Edwin L. (Edwin Luther) Green.

A history of the University of South Carolina online

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It is still often consulted. The students had access to the
library on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, the only days
it was open. The commencement exercises, or Public Day,
were held in the chapel. In 1869 a committee examined the
hall of the house of representatives and reported that in
their opinion it was not a suitable place for the exercises,
which were accordingly held in the library, where they con-
tinued to be held. Mr. Barnwell conferred the degrees in
an appropriate Latin address.

All the old scholarships were destroyed by the war except
the Hutchinson, which was paid from the income of railroad
bonds. These bonds, however, brought no revenue. General
Hampton maintained the Hampton scholarship for a short

Chairman Barnwell made his first report to the board in
May, 1866. "The general want of preparation and habits
of study, together with the late period at which many of
them (the students) joined the university has prevented
such general improvement in my department as I could have
wished; but the strong desire to obtain an education indi-
cated by regular attendance, great order and attention, and
a good degree of application on the part of the young men,
promise better results in the future. Under the difficult


circumstances in which they have been gathered together
and instructed, I think I may report very favorably and
hopefully of the literary condition of the university, officers
and students discharging their respective duties with great
fidelity." Before the end of the session in June 48 men had
enrolled in the various departments. No cases for the exer-
cise of discipline had occurred. No commencement exercises
were held in 1866. The second session brought the Univer-
sity 108 students, which was increased to 113 the following
year. "Poverty, ravages of the caterpillar, and the low price
of cotton," are enumerated in 1867 as causes why the num-
ber of students was not larger.

From the constitutional convention of 1868 dates the
decline of the university, owing to the insertion of a clause
in the constitution that allowed negroes to attend. There
were 65 students in 1868-69; 42 in 1869-70; 53 in 1870-71;
88 in 1871-72; 65 in 1872-73.

Chancellor J. A. Inglis was elected to the professorship
of law in January, 1867. He having declined, A. C. Haskell
was elected in June. Professor Haskell taught with four
students one session and resigned in August, 1868, to enter
the political field. No successor was chosen until C. D.
Melton was elected in July, 1869. The number in the law
department was always small. Neither was the medical
department large.

The medical school of the university was established at
the same time as that of the law, by the election of Drs.
J. J. Chisolm and J. T. Darby. The former having declined,
Dr. A. N. Talley was elected. The school of medicine had
the following faculty: John T. Darby, M. D., professor of
Anatomy and Surgery; A. N. Talley, M. D., professor of the
Principles and Practice of Medicine and Obstetrics; Joseph
LeConte, M. D., professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy;
M. LaBorde, M. D., professor of Physiology and Hygiene;
John LeConte, M. D., professor of Materia Medica and Medi-
cal Jurisprudence; Edward D. Smith, M. D., demonstrator
of Anatomy. Dr. Smith was elected in August, 1867, by
the faculty in accordance with the act creating the university


as amended in 1866. Dr. Darby resigned in September, 1872 ;
Robert W. Gibbes of Columbia was chosen to fill his chair.
Dr. Smith became displeasing to the board, which removed
him in November, 1872. The faculty had the right of electing
the demonstrator of Anatomy and received the announce-
ment of his removal by the board merely as information ; but
he, not wishing to be the occasion of friction between the
faculty and the board, resigned with the regrets of his col-
leagues. The board filled his place with Dr. John A. Watson
of Chester. Dr. John Lynch of Columbia, having declined
to succeed Dr. Smith as demonstrator of Anatomy in 1869,
was elected to a new chair of Physiology and Materia
Medica, established in October of that year.

The course in the school of medicine lasted two years.
Money was very scarce, so that equipment was scanty; the
board was willing to appropriate what the professors asked
for when the money was in the treasury. The faculty of
the medical college of the State of South Carolina, com-
monly known as the Charleston Medical college, sent a
"Memorial" to the legislature of 1868 showing the inex-
pediency of having another medical college within the State.
A counter memorial was issued by the university.

A school of Modern Languages was established in
November, 1866, by the election of Professor A. Sachtleben,
who came to Columbia in the following June. He was one
of the most active members of the faculty. He resigned in
October, 1869. Prof. J. C. Faber, an alumnus, a professor
in Furman University, was elected to the vacant chair.

