Edwin L. (Edwin Luther) Green.

A history of the University of South Carolina online

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school and a school of law, with such other schools to be
established from time to time as the trustees might deem
advisable and as the funds available might warrant. One-
half of the interest on the land scrip stock was to be applied
to the support of the college of agriculture and mechanic
arts. The grant of f 15,000 from the general government for
the establishment of an agricultural experiment station,
act of March 2, 1887, known as the Hatch Fund, was
accepted by the legislature, and the money was placed at
the disposal, until further action of the legislature, of the
trustees of the University of South Carolina to be applied
to the purposes of the grant. Claflin College at Orangeburg
was left a branch of the University. Its affairs were directed
by a committee of the board that managed the institution
at Columbia. The South Carolina Military Academy in
Charleston was also a branch of the University, but subject
to the sole control and management of its own board of

On December 16 the trustees met, in order to appoint a
committee to prepare a plan for the reorganization. The
preparation of the plan was assigned to the executive com-
mittee. This committee reported on the 31st of the following
January: at this time a committee for the revision of the

8 H. U.


by-laws was constituted. At a meeting held May 9 the
trustees elected the new professors and completed the reor-

President McBryde submitted the report of the executive
committee, which was adopted in full. It contained a plan
for the reorganization of the University together with
explanatory notes, a "recommendation that the Lamar
farm be purchased for an experiment farm," the repairing
of the chapel outside the walls and remission of fees to
post-graduates (for the present session) and to holders of
the six old scholarships. The library and the agricultural
experiment station were added in the plan of reorganization
to the departments named in the act of the legislature. A
special committee of five members of the board was
appointed for each department, except for the library, which
was already provided for. Each college or school was to
have its special faculty with a dean or chairman ; the experi-
ment station was placed under its own staff with a director
at the head. The officers were: President, Dr. John M.
McBryde; librarian and treasurer, John G. Barnwell;
chaplain, J. W. Flinn; secretary, a graduate student (R. J.
Davidson, C. H. Barnwell, T. P. Bailey, Jr., at different
times); marshal, R. S. Morrison; bell ringer (student);
mail carrier (student). There were 18 professors, one
assistant professor, five instructors and four tutors. These
were: James Woodrow, Ph. D. (Heidelberg), M. D., D. D.,
LL. D., Geology and Mineralogy, and Dean of the College
of Liberal Arts and Sciences; Benjamin Sloan (West
Point), Physics and Civil Engineering, and Dean of the
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts; W. B. Burney,
Ph. D (Heidelberg), Chemistry and Dean of the College
of Pharmacy; Rev. E. L. Patton, LL. D., Greek; E. S.
Joynes, M. A., LL. D., Modern Languages ; W. J. Alexander,
A. M., Logic and Rhetoric ; R. M. Davis, A. B., LL. B., His-
tory and Political Science ; J. D. Pope, A. M., Law and Dean
of Law School; R. H. Loughridge, Ph. D., Agricultural
Chemistry; J. W. Flinn, A. B., Mental and Moral Science;
F. C. Woodward, A. M., D. L., English Language and Lit-


erature; E. E. Sheib, Ph. D. (Leipsic), Pedagogics and Dean
of Normal School; E. W. Davis, Ph. D., Mathematics and
Astronomy; J. S. Murray, Jr., A. M., Latin; Milton Whit-
ney, Agriculture; G. F. Atkinson, Ph. B., Botany and Zoo-
logy; B. M. Bolton, M. D., Physiology, Hygiene and Bac-
teriology; W. B. Mies, D. V. M., Veterinary Science; J. R.
Edwards (passed assistant United States navy), Mechanical
Engineering; E. A. Smyth, Jr., A. B., Adjunct Professor of
Biology; R. J. Davidson, A. M., Assistant Professor of
Analytical Chemistry and Materia Medica; J. J. McMahan,
Instructor in Modern Languages; S. J. Duffle, Ph. G.,
Instructor in Pharmacy; S. R. Pritchard, A. B., Instructor
in Mathematics and Bookkeeping; W. G. Randall, A. B.,
Instructor in Drawing; Thorburn Reid, A. B., M. E.,
Instructor in Shop and Machine Work; T. P. Bailey, Jr.,
A. B., Tutor in English and History ; W. B. Douglass, A. B.,
Tutor in Latin and Greek. Mr. Barn well was succeeded in
1888 by Isaac H. Means, A. B., as librarian and treasurer.
The physicians in charge of the infirmary, which w^as com-
pleted in 1888, were Drs. B. W. Taylor and A. N. Talley.

