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LECTURES

ON THE

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

OF THE

UNITED STATES

Illustrated



Editors
EDWIN WILEY, M.A., Ph.D.

Fofmerly of the Library of Congress

Librarian U. S. Naval War College^ Newport, R. /.

and

IRVING E. RINES



Advisory Editor

(In the Field of International Relations and Government)

ALBERT BUSHNELL HART. Ph.D., LL.D.. Litt.D.

Professor of Government in Harvard University



ELEVEN VOLUMES
WITH MAPS AND I LLUiST RATIONS



AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL ALLIANCE
NEW YORK



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Copyright 1916

BY

Irving E. Rinbs



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Vit






E
118



CONTENTS OF VOLUME III,



SECOND PERIOD.

fHB 8TBU06LB FOB IlfDEPKNDEHOB AlO) THE ATTAIIflCKIfT OW IfATIOllALITr.

1764 — 1789.

PART ONE.

m AiaaaoAK BEvoLunoif, 1764-1783
(CofiitfMied).



-I



CHAPTEK XV.
17TT.
BATTU8 0FTBIlfTONAin>PBIKCnOH: FSAJfOOacaQ
■XPEDinON, FAQB

Washington urgM greater vigor 1-2

Washington appointed dictator 2

Captore of Hessians under Rail at l^renton. . 8-7

Battle of Princetcn 7-10

Proclamations of Howe and Washington. . . . 10-12
British plundering arouses inhabitants.... 11-12

Plundering by Americans 12-13

Suffering of the prisoners at New York. . . . 13-15

Army inoculated 15

Heath's attempt to capture Fort Independence 15

Tryon's irruption into Connecticut 16-17

Meig's attack on Sag Harbor 17

Capture of General Prescott 17-18

CHAPTER XVI.
1777.

BTTBGOTNS'S nrVASIOXf.

Burgoyne in command of forces in Canada. . 18-19

Strength of his army 19-20

Indians employed 20

Burgoyne's proclamation 20

Fortifications at Ticonderoga 21

St. Clair evacuates Ticonderoga 21-22

Attack at Skenesborough Falls 23

Attack on Fort Anne 24

Schuyler obstructs Burgoyne's passage.... 24-25

Reinforcements sent north 25-26

Burgoyne's slow progress 26-27

Battle of Bennington 27-31

Defeat of St. Leger in the Mohawk Valley. 31-33

Herkimer defeated at Orlskany 31-32

Arnold's strategem 32-33

Schuyler superseded by Gates 83-84



FAOK

Murder of Jane McCrea 35-36

Battle of Freeman's Farm 36-38

Brown's attack on Ticonderoga 39

Clinton captures Forts Clinton and Mont-
gomery 39-42

Battle of Behmus Heights 42-44

Death of Fraser; Burgoyne retreats 45

Burgoyne surrenders 46-48

Schuyler's generosity * 49

Treatment of British prisoners 49-50

Appendix to Chapter XVI.

Burgoyne's Proclamation 50-51

CHAPTER XVn.

1777.

HOWE'S OAICPAJOIT AGAINST PHILADKLPHIA.

Position of American forces 51-52

Howe's movements perplex Washington . . . 52-53

Lafayette and other foreign officers 53-54

Howe enters the Chesapeake 54-55

Battle of Brandywine 55-58

Rain prevents another battle 58

Washington retreats to Warwick Furnace... 59

Battle near White Horse Tavern 59-60

Congress moves from Philadelphia 60

The Battle of Germantown 62-65

Attacks on Forts Mifflin and Mercer 65-68

American army goes into winter quarters. . 6^-69

CHAPTER XVlll.
1778.

▼ALLBT FOBOK; OQHWAT^B OABAL.

Sad condition of army 70

Sufferings of the troops 71-72

Corruption among contractors 72-73

Howe's reasons for inactivity 78-74



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IV



CONTENTS OF VOLUME III.



PAGE

Attempt to regulate prices 74

Confusion in commissary department 74-76

Discontent among troopsi 75-76

Washington urges and Congress grants half

pay 76-77

Jealousy of Washington 77-78

Conway begins attack on Washington's reputa-
tion 78-70

Circular letter to Governor Henry 80

Washington's reply to Laurens 80-81

Attempt to separate Washington and Lafay-
ette «l-82

Morgan declines to join Cabal 82

End of the Cabal 83

CHAPTER XIX.
1776-1778.

