Edwin L. (Edwin Luther) Green.

A history of the University of South Carolina online

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Chemistry and Pharmacy, the latter being studied in connec-
tion with the Chemistry Agricultural Chemistry was taught


in the senior year. Mineralogy and Geology were given in a
course of lectures extending over one year.

There were eight professors in the Academic Schools.

The course of study in the South Carolina College of Agri-
culture and Mechanics was:

First Year.

English, History, Rhetoric, Composition, Declamation,
Algebra, Geometry.

Second Year.

Logic, Political Economy, Declamation, Mineralogy,
Botany, Trigonometry, Descriptive Geometry, Shades and
Shadows, Surveying, Inorganic Chemistry.

Third Year.

Mental Philosophy, English Literature and Language,
Zoology, Geology, General Geometry, Differential and
Integral Calculus, Applied Mathematics, Organic Chemistry,
Agricultural Chemistry, both qualitative and quantitative.

Four professors, including the president, made up the

There were Regular, Special and Elective Courses in the
South Carolina College that opened its doors in 1882; In
the following year Post-Graduate and Professional Courses
were added. Every student was required to select one of the
Regular or Special courses, unless for exceptional reasons
an elective course was allowed by the faculty. The Regular
Courses were divided into two principal groups, Literary
and Scientific, these again being subdivided. The Science
Courses were a "Course in General Science", a "Course of
Mechanics and Engineering," a "Course of Agriculture and
Chemistry." In all the first two years were the same. The
studies of the first year were 1st Mathematics, Rural
Economy, 1st History, 1st French, 1st English ; of the second
year, 2nd Math., Surveying, Physics, 1st Chemistry, 2nd
French, 2nd English. The third year of the "Course of Gen-


eral Science" consisted of 3rd Mathematics, Mechanics,
Zoology and Physiology (one term each), 2nd Chemistry,
Botany, 1st German. Descriptive Geometry and Drawing
appear in the place of Zoology, and Botany is given for one
term, in the "Course of Mechanics and Engineering" ; other-
wise the third year was the same in the two courses. The
third year of the "Course of Agriculture and Chemistry"
differed in the substitution of qualitative Analysis for 3rd
Math. The fourth year of the "Course of General Science"
consisted of Astronomy and Geology (each one term), Min-
eralogy, Political Economy, English Literature, 1st Moral
Philosophy, 2nd German. The same year of the "Course of
Mechanics and Engineering" consisted of Civil Engineering,
Drawing, Field Work, Astronomy and Geology (each one
term ) , Mineralogy, 2nd German. In this year of the "Course
of Agriculture and Chemistry" the subjects were Agricul-
tural Chemistry, Quantitative Analysis, Astronomy and
Geology (each one term), Mineralogy, Political Economy,
2nd German.

The Literature Courses were two : 1. Course of Classical
Literature, of which the first year contained the following
studies: 1st Latin (Odes and Epodes of Horace, Sallusts'
Catiline, Cicero's Orations), 1st Greek (Selections from Iliad
or Odyssey, Xenophon's Anabasis, Herodotus), 1st French
(Joynes-Otto Introductory French Lessons and Reader),
1st History (ancient and modern), 1st Mathematics (Alge-
bra and six books of Geometry) ; the second year, 2nd Latin
(Horace's Satires and Epistles, Ovid, Agricola of Tacitus),
2nd Greek (Plato, Xenophon, Demosthenes), 1st German
(Joynes-Otto Introductory German Lessons and Reader),
2nd English (English Language), 2nd Mathematics (Plane
and Spherical Trig., Conic Sections) ; Physics; the third
year, 3rd Latin (Livy, Juvenal, Cicero's ethical or philoso-
phical works), 3rd Greek (Aristophanes' Clouds, Thucy-
dides, Pindar), 2nd History (Epochs, Modern Civilization,
Constitutional History), 1st Moral Philosophy, (Logic), 1st
Chemistry (Inorganic), Botany and Physiology (each one
term) ; the fourth year, 4th Latin (two plays of Terence one