Professors Atkinson and Bolton were at the University
only one session. There were two tutors the first session,
whose names have been given, none the second, three the
third (John M. McBryde, Jr., A. B., English; J. W. Simp-
son, A. B., Latin and History; A. W. Thompson, B. S.,
Mathematics.) During the second year a fellow was
appointed, W. R. Cathcart, Jr., A. B.

There was a general faculty made up of the president
and professors, adjuncts and assistants in all the schools.
Each school had its special faculty composed of the teach-
ing staff and the president, and each school had its dean.

The president and the deans constituted a University
Council, which formed a standing or executive committee
of the general faculty. It had consideration of all inter-
departmental questions, and to it the general discipline of
the institution was intrusted.

In the graduate department every professor connected
with the university was required to have one carefully form-


ulated course more advanced than his undergraduate
studies. The degrees to which these courses led were M. S. ?
A. M., Sc. D., Ph. D., C. E., M. E. (mining engineer), Mec. E.
(mechanical engineer). For doctor of science and doctor of
philosophy the requirements were two years of resident grad-
uate study after the bachelor's degree had been taken; one
principal and two related subordinate subjects were required.
For the M. S. and A. M. degrees the candidates had to take
one year's resident graduate work of three studies while
for the professional degrees a graduate course was pre-

The College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts offered
to those who graduated in its six courses the degree of B. S.,
or Bachelor of Science. These courses were General Science,
Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Agriculture,
Chemistry, Natural History. There were also four shorter
two-year courses, for which certificates were given. In the
College of Liberal Arts and Sciences the A. B., or Bachelor
of Arts, degree was conferred on graduates in the Classical,
Modern Literature, History and English Literature courses.
The College of Pharmacy gave the Ph. G., or Graduate in
Pharmacy, degree in a two years' course and conferred a
certificate for a course of two years preparatory to medicine
and pharmacy. Licentiate of Instruction (L. I.) was con-
ferred for one year's work in the normal school; a certifi-
cate for two years' work was also given. The course in the
law school extended over two years and was completed with
the degree of LL. B.

There were in all 12 degrees and six certificates. As
reorgainzed, the University offered 42 graduate courses and
106 undergraduate courses and had 28 teachers.

The experiment station was under the charge of a director
and a staff of 11 vice director, chemist, first assistant
chemist, second assistant chemist, analyst of soils and seeds
and photographer, botanist and entomologist, microscopist,
veterinarian, secretary, farm superintendent, florist and


The running expenses of the university were divided
among the several departments as follows: Graduate
Department, 1-11; College of Agriculture and Mechanic
Arts, 3-11 ; College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, 3-11 ; Col-
lege of Pharmacy, 1-11; Normal School, 2-11, and Law
School, 1-11. The land scrip fund and the Hatch Fund
were applied exclusively to the College of Agriculture and
Mechanic Arts and to the experiment station. An estimate
of the expenses showed that f 49,700 would be required each
year for running the University; the income of the experi-
ment station was placed at f 20,000, which was derived from
the Hatch Fund and from the surplus of the privilege tax.

At first the South Carolina College had used for the
experimental farm the land adjoining the buildings, outside
the wall; later 40 acres were secured across Kocky Branch
on Wheeler's Hill; when the experiment station was estab-
lished, 100 acres were purchased from the Taylor planta-
tion, near the present fair grounds. There were two other
experiment farms, at Darlington and at Spartanburg.

At the May, 1888, meeting President McBryde reported
that the old chapel on Sumter street, to be known thereafter
as "Science Hall" now the gymnasium had been repaired
and divided up into 35 rooms for the mechanical and agri-
cultural school. He also reported that the infirmary, remod-
eled in 1908 into a residence and now occupied by Professor
Wardlaw, was approaching completion.