VOBBIQXf AITAIBS: FBBNOH ALLIANCE: OONCnJA-
TIOK ATTEMPTED-.

Committee of Secret Correspondence appointed 84

Franklin's letter to Dumas 84-86

Views regarding foreign intercourse 85

Plan to organize foreign department 85-86

Silas Deane sent to France 86

His negotiations with Vergennes 86-87

Beaumarchais and the firm of " Roderique

Hortalez et Cie'' 87-89

Treaty with foreign nations drafted 89-90

Letter of credence and instructlcms given to

commissioners 90^1

Franklin arrives in France 01

Inducements offered to France to recognize in-
dependence of the colonies 92-93

Complaint of the British minister 93

Proceedings in Parliament 94-95

Victory at Saratoga changes European senti-
ment 95

Memorial of the American commissioners.. 95-96

Lord North's conciliatory bills 96-97

The treaties with France signed 97-98

Congress rejects British overtures 98-100

British peace commissioners fail in their
mission 100-101

CHAPTER XX.

1777—1778.

ABTICLBS OF OONTEDEBATIOH : TIlfAKCES.

Franklin's plan of confederation 102-103

Articles of Confederation adopted by Congress

and the States 103-104

New issues of money 104-105



PAGE

Attempt to regulate prices 105

Measures adopted by Congress 105-106

Appendix to Chapter XX.

The Articles of Confederation 106-111

CHAPTER XXI.
1778.

HOWE EVACUATES PHILADELPHIA AlfD BSTBKATS
ACB08S JEESET.

British foraging expeditions 111-112

Howe succeeded by Clinton 112

Lafayette at Barren Hill 112-113

Philadelphia evacuated 114

Washington opposes British retreat 114-115

The Battle of Monmouth 115-118

Court-martial of General Lee^ 110

CHAPTER XXIL
1778.

FBBNCH FLEET ABBIVES: OPEEATIONS IK BHODE
ISLAND.

French fleet arrives and departs for Khode

Island 120-121

British defenses in Rhode Island 121

Engagement between French and British fleets 122

American army overtaken by storm 128

lyEstaing sails for Boston 123

Sullivan's irritation and Washington's letters

to appease French anger 123-127

Sullivan raises siege and retreats ' 128

British attack repulsed 128

New Bedford and Fairhaven burned 128-129

French fleet sails for West Indies 129

American army goes into winter quarters 129-130

Labors of Baron Steuben 130

Naval operations 130-131

CHAPTER XXIIL
1776-1779.

BOBD^ WABS: WYOMING: E XPEDI T IO NS OF CLABK
AND SULLIVAN.

The Cherokee War 131-134

The Massacre of Wyoming 134-130

The Massacre at Old Tappan 136

Ferguson's attack on Pulaski at Egg Harbor. . 136

The impolicy of the British expeditions 137

Retaliatory expeditions 137

The Massacre at Cherry Valley 137-138

George Rogers Clark conquers the North-
west 138-141

Sullivan's punitive expedition 141-143

Other expeditions 144



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CONTENTS OF VOLUME III.



CHAPTER XXIV.
177$-1779.

GENEBAI. LANGUCtt: DEPRESSO) CONDITION OF
FINANCES. pj^QK

Party dissensions in Congress 144-145

Lanquor and indifference 145-146

Washington's efforts to r«nedy conditions 146-147

Inactivity of the army 147

Lust for riches 148-149

Depreciation of the currency 149

Revolt of the Jersey Brigade 150-152

Issues of paper money 15^153

Quarrel between Lee, Franklin, and Deane 163-155

Paine's connection with the dispute 154

The Beaumarchais accounts 154

Lee and Izard recalled; Deane discharged... 155

Further issues of money 155-156

Rise of prices causes riot at Philadelphia. . . 156

Convention at Hartford 156-167

States slow in remitting quotas 167

Washington levies upon country for provisions 157

The new currency 158

Investigation of conditions in army 158

CHAPTER XXV.
ITTf.
0PEEATI0N8 IN THE SOUTH.

