Robert
Peel's "No Confidence" Motion Ascot Oxford Commemoration Parliament
Dissolved General Election Speech to Electors of Dorset Letter to Sir R. Peel



Proposed-

Prince Albert's Household Declined The New Ministry Illness of Bickersteth
Drainage and Ventilation Bills Letter from Colonel Napier M. Cornelius
The Jerusalem Bishopric Frederick William IV. of Prussia Dr. Bunsen Out-
line of his Special Mission Progress of the Negotiations The Bill for Creating
the Bishopric Passes Enthusiasm and Opposition The Druses Consecration of
Bishop Alexander The Episcopal Benediction Lord Ashley's Power of Reading
Men Anecdote of First Earl of Shaftesbury The Cripple Dodds . . . .175

CHAPTER X.-1812.

Tractarianism Oxford Professorship of Poetry Letter to Mr. Roundell Palmer-
Rev. Isaac Williams and Rev. James Garbett Letters from Hon. William Cow-
per. Rev. E. Bickersteth, and " Charlotte Elizabeth "A Suggested Compromise
Correspondence with Rev. Dr. Pusey and Rev. John Keble- Letter from Arch-
deacon Wilberforce Result of the Contest The King of Prussia in England-
Correspondence with Sir Robert Peel His Hostility to Factory Bill Announce-
ment to Short-time Committees Principle in Government and Opposition A
Socialist Ally Bishop Alexander's Entry into Jerusalem Report on Mines and
Collieries Public Indignation Aroused Terrible Disclosures The System Ex-
posed A Great Speech Richard Cobden and the Philanthropists Cobden alters
his Estimate of Lord Ashley's Character Lord Palmereton's Support Letter
from Prince Albert No Peer to take Charge of Bill Victory Trade Depression
and Riots Tour through Manufacturing Districts The Duchess of Beaufort and
Mr Robert Peel China and Afghanistan 206

CHAPTER XI.-1813.

A pprehensions The "Repeal Year" Daniel O'Connell Afghanistan The Gates of
Somnauth Lord Elleuborough's Proclamation Pious Slave-holders Assassina-
tion of Mr. Edward Drummond Correspondence with Sir Robert Peel thereon
Troubled State of Country Second Report of Children's Employment Commis-
sionNature of its Revelations Need of Education among the Working Classes
An Address to the Crown thereon A Remarkable Speech Factory Education
Bill Proposed by Government Opposition of Dissenters The Bill Amended and
ultimately Withdrawn The Opium Question The Indo-Chinese Opium Trade-
First Great Indictment of the Opium Trade in Parliament Arguments Used
Motion Withdrawn Opinions upon the Speech Estimate of Characters of Sir
Robert Peel, Lord John Russell, and Sir James Graham State of the Poor of
London Field Lane Ragged School A Disreputable Locality and its Traditions
A Novel Practice in the Church Pews and Pew-rents Birthday Reflections-
Opposition to Collieries Bill At Brocket Movements in the Churches Pusey
Interdicted from Preaching Letter from Elizabeth Fry A Foreign Tour
'rp Aix-la-Chapelle Bavaria Carlsbad Prague Vienna Visits to Phil-
anthropic Institutions Continental Sundays Linz Ratisbon Nuremberg
\Vurtemberg Heidelberg Frankfort Domestic Life Russia Lord Ashley's
Philanthropy Attacked Miss Harriet Martineau Speech at Sturminster on
Condition or Agricultural Labourer Consequences The Nestorian Christians
Correspondence with Lord Aberdeen 238

CHAPTER XII.-1S1I.

'1 of Oppression Distressed Needlewomen The Ameers of Scinde Motion
for their itclease from Imprisonment Result of the Motion Tahiti Queen
Pomare Pritchard the Missionary War with France Imminent Sir James
Graham's Bill for Regulation of Labour in Factories Agitation " The Ten
Hours and No Surrender ! "Distance Traversed by Children in Daily Work-
Speech Attack by Mr. John Bright^ A Scene in the House Peel in
a Dik-inma Government Stratagems to Rescind Votes " Jack Cade " Legisla-
tion Unpopularity of Sir James Graham New Factory Bill brought in Motion
for Introduction of New Clause The Ten Hours Bill Argued on Commercial
Grounds Sir James Graham Threatens Resignation Sir Robert Peel Follows
Suit^A Signal Defeat Mr. C. Greville's View of the Situation-Second Threat-
Resignation .of the Ministry Correspondence with Sir Robert Peel



X CONTENTS.

I'AUB

Dissenters' Chapels Bill Report of Metropolitan Commissioners" in Lunacy-
Motion Thereon Public and Private Asylums Lunacy in its Early Stages
Middle-class Patients Motion Withdrawn Mr. Shell's Eulogy Placing a Son
at School Mrs. Fry Visit of Emperor of Russia Tour through Factory Districts
Receives Addresses Fresh Schemes Beset by Bulls of Bashan .... iii

CHAPTER XIII.-1845.

Retrospect and Forecast The Irish Secretaryship State of Calico Print- Works Bill
to Regulate Labour of Children Therein At St Giles's Defenceless State of
Dockyards and Coast Tractarian Movement Mr. Ward Censured and Deprived
of his Degree Converts to Rome Maynooth Sir Robert Peel's Bill for In-
creased Grant Excitement in the Country The Bill Carried Speech on May-
nooth The Evangelical Fathers Jews' Society Death of Bishop Alexander
The Railway Mania Two Bills on the Lunacy Question The Regulation of
Limatic Asylums The Better Treatment of Lunatics Both Bills Carried Ap-
pointment of Permanent Lunacy Commission Insanity of the Poet Cowper
The Society of Friends A Coming Storm The Potato Disease Commission of
Inquiry Appointed Changes of View on Corn Laws Letter from Lord John
Russell Resignation and Re-appointment of Sir Robert Peel A Painful Alter-
native 318.

CHAPTER XIV.-1846.

Repeal of the Corn Laws The Ten Hours Bill Mr. John Bright Seat for Dorset



Online LibraryEdwin HodderThe life and work of the seventh Earl of Shaftesbury / by Edwin Hodder → online text (page 1 of 106)