This second University of South Carolina began its career
in October, 1888. Its life was very brief, only three years.
The attendance the first year was 235; for the other two
years 226 and 182. A raising of the entrance requirements
in Mathematics and English perhaps accounted for the
slightly reduced attendance in 1889-90 ; reports of the break-
ing up of the institution and of the establishment of an
independent and separate agricultural college caused the
large falling off in 1890-91, the loss being entirely in scien-
tific students.

President McBryde reported in the fall of 1889 that the
laboratories and workshops were crowded, due to the recent


development of the scientific departments. Later he stated
that the reports from the students who had gone from the
University to the medical and pharmaceutical schools of
the North showed that the chemical department was without
a superior in the South; this excellence was due to the
energy and ability of the professor of chemistry, Dr. W. B.
Burney. He also commended the development in the depart-
ment of English and the success as a teacher of Professor
F. C. Woodward.

As early as 1886, about the time it was expected that the
Hatch Fund would be established, a cry began that there
should be a separate agricultural college. The change to the
university in 1888 was designed to meet the demand for an
agricultural and mechanical education; but then and later,
when the separate college appeared to be a reality, it was
felt that the other department or schools should be fostered
and strengthened, so that if the division should come, there
would be left an excellent institution for the teaching of
the arts and sciences. Governor Tillman recommended in
his inaugural address, December 4, 1890, that the University
of South Carolina should be the title of the institution no
longer, but that it should become the South Carolina Col-
lege, one of the branches of the University, a school of lib-
eral education. He also recommended an appropriation of
$30,000 by perpetual annual grants, so as to remove it from
political influences and antagonisms. He said that South
Carolina had lost three years and wasted $80,000 or $90,000,
and that a readjustment was necessary. What he had been
wanting and fighting for was a "cheap practical education,
in which the application of knowledge and science to the
business of bread-winning and the upbuilding of our agri-
culture and the mechanic arts should be the main objects."
This, he believed, was not to be obtained in Columbia.

In accordance with Governor Tillman's recommendation
an act, approved December 23, 1890, was passed creating
the South Carolina College as one of the branches of the
University of South Carolina. This branch and Claflin
College were placed under the same board of trustees. As


the reorganization was not to take place until after July 1,
1891, an appropriation of $40,500 was made to meet the
obligations of the current session. The South Carolina Col-
lege was required to confine itself to theoretical science,
law, literature and the classics. A tuition fee of $40 was
still demanded, although it might be remitted to students
in the academic department. As soon as possible the law
department was to be made self-sustaining, and the board
was empowered to charge extra fees looking to that end.

The land and appurtenances of the experimental station
were turned over to the trustees of the Clemson Agricultural
College immediately after the approval of the act. To these
same trustees were also given after the abolishment of the
mechanical department on July 1, 1891, all the articles
connected with that department, except such as might be
necessary for the use of the South Carolina College or had
been donated to it.

During the short and troubled three years of the Univer-
sity's existence the following degrees were conferred ; Five
Masters of Art, 56 Bachelors of Arts, 19 Bachelors of
Science, 25 Bachelors of Law, 14 Graduates of Pharmacy,
five Licentiates of Instruction, one Doctor of Veterinary
Medicine and one Doctor of Philosophy. This last degree
was taken by Thomas Pearce Bailey, Jr. The institution
has given only this one Ph. D. in its whole history. Six
certificates for shorter courses were conferred.

With the close of the session of 1890-91 the second Univer-
sity of South Carolina came to an end.




In accordance with the act of the General Assembly
approved December 23, 1890, the board of trustees met on
the 13th of the following January for the purpose of con-
sidering the alterations necessary to bring about the change
from the University of South Carolina to the South Caro-
lina College. The executive committee was requested to
prepare the plans for the reorganization and report back
to the board on April 21. This report included a general
outline of the courses and methods of instruction to be
pursued in the college, details of the reorganization and
proposed reductions in the teaching force and running
expenses of the institution. There were also reports from
the professors giving full details in regard to the work and
condition of their several departments. Acting on the report
of the committee, the board re-elected at a meeting on May 1
certain of the professors to fill the chairs before occupied
by them, and in June certain others, creating in all for the
new institution a faculty of ten professors and three adjunct
professors. There were to be four courses: Classical, Lit-
erary, Scientific, and Law. Some graduate work was