term), 4th Greek (Pindar and New Testament one term),
English Literature, Psychology, Constitutional Law and
Ethics (each one term), Political Economy, Astronomy and
Geology (each one term). 2. Course of Latin and Modern
Literature: the first year substitutes 1st English (Gram-
mar) for 1st Greek in the preceding course; the second dif-
fers in having 2nd French for 2nd Greek ; the third has 2nd
German for 3rd Greek; the fourth substitutes 3rd German
(Historical Grammar and Etymology, by lectures, selected
readings ) and 3rd French ( Historical Grammar and Etymo-
logy, by lectures, selected readings) for the Latin and Greek.
The Special Courses extended over two years; the student
who completed any one of them received a certificate. The
courses were : 1. Shorter Course of English Studies, the first
year of which consisted of 1st Eng., 1st Hist., 1st Math.,
Inorganic Chemistry, Agriculture; the second year, 2nd
Eng., Eng. Lit., 2nd Hist., Polit. Econ., Physics, Botany and
Physiology (each one term). 2. Shorter Course of Science,
having in its first year 1st Math., Inorganic Chem., Botany,
Agriculture, 1st Eng., in the second year, 2nd Mat., Survey-
ing, Desc. Geom., Drawing, Physics, Zoology and Physiology
(each one term). 3. Shorter Course of Agriculture, its first
year being Agriculture, Inorganic Chem., 1st Math., 1st
Eng., 1st Fr. or Ger. ; its second year, Agricul. Chem., Quali-
tative Analysis, Quantitative Analysis, Botany, Zoology and
Physiology (each one term), Surveying. 4. Shorter Course
for Teachers. First Year. 1st Latin; 1st Greek or 1st
French; 1st Eng.; 1st Math.; 1st Hist.; Physical Geog.
Second Year. 2nd Lat. ; 2nd Greek or 1st Ger. ; 2nd Eng. ;
Eng. Lit, and Methods of Teaching (each one term) ; 2nd
Math. ; Physics. 5. Shorter Course Preparatory for Medicine
and Pharmacy. First Year. 1st Lat. or 1st French; Inor-
ganic Chem. ; Botany ; 1st Math. ; 1st Eng. Second Year.
2nd Lat. or 1st Ger. ; Organic Chem. and Pharmacy ; Phar-
maceutical and Chemical Analysis; Zoology and Physiology
(each one term) ; Physics. These courses were co-ordinated
with the others so that if a student after taking one of them


should wish to pursue his studies and take a degree, he
could do so.

Post-graduate courses were offered, which will be taken
up later.

The professional courses led to the degrees of Civil Engi-
neering (C. E.), Mining Engineering (M. E.), and Bache-
lor of Laws. The Civil Engineering course required, in addi-
tion to all the subjects prescribed in the course of Mechanics
and Engineering, a course of not less than one year, includ-
ing technical and applied work in Mathematics, Mechanics,
Engineering, Drawing and Construction, and Analytical
Chemistry (Qualitative). A similar additional requirement
was made in the Mining Engineer course of Analytical Chem-
istry (Qualitative and Quantitative), Mineralogy and
Geology, Applied Mathematics, Mechanics and Drawing.
The course in law will be given in the chapter on the law

There were eight chairs, including the president but not
the professor of law.

The University of South Carolina, 1888-1891, was organ-
ized into a College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, a Col-
lege of Liberal Arts and Sciences, a College of Pharmacy, a
Normal School, and a Law School. The College of Agricul-
ture and Mechanic Arts offered six regular four year courses
leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science (B. S.), four
two year Special Courses for Certificates, and Elective
Courses. The regular four year courses were "General
Science," "Civil Engineering," "Mechanical Engineering,"
"Agriculture," "Chemistry," "Natural History." The Special
Courses were "General Science," "Applied Science," "Agri-
culture," "Business." Four regular four year courses were
offered by the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences: Classi-
cal, Latin and Modern Languages, English Literature, His-
tory and Philosophy. In the second year of the existence
of the University they were diminished to three by omiting
Philosophy and combining History with English. Elective
courses were also given. The College of Pharmacy offered
a course of two years for the degree of Graduate of Pharmacy


(Ph. G.), and a special two year course for a certificate
preparatory for medicine and pharmacy. To receive the
degree in pharmacy the candidate had to be twenty-one years
of age and present a certificate that he had had two years of
experience in a drug store in addition to that acquired in
the course. A student of the Normal School could pursue a
one year's course leading to the degree of Licentiate of
Instruction (L. I.), which was a professional course, or, if
not prepared for this, he could take a two years' special
course preparatory to the study of pedagogy.