Savannah captured 159-160

Moderation of Colonel Camphell , . 160

Lincoln arrives at Charleston 160

Plundering by the Tories 161

Campbell retreats from Augusta 162

Ashe defeated by Provost 162-163

Provost's irruption into South Carolina. . 163-164

Provost retreats from Charleston 164-165

Battle of Stone Ferry 165-166

Desertions from American army 166

General Matthews in Virginia 167

French and American forces defeated at

Savannah 167-171

Colonel White's enterprise 171

CHAPTER XXVT.

1T79-17S0.

BlUTISH DEPREDATIONS: 8T0NT POINT: PAUL

JONES.

Condition of the American army 171-172

Spain joins France against England 172-173

Clinton captures Stony Point and Fort Lafay-
ette 173-174

Tryon's expedition into Connecticut 174-176

Wayne recaptures Stony Point 175-177

Stony Point evacuated by Americans 177-178

British attack on the Penobscot 178



FAGK

Major Lee at Paulus Hook 178-170

Army goes into winter quarters 179

Stirling's attempt on Staten Island 179-180

Knyphausen's raid in Jersey 180-181

Washington's letter to Congress 181-182

Morris and others form relief association 182

French reinforcements arrive 182-183

Major Tallmadge's exploit on Long Island 184

Border warfare 184

Paul Jones in the Bonhamtne Richard defeats
the 8erapi9 185-186

CHAPTER XXVn.
ITSOk

CLINTON AND C0BNWALLI8 IN THE SOTTTH: GATES
DEFEATED AT CAMDEN : KINGS MOXTNTAIN.

Clinton arrives in the south 187

The siege and capture of Charleston.... 188-192
Tarleton defeats Buford at WaxhawB. . . . 192-193

Clinton's proclamation 198-194

American activity; British tyranny 194-196

Sumter, Marion, and DeKalb 196-196

Gates defeated at Camden 197-201

Death of DeKalb 201

Greene supersedes Gates 202

Rebels ordered to be punished 202-203

Ferguson defeated at Kings Mountain. . . 208-206

Sumter's operations 206

Patriotism of the women 207

CHAPTER XXVm.
17S0.

TBBA80N OF BENEDICT ABNOUK

Arnold's marriage and extravagances 208-200

Injustice of Arnold's treatment by Con-
gress 209-210

Court-martial of Arnold and Washington's

sentence 210-211

Arnold resolves to avenge himself 211

Interview with Andr6 and oapture of the

latter 212-215

Arnold leams of Andre's capture und flees. . . 216
Washington's measures to defeat Clinton's

designs 216-217

Court-martial and death of Andr6 217-220

Appendix to Chapter XXVIII.

Sergeant Champe's Adventure 220-226

CHAPTER XXIX.
17S1.

rOBEIGN AFFAIB8: FINANCIAL DEPBB8SI0N CAUSES
MUTINY.

Jay's efldrts to obtain aid from Spain.. 226-227
The Armed Neutrality 227-228



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CONTENTS OF VOLUME IH.



FAGB

Adams negotiates treaty with Holland 229

Failure of other diplomatic agents 229-230

Alarming conditions of affairs in America 230-231

Notes of credit worthless 231-232

Morris becomes superintendent of finances. . . 233

Bank of North America organised 233

Foreign loans 233-234

Revolt of the Pennsylvania Line 234-236

Revolt of the Jersey Brigade 235

Appendix to Chapter XXIX.

Treaty of Armed Neutrality 236-237

CHAPTER XXX.
1781.

JlBNOLD Iff VIBOIiaA: COBirWALLIS AND BAWDON
nf THS CAB0LINA8.

Washington's ineffectual efforts to intercept

Arnold 238

Arnold's depredations in Virginia 239

Skirmish at Petersburg 240-241

Lafayette arrives to take command 241-242

Death of General Phillips 242

Greene takes command 242-243

The army divided 243

Attack on Tories at Ninety-Six 243

Battle of Cowpens 244-246

The race between Corwallis and Greene. . 246-250

Attacks on the Tories 250-251

Battle of Guildford Court House 251-252

Battle of Hobkirk's Hill 254-255

Other operations 255-256

Partisan warfare in Georgia 256-257

Fort Cornwallis captured 257

Greene's attack on Ninety-'Six 257-258

Battle of Eutaw Springs 259-262

Close of the war in South Carolina 262

CHAPTER XXXI.
1781.

OOBNWAIXIS 8UBBKNDEE8 AT TOBKTOWIf.