The following faculty was chosen for the new college:
John M. McBryde, LL. D., President; Benjamin Sloan, Pro-
fessor of Physics and Astronomy; W. B. Burney, Ph. D.,
Professor of Chemistry ; E. L. Patton, Professor of Ancient
Languages ; E. S. Joynes, M. A., LL. D., Professor of Modern
Languages; E. M. Davis, A. B., LL. B., Professor of His-
tory, Political Economy and Civics; Joseph Daniel Pope,
A. M., LL. D., Professor of Law; J. W. Flinn, D. D., Pro-
fessor of Mental and Moral Science, Logic and Christian
Evidences, and Chaplain; F. C. Woodward, A. M., Litt. D.,
Professor of English Language and Literature and Rhetoric ;

President W. Porcher Miles, 1880-82.
President James Woodrow, 1891-97.

President J. M. McBryde, 1882-91.
President F. C. Woodward, 1897-1902.


E. W. Davis, Ph. D., Professor of Mathematics; E. A.
Smythe, Jr., Adjunct Professor of Geology, Biology and
Mineralogy; Alfred Bagby, Jr., Ph. D., Adjunct Professor
of Ancient Languages; John J. McMahan, A. M., Adjunct
Professor of English. On the 20th of May President
McBryde sent in his resignation ; at the same time Professor
Smythe also resigned. Professor Benjamin Sloan was made
chairman of the faculty until a president should be chosen.
He was relieved in August by the election of Dr. James
Woodrow to the presidency and the professorship of Geo-
logy, Biology and Mineralogy. T. P. Bailey, Jr., Ph. D.,
succeeded Mr. Smythe. President McBryde had been
elected to the presidency of the Virginia Polytechnic Insti-
tute, which he accepted to the great regret of his many
friends in South Carolina.

At a meeting on the 6th of August the board passed
a resolution that the "next session shall commence on the
29th of September and close on the 29th day of June." Also,
a motion prevailed that for the ensuing collegiate year the
requirements for admission should not be lower than those
which had existed for the past three years ; that there should
be, besides the law, three courses: Classical, Literary and
Scientific, these to conform as nearly as possible to the
courses existing in the institution. There were to be no
elective courses in the freshman or sophomore years, but
one elective course was allowed in the junior year and one
in the senior. No irregular or special students were
admitted, except for extraordinary reasons, and their
courses had to be approved beforehand by the faculty.

The requirements in regard to the courses were not carried
out until 1892. There were in 1891-92 three courses for the
B. A. degree, Classical Literature, Modern Literature, His-
tory and English Literature, and five courses for the degree
of Bachelor of Science, General Science, Civil Engineering,
Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry, Natural History.

The attendance of the first year of the college was 98. A
large part of the University students remained with the
college; most of these had been taking irregular courses;


but, with the exception of three, they were arranged in the
regular college classes. There were 15 seniors; the fresh-
man class numbered 18.

In June, 1892, the courses of study presented by Presi-
dent Woodrow were adopted by the board. They made the
institution a strict college in the first two years, slight elec-
tion being allowed in the last two. The two adjunct profes-
sorships of English Language and Literature and Rhetoric
and of Biology, Geology and Mineralogy were discontinued.

Over $2,000 had been raised by the students and alumni
and was held in trust by Dr. J. W. Flinn for a building to
house the Young Men's Christian Association.

During the two following years the college was reduced
to its lowest numbers, 72 for the session of 1892-93, 68
during 1893-94. Then came a reaction, and the number 160
was reached. In 1895-96 there were 184 students enrolled,
the largest number under Dr. Woodrow.

There was a gradual extension in the work of the college.
A chair of pedagogics was added in 1894 and was filled by
Professor Patterson Wardlaw, who also acted as adjunct
professor of Ancient Languages. Provision was made for
the admission of two normal students from each county
without the payment of the annual or the term fee. An
assistant in mathematics, F. Horton Colcock, was given in
1894 to Professor Sloan, who had been performing the duties
of the professor of Mathematics. As the College grew in
numbers, Professor Colcock was advanced to the full pro-
fessorship. James H. Eayhill gave instruction in elocution
in 1893-94. The pressure for special courses became so
strong that in 1895 students were granted permission to
take such courses as would meet their wants. There were
50 special students the next session. A summer school was
opened on July 17, 1894, and ran to August 14, the attend-
ance being 204, of whom 60 or 70 were teachers. This school
was held in 1895 for the last time.