On motion of Professor Sachtleben a resolution was
adopted that a course of public lectures should be under-
taken by the members of the faculty. Twenty lectures were
delivered on Thursday evening from November to April.
This course was apparently not as successful as could be
desired, for it was given for only one year. In April and
May, 1873, at the invitation of the Euphradian Society some
of the professors gave a short course of lectures in the
chapel. Professor Joseph LeConte lectured to a large class


on Sundays in a most enjoyable manner. These lectures of
his were afterwards published in book form.

Life on the campus was full of pleasure, although there
was little money. "As everybody was poor," says Professor
Joseph LeConte in his autobiography, "the gatherings were
almost wholly without expense, and therefore frequent; the
hostess simply furnished lemonade and cake, and the young
men a negro fiddler." Professor Charles Woodward Hut son,
then a graduate student, writes: "Seldom have any three
years passed in the history of any university so full of
unalloyed social delight. We were all too poor to think
about dress or refreshments ; we met simply for the pleasure
of being together." Another social recreation, he says, was
to go in parties to the gallery of the chapel during the
session of the legislature and watch the proceedings. Pro-
fessor Hutson also recalls the delightful Shakespeare club
that met once a week at the home of Professor Joseph

The House of Representatives met in the chapel and the
Senate in the library during the regular sessions of 1865,
1866, 1867, and the extra session of 1867.

The professor's salary of f 1,000 was supplemented by fees.
By an act of 1869 the salary was increased to f 2,000, with the
possibility of $500 more from fees. On this f 2,000 an income
tax of five per cent, had to be paid. At first there was a
great inequality in the amounts received by the different
members of the faculty. Some of the professors were unable
to meet expenses. A certain number of State students were
allowed to enter without paying fees; but the ordinary
student had at first to pay $130, or thereabouts, in fees, a
heavy tax in those days. They were decreased later, and
the number of free students was increased.

The constitution adopted in 1868, by which the State was
reconstructed and placed under negro domination, required
that "all the public schools, colleges, and universities of this
State, supported in whole or part by the public funds, shall
be free and open to all the children of this State, without
regard to the race or color." Great apprehension was felt


for the fate of the university. The uncertainty of the univer-
sity's fate caused a decrease by almost half in the number
of students the following session, 65 against 113 in 1867-68.
In dread of the coming disaster the two LeConte brothers
accepted positions in the University of California that was
just being established. Mr. Barnwell reported to the board
in November, 1868, his regret "to be obliged to state that
there has been a very great diminution in the number of
students connected with this university. Rumors prevailed
very extensively throughout this State and the adjacent
States that the institution would be closed in October or
shortly after, so as to interrupt the studies of those who
might join it during the present session. The faculty
endeavored, as far as they had the authority to speak, to
correct these reports, but not with the success which they
desired. Only 57 matriculated this October in lieu of 110
in the October preceding, many uniting themselves to insti-
tutions within the State, and many removing to the institu-
tions of other States."

Changes in the faculty now became frequent. Professor
Alexander resigned in August, 1869, his place being taken
by Professor T. E. Hart of Darlington. This professor was
removed in June, 1872, and Rev. A. W. Cummings, D. D.,
put in his place. Professor Sachtleben resigned just after
Professor Alexander. Dr. James Woodrow, of the seminary
in Columbia, was placed in, charge of the school of Chemistry
and Geology under an arrangement made through J. L.
Nagle. He was removed in June, 1872, in order that a place
might be made for Rev. T. N. Roberts. Professor Hart
taught the subjects in Professor John LeConte's department
a few months until Rev. B. B. Babbitt, A. M., was elected in
1870. Professor Rivers resigned at the same time as Pro-
fessor Sachtleben ; but at the desire of Professor J. C. Faber,
who was to teach the Ancient Languages temporarily, he
was retained and finally reinstated. He resigned and left
for Maryland in the summer of 1873, when Professor Fisk P.
Brewer of Chapel Hill was elected to the chair of Ancient
Languages. Professor Faber was removed in October, 1873,