The regular courses differed little from the courses
described above in the college. When it was largest, the
faculty had 17 full professors, including the president, but
not the professor of law, and 10 subordinate instructors.

The University became the College in 1891. The profes-
sorships of Agriculture and Agricultural Chemistry had been
discontinued in 1890. The new College of South Carolina
had during the first year of its existence the courses for the
A. B. and the B. S. degrees the same as under the university
charter. Essays were added in the senior years, and a few
hours of elective were permitted in the junior and senior
classes. The following year they were contracted into the
Classical and the Literary leading to the degree of Bachelor
of Arts, and the Scientific learning to the Bachelor of Science
degree. Normal courses of two years with certificate of
qualification to teach in the Grammar schools, of three years
for the Licentiate of Instruction (L. I.) and of four years for
the Bachelor of Arts (A. B.) were added in 1893; but the
courses did not go into effect until the fall of 1894, when
the professor of pedagogy was elected. Four courses were
at this time provided leading to the A. B. degree, Classical
and three Literary, and for the B. S. degree, General Science,
Chemical, Civil Engineering and Electrical Engineering.
Students might take special courses of any length and receive
a formal certificate that he had completed certain work. In
1898 the courses for the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of
Science degrees were cut down to one each, with alternatives
and electives, except that for the engineering students addi-


tional and special work was required. The following year
brought further changes : the courses for the degree of Bache-
lor of Arts were so arranged that the first two years remained
the same for all who sought this degree, except that alterna-
tives in language were allowed ; in the third year there was
a division into four courses, Classical, Latin-Science Latin-
Literature, Modern-Literature; the fourth year consisted of
Ethics, Political Science, Astronomy, Essays, and six hours
elective. In the junior year the same number of elective
hours was allowed. There was a similar arrangement in
regard to the first two years of the Bachelor of Science
course; the division in the third year was into Mathe-
matical-Physical and Chemical-Biological. The require-
ments in regard to the Civil and Engineering courses
remained as before. A Special Normal Course was added
in 1903. Logic and Psychology were required in the third
year of all courses by regulation of the board of trustees
in 1904. Spring courses for teachers lasting about six weeks,
from the last of March until the middle of May, were intro-
duced in 1900 and attracted students for several years; but
the summer schools made them unnecessary, so that they
were not largely attended after 1904 ; in 1908 all mention of
them was omitted from the catalogue. Another working over
of the course was made in 1907 : Three schools now appear,
School of Art, School of Science, and Teacher's School. In
the first, which led to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, there
were four courses named as before ; the old courses were also
kept in the School of Science; in the Teacher's School there
were two courses leading, the one to the L. I. degree, the
other to the A. B. degree. The term was now made the basis
of the measure of work. The courses differed but little from
the former except that greater election was granted. An
arrangement of the courses of study in groups came into use
in 1909, the old names being employed for the groups,
although the courses were the same. In the School of Arts a
new course Commerce and Finance appears. The following
year brings another school, that of Engineering with its
special courses for Civil and Electrical Engineering leading


to the degree of Bachelor of Science; graduate work was
added for those who wished to go on to the degree of Civil
Engineering (C. E.) and of Electrical Engineering (E. E.).
This school also offered a course on Road Construction. The
catalogue of 1910-11 offered a course for those who desired
to enter social or religious life and a Course Leading to
Mining Engineering. Spanish was made a substitute for
French in all courses where the latter language was required.
Shorter courses of two years in English and Scientific
Studies, in Commerce and Finance, in Road Building, Pre-
paratory to Medicine or Pharmacy and Preparatory to Law
were introduced in 1912 modelled on the shorter courses of
a quarter of a century before. A larger latitude of selection
was allowed in a revision of all the courses, except in Com-
merce and Finance, Social and Religious, and Education,
in which complete courses were planned.