An act of the legislature of 1893 admitted women to the
junior class; by the next legislature they were admitted


to any class they might be prepared for, on the same footing
as the men. Thirteen were enrolled in 1895-96.

An appropriation having been secured to equip a gymna-
sium, the need for which was becoming more and more
pressing, during the session of 1892-93 the basement of
Science Hall (now the gymnasium) was fitted up for a gym-
nasium under the direction of Professor Bagby. The cata-
logue of 1896-97 contained the first set of regulations to
govern "athletic games."

Dr. Woodrow introduced the custom of illustrating the
catalogue, the first illustrated catalogue being published in
the spring of 1893. Since the issue of 1912-13 the illus-
trations have been omitted.

In 1894 the price of board at the steward's hall was
lowered to |8 a month, at which it remained until 1901.
For most of this time the estimated cost of attending the
college was $123, if no tuition was paid.

Fraternities became a subject of contention and were
abolished in 1897 by act of the legislature, which forbade
fraternities in State institutions.

Dr. Woodrow was replaced in the presidency, June, 1897,
by Professor F. C. Woodward. The existence of the South
Carolina College had been endangered by the destruction of
the University, and great credit is due Dr. Woodrow for his
guidance through those stormy years. He withdrew from
all further connection with the institution, and spent the
remaining years of his life in Columbia, where he died.

Professor E. L. Pat ton resigned from the chair of Ancient
Languages in 1898 on account of the infirmities of age. He
made his home in Washington with his son until his death
in 1907. His successor was Charles W. Bain from the head
mastership of the Sewanee Grammar School.

Spring courses for teachers were introduced in 1899,
which were well attended for a few years, but were finally
made unnecessary by the State summer school. They were
offered from the middle of April to the close of May.

The session of 1900 opened with the addition of an adjunct


professor of Ancient Languages and two instructors, the one
in History, the other in Modern Languages.

In 1901 the legislature granted $11,000 for the erection
of a new steward's hall, the old one having become too dilap-
idated to be repaired. The new hall, just west of the gym-
nasium, was opened in January, 1902, the first new building
on the University grounds since the house of Professor John
LeConte in 1860. The old hall was torn down in 1907.

The law school had been carried on since its foundation
by Professor Pope; but the increasing infirmities of age
necessitated that he should become professor emeritus and
be given an assistant, who was appointed in 1901. M. Hern-
don Moore, Esq., was elected to the position of adjunct pro-
fessor of law and soon became full professor. The school
rapidly enlarged its numbers and under his guidance raised
its standard of admittance.

The College obtained a sum of money from the legislature
through the efforts of Professor Colcock to make an exhibit
at the South Carolina Inter- State and West Indian Exposi-

During the five years of President Woodward's adminis-
tration the college continued to advance and to regain popu-
lar favor. The enrolment of students reached 217 in
1900-01. As a teacher of English Dr. Woodrow was highly
successful and greatly liked by his students; but in the
presidency he was unable to gain the entire confidence of
the student body. His last year was marked by many dis-
orders. Various charges were made before the board against
his administration, which brought about a severance of his
relations with the College. Since 1902 Dr. Woodward has
been teaching in Richmond, Va.

Major Benjamin Sloan was made acting president follow-
ing the resignation of President Woodward and was pre-
vailed on at the close of the next session to allow himself
to become president. The College grew with accelerated
pace, owing in great degree to the increased prosperity of
the State and a more general awakening to the advantages


of education. The trustees had also in 1902 adopted the
plan of reporting minutely to the legislature all expendi-
tures actual and proposed, which showed how every cent
was spent, so that it became recognized that the institution
was run economically and not with reckless waste as had
been charged. The present method of reporting has aided
greatly in securing needed increase in the appropriations.
To Mr. August Kohn, to whom as chairman of the committee
that proposed the plan the change was chiefly due, the board
of trustees at a recent meeting passed a vote of thanks for
his able representation of the University before the legis-

Online LibraryEdwin L. (Edwin Luther) GreenA history of the University of South Carolina → online text (page 10 of 38)