making way for R. Vampill, M. D. E. W. Barnwell, Pro-
fessor M. LaBorde and Professor J. L. Reynolds were
removed at the same time as Prof. Faber. Rev. Henry M.
Fox, D. D., took Dr. LaBorde's place. Professor Roberts
was changed from chemistry to the chair held by Mr. Barn-
well. William Main, Jr., A. M., succeeded to Professor
Roberts's chair. Dr. LaBorde was elected to succeed Pro-
fessor Reynolds. When the session of 1873-74 began Dr.
LaBorde was the only one of the old professors on the

A bill was passed by the legislature in February, 1869,
amending the act incorporating the University of South
Carolina. According to it a board of seven members was to
take the place of the former trustees. "The University shall
not," it said, "make any distinction in the admission of
students or the management of the University on account of
race, color, or creed." The trustees were given the authority
to establish a preparatory school, which was not to receive
any pecuniary aid from the State.

Whipper and some others would have removed the white
professors for negroes, but for four years the whites remained
in possession in constant fear that the old institution which
had so long been the pride of the State should be brought
to the infamy of the negro. Two members of the new board,
elected in February, 1869, were negroes, F. L. Cardozo and
B. A. Bozeman. Besides the governor, ex-officio member,
the other trustees were : F. J. Moses, Jr., Thomas J. Robert-
son, John L. Nagle, Reuben Tomlinson, J. K. Jillson. The
board had up to this time been meeting at Mckerson's hotel
now the Colonia hotel; from this time it met in the
executive chamber at the State House.

The students bore themselves with commendable conduct.
Riotous behavior is first noticed in January, 1871, in the
firing of pistols on the campus. Immediately after the com-
mencement exercises in June, 1872, riotous and disorderly
conduct began in front of the chapel, which continued for
two days. The board took the matter up and debarred
D. B. Darby, T. H. Fisher and T. C. Robertson from all


rights as alumni and denied them admission to the grounds
and buildings. In 1873 several alumni living in rooms on
the campus were ordered to move. The artist, Albert Guerry,
was also ordered from the room he occupied beneath the
Euphradian Hall.

In the early part of 1873 a new board of trustees were
elected: White, J. K. Jillson, D. H. Chamberlain, L. C.
Northrop ; negro, Samuel J. Lee, J. A. Bowley, D. A. Swails,
W. R. Jervay. The legislature at the same time made pro-
vision for a normal school, to which the professors of the
university were to give aid in the form of lectures as the
board of regents of the normal school might direct. This
school was to be located on the grounds of the University,
and the library was to be open to the normal students, who
would be, for the most part at least, negroes. The purpose
of the trustees to make the University a mixed school for
whites and blacks, where racial equality should be taught
and exemplified, was now disclosed.

On October 7, 1873, Henry E. Hayne, a negro man, then
secretary of state, matriculated in the medical school. There-
upon Drs. Talley and Gibbes and Professor LaBorde
resigned. On motion of D. H. Chamberlain the board
passed a resolution, declaring that their resignation had
been due to the race of Henry E. Hayne, and expressing
satisfaction that such a spirit "so hostile to the welfare of
our State, as well as to the dictates of justice and the claims
of our common humanity, will be no longer represented in
the University, which is the common property of all our

*For the history of the period from 1873 to 1877 see the Appendix.





When the general assembly was convened in extra session
in April, 1877, a joint resolution, approved June 7, declared
that the existing methods of conducting the university and
the State normal school were impracticable and unneces-
sarily expensive and placed under the control of the gov-
ernor all the real and personal property of these two insti-
tutions, which he was to place in the hands of some discreet
and competent person who should rent the houses to suitable
tenants and use the proceeds to keep all the property in good
condition and repair, and for his compensation. The scholar-
ships in the university were abolished by act. A salary of
f 500 for the librarian was provided. A commission, consist-
ing of the governor, the board of trustees, and the chairman
of the committees on education of the senate and the house,
was constituted for the purpose of inquiring into and devis-
ing plans for the organization and maintenance of one univer-
sity for the white and one for the colored youths of the State
of equal privileges and advantages.