The courses of study offered in the School of Arts and
Science were arranged in the following groups :


Ancient Languages History Mathematics and

Modern Languages Economics Astronomy

English Philosophy Physics

Education Chemistry
Geology and


1. For the degree of A. B. or B. S. the candidate must
submit 142 credits, to be distributed as follows :

a. At least 24 credits must be taken in at least two depart-
ments from each of the three groups.

b. At least 36 additional credits must be taken in one of
the groups.

c. Thirty credits may be selected freely in the three groups.

d. Four credits must be offered in Gymnasium.

2. The above credits must include the following, which are
required of all candidates for these degrees: English 12,

13 H. U.


History 12, Mathematics 12, one Language 12, Laboratory
Science 6 or 8, and Gymnasium 4.

3. The following courses may be credited with only two-
thirds of their value when offered as electives by Juniors or
Seniors: Greek A, French A, German A, Physiography,
Elementary Botany, Elementary Zoology, and Commercial

The degree of Bachelor of Arts will be awarded to students
who elect the major part of their work in Groups I or II;
the degree of Bachelor of Science to those who do their
major work in Group III.

The unit of value is one hour a week for one term two
hours of laboratory work being counted as one.

In 1904-05, the year before the present university was
chartered the full professors numbered ten, and the subordi-
nate professors seven. The catalogue of 1912-13 presents a
faculty of twenty-two full professors, two associate pro-
fessors, four adjunct professors, four instructors and three

The students who graduated at the old South Carolina
College received the degree of Bachelor of Arts. This was
also the degree given by the first University of South Caro-
lina. No degrees were given by the Agricultural and
Mechanical College of South Carolina. The South Carolina
College which was opened in 1882 offered courses leading to
the Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts degrees; but
the first degree was withdrawn after the opening year and
only the A. B. was offered. It came back with the Univer-
sity in 1888 and was bestowed for the first time in 1889. In
1894, 1895 and 1900 none of the graduates took this degree.

The degree of Master of Arts was the only graduate degree
offered before 1882. Besides the A. M. the Master of Science
(M. S.) was offered by the second university. This degree
was a continuation of the Bachelor of Science. There was
also at this time the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.),
given after a resident graduate course of liberal study of at
least two years, embracing one principal and two related
subjects, with a thesis. A similar degree, Doctor of Science


( Sc. D. ) , was designed for those who wished to pursue their
B. S. studies by means of a two years resident graduate

The professional degree of Civil Engineer (C. E.) and
Mining Engineer (M. E.) were given at first for graduate
work of two years, which was reduced to one year in 1888.
They were first offered in 1882 ; after 1891 they were dropped.
The University of South Carolina which existed from 1888
to 1891 had the degrees of Mechanical Engineer (Mech. E.),
Graduate in Pharmacy (Ph. G.) and Licentiate in Instruc-
tion ( L. I. ) . This last degree was reintroduced in 1889 and
has been offered since that year. The Degrees of C. E. and
Electrical Engineer (E. E.) appear in the catalogue of
1908-09 as graduate degrees, the latter dropping out in two
years ; the former has been given since 1911 at the successful
conclusion of a prescribed course of four years.

The law school has conferred the degree of Bachelor of
Laws (LL. B.). To those who completed the medical course
in the University from 1867 to 1873 the degree of Doctor
of Medicine (M. D.) was given.

The first edition of the bylaws of the South Carolina Col-
lege after the opening in 1805, which appeared two years
later, declares that "Every bachelor, in the third year after
his first degree; if he shall have sustained a fair character,
and shall perform such exercises as may be assigned him,
shall be entitled to the degree of Master of Arts; for which
he shall pay the same perquisites as for the first degree."
The next section of the bylaws provide that, "Persons who
have received a degree in any other College, or University,
may, upon proper application, be admitted ad eundem, on
payment of the customary fees to the President."

In the edition of the bylaws published in 1836 there is
the same provision for the degree; but in addition to being
allowed to take the degree "in course," a student might
remain on the campus and take the degree "in residence",
in accordance with the requirement that, "In like manner any
Bachelor who shall have resided in the College one session
after the degree conferred, and shall have pursued a course


of study therein under the direction of the President, and
shall have sustained a fair character and performed such
exercises as the Faculty have assigned him, shall be admitted
to the degree of Master of Arts." Students who availed
themselves of this privilege were permitted to live on the
campus conforming to the general rules and regulations of
the institution and paying ten dollars for the use of the
library for the one year.