A new board of trustees was elected : Rev. E. J. Meynardie,
R. W. Boyd of Marion, B. F. Perry of Greenville, F. W.
McMaster of Columbia, C. H. Simonton of Charleston, J. D.
Blanding of Sumter, J. H. Rion of Winnsboro.

Governor Hampton appointed Hon. R. W. Barnwell
librarian, which appointment was confirmed by the board
at its first meeting. He was allowed to occupy any house
on the campus he might desire. His choice fell on the house
now known as Flinn Hall, in which he resided till his death
in 1882. His family continued to occupy this residence to
the year 1888, the year of the death of Miss Eliza Barn well,
who was for several years in charge of the library. The
minutes of the trustees state that all applications for custo-


dian of the grounds and buildings of the university were to
be referred to the executive committee, Messrs. Rion,
McMaster and Meynardie ; but there is no mention of a
custodian, and it is understood that Mr. Barnwell looked
after the property of the university as long as it was closed.
The residences were rented; some held families of citizens
till the early '80s.

The first meeting of the new board was held in the library
on the evening of July 30. Professor Cummings appeared
for the faculty to ask for three-fourths of the salary for the
fiscal year. This was granted. Professors Brewer and
Greener handed in their resignations; the other professors
were informed through Professor Cummings that the general
assembly had directed that the university should be closed
on July 31 and that the board would accept the resignation
of any of the professors as of that date.

The trustees met again the following morning, when the
time was spent for the most part in a discussion as to the
time and manner of reorganizing the university.

We learn from the newspapers of the day that the report
that the colored students on leaving had done great injury
to the university property was unwarranted.

From this time to the first Monday in October, 1880, the
university remained closed.

The governor was requested to call a meeting of the board
and the commission provided for by the joint resolution
during the coming October. This appears not to have been
done. However, at the meeting of the trustees on Decem-
ber 4, Rev. E. J. Meynardie read a paper of proposed articles
of agreement between Claflin College and the State of South
Carolina. Dr. Cook, president of Claflin College, then
addressed the board on the present condition and prospect
of that institution and the subject of education among the
colored youth, after which there was a general discussion on
the subject of Claflin College and the agricultural college
at Orangeburg. The board adjourned to meet with the
commission on the following day. Unfortunately, the
minutes of Mr. Nathaniel Barnwell, secretary of the board,

7 H. U.


are very brief. He begins the minutes of this joint session
of December 5, but for some reason did not complete them.
However, at the regular session of the general assembly for
1877 an act was passed to provide for the organization of
the university, which was evidently the work of the com-

According to the act which was approved March 22, 1878,
the university was to consist of two branches the one
located in the city of Columbia and styled the South Carolina
College, and the other in or near the town of Orangeburg,
to be styled the Claflin College. Both institutions were
placed under the control of the board of trustees of the Uni-
versity of South Carolina then in office and their successors
elected by law It was made the duty of the trustees to open
and establish an agricultural department in said university.
All Ihe property of the agricultural college at Orangeburg
was turned over to the trustees of the new university.

The first meeting of the new board elected by the legisla-
ture that passed the act met on the 16th of May, 1878. An
executive committee of three, Messrs. Dibble, Simonton and
Ca Id well, waa appointed to have charge of affairs at Claflin
College. Gen. J. S. Preston, Messrs. Simonton, Boyd,
Thompson, Blanding and Caldwell were made a committee
of organization for the South Carolina College. A committee
was also appointed to consider whether the offer of the
trustees of the South Carolina Medical College to put their
institution under the care of the university was advisable
or practicable. Col. Blanding moved the consideration of
the advisability of establishing as a branch of the University
a military college with schools of mining engineering and
agricultural chemistry.

Claflin College was unwilling to be absorbed by the uni-
versity, so that no progress could be reported by the com-
mittee at the next meeting. The other committees made
verbal reports, which were not preserved. A report on the
agricultural funds was made to the legislature, which turned
over by an act approved December 23, 1879, to the University
tiie sum of $101,800 in State stock, bearing interest at the


rate of 6 per cent, from July 1, 1879, to be held by the
trustees as a perpetual fund, to be used solely for the pur-
poses for which the land script was originally donated by
congress. The trustees were authorized to establish a college
of agriculture and mechanics for the benefit of the white
students, in addition to the institution maintained for the
colored students; they could use the grounds and property
of the university at Columbia as they deemed necessary for
the aforesaid purpose. Scholarships might also be estab-
lished, which might be used according to a scheme to be
devised by the board. The appropriation for the Agricul-
tural College and Mechanics' Institute at Orangeburg was
made payable on the order of the board of trustees of the
University. This compelled the trustees of Claflin College
to yield.

A plan of organization was reported at a meeting of the
trustees in September, 1879. By invitation all the presi-
dents of male colleges in South Carolina were expected to
be present; but only the presidents of Charleston College,
Erskine College and Newberry College came to the meeting.
After Mr. Dibble had read the report on the formation of
an agricultural college, final action was postponed until
Wednesday of the approaching fair week. The legislature
was to be asked for permission to open the college as soon
as possible and to provide f 10,000 for that purpose. Three
college presidents were present at the meeting during fair
week, one of them being President Benjamin Sloan of Adger

With the minutes of the college at Columbia are now
combined those relating to Claflin College, but the workings
of this institution will not be included in this history.

In January following the act of authorization the trustees
decided to open the college in Columbia the first Monday in
October, 1880. In February four chairs were decided on:
1. Analytical and Agricultural Chemistry and Experimental
Agriculture; 2. Geology, Mineralogy, Botany and Zoology;
3. Mathematics, Natural Philosophy and Mechanics; 4.
English Language, Literature and Belles Lettres. Messrs.


J. S. Preston, H. S. Thompson, J. E. Bacon, J. H. Kinsler
and J. H. Rion were appointed as the executive com-
mittee for this college. The election of the professors
took place in May. William Porcher Miles was elected
president and professor of English Language, Literature and
Belles Lettres. The chair of Geology, Mineralogy and
Botany was offered to Professor Joseph LeConte at a salary
of $2,500, which he declined, preferring to remain in Cali-
fornia ; he had been away for 11 years. In August Dr.
James Woodrow was elected to this chair. Maj. Benjamin
Sloan, president of Adger College, became professor of
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. To Dr. William B.
Burney was offered the chair of chemistry and experimental
agriculture, which he accepted. G. W. Connors was made
foreman of the farm, and Jesse Jones foreman of the shop.
Before the opening of the second session Maj. R. S. Morrison
was elected to the position of marshal. The committee on
college buildings was instructed to obtain possession of the
buildings as soon as possible from the families occupying
them. The title "South Carolina College of Agriculture and
Mechanics" was adopted for the reopened institution.

On the 5th of October, the white people of South Carolina
were again, after seven years, able to send their sons to

A three-year course was arranged for the students of the
new college, the first year of which was entirely academic;
the agriculture and mechanics began with the second year.
There was no tuition fee, though each student was required
to pay an annual fee of f 10 to be expended on repairs, which
were sadly needed. Even after Dr. McBryde came into the
presidency in 1882 some of the windows were boarded up.
Professor Von Fingerlin and Professor J. C. Faber were
licensed to teach ancient and modern languages and allowed
to use the college's rooms for such purposes. Those who
studied with them paid such fees as they demanded.

There were, the first session, 1880-81, 66 students enrolled,
which was increased to 72 the following year. Twenty-six
were enrolled the first day, of whom 19 were from Columbia.

.1. William Flinn, 1888-1905.

Patterson Wardlaw, 1894.
Edward S. Joynes, 1882-1908.
Emeritus Professor. 1908.

W. J. Alexander, 1882-1891.

W. B. Burney, 1880.



Between 20 and 30 were rejected on account of their extreme
youth ; the age for entrance was placed at 15. No catalogue
was issued in 1881-82 ; but the officers, faculty and students
are included in the catalogue published in 1883. Two classes

Online LibraryEdwin L. (Edwin Luther) GreenA history of the University of South Carolina → online text (page 8 of 38)