The first commencement at which the degree of Master of
Arts was given was that of 1812, when it was conferred upon
Robert W. Gill and Benjamin F. Whitner. In his report to
the board in November, 1843, the president announced the
presence of six resident graduates who had been pursuing
a course of reading which he had assigned. This is the first
mention of resident graduates. Nearly every year there-
after, as revealed by the catalogues, there were two or more
students who were enrolled as pursuing graduate studies in

The requirements for the degree of Master of Arts under
the university established in 1866 was graduation in Ancient
Languages, Modern Languages, Mathematics, Natural Phil-
osophy, Chemistry, Mental and Moral Philosophy, History,
Political Philosophy, and Rhetoric and English Literature.

There were every year a number of students enrolled as
"resident graduates"; but none of them took the degree.
The reason for this residence was the desire to get a room
for very little cost.

No degrees were given by the college of agriculture and
mechanic arts which was opened in 1880. When the South
Carolina College was rehabilitated in 1882, graduate work
was undertaken leading to the second degree. H. Cowper
Patton, of the class of 1883, received the Master of Arts
degree in 1884, the first since 1860. The requirement was
one year's resident graduate study with proficiency in a
graduate course of not less than three hours approved by the

The degrees of Master of Science (M. S.) and Master of
Arts (M. A.) were given from 1888 to 1891 for one year's


residence with proficiency in a graduate course of three
studies, "scientific" or "liberal" according to the degree.
The degrees of Doctor of Science (Sc. D.) and Doctor of
Philosophy (Ph. D.) offered during the same years required
two years' residence with proficiency in a course of one prin-
cipal and two subordinate subjects, "scientific" or "liberal",
as above. All graduate courses were subject to the approval
of the faculty. One student, Frank Welborn Pickel, received
the Master of Science degree; Thomas Pierce Bailey is the
only holder of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

After 1891 the Master of Arts degree was secured by a one
year's course of study approved by the faculty. A major
and two minor subjects with a thesis and a grade of 85 were
made the requirements in 1900. The minors have recently
been increased to three.

When the number of students in the ante-bellum college
was at its greatest, 237 in 1848-49, the proportion of students
to professors was 1 to 30 in round numbers. At present the
proportion is about 1 to 17. The difference is caused by the
rigidity of the course of study in the old college and the
freedom of election in the University, which requires a mul-
tiplication of courses.

The earliest bylaws provide for three general examinations
each year, one public, the other two private. The latter were
held the first Monday in April and the Wednesday preceding
vacation; the public examination was held on the fourth
Monday in November and extended to "all the studies pur-
sued since the last examination." The private examinations
had to do only with the work gone over since the last exami-
nation. Final examinations for the seniors took place six
weeks before commencement, so that plenty of time might
be given for preparing the parts taken by the graduates in
the commencement exercises. The laws of 1836 fixed two
examinations: those of the other classes following that of
the seniors on the first Tuesday after the fourth Monday in
June; the second beginning one week before commencement,
the seniors being examined two weeks earlier. In 1857 the
practice of holding three examinations for the three lowest


classes was instituted and continued as long as the old col-
lege existed. After 1866, when commencement was changed
from December to June, there were two examinations held
in February and June. The division of the session into three
terms by three examinations was introduced again in 1895 ;
two examinations have been given since 1901.

The schedule has always until recently been made up
before each examination period. As long as they were oral,
the students were for the most part examined by classes,
seniors, juniors, sophomores, freshmen, in the presence of
the whole faculty; each professor was allowed a certain
time three hours at one report. When written examina-
tions came into use in June, 1854, they were held in the
steward's hall, the room in which the seniors ate being
reserved for meals. The first written examinations lasted
from 7 a. m. to 10 p. m., which was found to be entirely too
long, so that examinations were thereafter limited to three
hours. Each student was required to sign a statement,
"That previously to coming into the examination room he
had not known what questions were to be proposed and that
in preparing his answers he had not been assisted in the
room, either by notes, memoranda, book, other students, or
other form." The faculty reported on the results of the
change of method of examining that they were entirely satis-
factory, although there is another statement of the time that
written examinations had had the effect of making the
students more careless of classroom work, because they

Online LibraryEdwin L. (Edwin Luther) GreenA history of the University of South Carolina → online text (page 16 of 38)