Operations of Lafayette and Cornwallis 263

Tarleton's attempt to capture Jefferson 264

Wayne and Lafayette attack Cornwallis. 265-266
Cornwallis establishes himself at York-
town 266-267

French reinforcements arrive 267

Washington confers with French com-
manders 267-268

Attack on New York planned to deceive

British 268-269

March toward the south begun 269-270

Arnold burns New London 271

Siege of Yorktown commences 272

Attacks on British works 274



FAQS

Cornwallis surrenders 275-277

Departure of the French 277

Border warfare 278

CHAPTER XXXIL

178a-178S.
ACnVB WAKFABB EIHMI.

Mobile District subjugated; Pensaoolii cap*

tured 278-279

Bird's expedition into Kentucky 279-280

Attack on St. Louis 280

March of the Spaniards across Illinois. . . S^80-281

Crawford's Campaign 281

Battle, of the Blue Licks 282

Ross' invasion of the Mohawk Valley 282

Washington urges preparations for another

campaign 282-283

The case of Captain Huddy 284

Washington requested to become king. . . .284-285

His letter to the Secretary of War 286

Operations in the South 286-287

Plan to seize General Greene 287

Last battle of the Revolution 287-288

Discontent in army 288-289

Condition of the finances 289

States consent to import duty 289-290

Memorial of the army officers to Congress 290-291

Attitude of Hamilton and Morris 291-292

The Newburgh Addresses 292

Washington's address to the officers 29.3

His letter to Congress 293-294

Action of C!ongress 294

Appendix to Chapter XXXII

i. *rhe Newburgh Addresses 294-296

ii. Washington's Address to the Army

Officers , 296-297

CHAPTER XXXm.

1782-1783.

PEACE CONCLX7DED.

Early eflforts for peace 298-299

Proceedings in Parliament 299

Cabinet changes 299-300

Carleton's peace overtures 300

Rockingham succeeded by Shelbume 300

Peace commissioners appointed by Congress. . 301

Oswald's mission to France 301-302

His negotiations with Franklin; new com-
mission demanded 302-303

Marbois' letter; Rayneval's mission 303-304

Vergennes' complaint and Franklin's answer. 305

Suspicion of France 306-308

The negotiations and oonelusion of peace. 308-310



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CONTENTS OF VOLUME IIL



Vll



FAQB

Joy oaused by return of peace S1(K-311

Independenoe of United States acknowledged. 311
The Definitive Treaty of Peace 311-814

CHAPTER XXXIV.
178S.

THE ABICT DISBANIOD: WASHmOIOir BB8I0N8

HIS OOlCMISSIOIf.

Non-payment of troopi oautee revolt. . . . 314-815
Society of the Cincinnati formed 815



PAQB

Washington's circular letter to the States 315-316

His farewell orders to the army 310

British evacuate New York; Americans

enter 816-317

Washington's farewell to his officers 317

He resigns his commission 817-318

Appendix to Chapter XXXIV.

L Washington's Circular Letter to the

States 318-323

iL The Resignation of Washington's Com-
mission 323-324



PART TWO.



THS OOmrEDKBATION AND THX CONSTITUTION,

1783-1789.



CHAPTER I.
178$.

CONDITIONS AND FBOBLEMS Or THE COUNTBT AVTEB
THB BEVOLUTION* PAQB

Deplorable state of the country 325-326

Sentiments of foreigners 326-327

Extent of settlement 327-828

Population 328

Boston, New York, Albany, Philadelphia, and

other cities 329-332

Difficulties of travel 332-333

SUtus of the State governments 333-334

Suffrage qualifications 334

Social Ufe 334-335

Prejudice against the theatre 336

Progress toward religious freedom 336-337

Church organisations founded 337-339

Educational progress 339

Labor conditions 340

Slavery and the slave trade 340-342

Curreifty 342

Penal affairs 342

ProUems before the people 342-344

CHAPTER IL
17tt-1787.

OOMMBBCB: TINANCB: CUBBENCT.

Deranged Condition of Foreign Trade. . . 345-346
Negotiations with England for commercial
treaty 346-348



PAQB

Congress requests power to regulate com-
merce 348-349

Commercial treaties with other nations. . 349-351

Condition of the finances 351-352

Congress requests power to lay specific

duties 352-353

Apportionment of the debt 353

The domestic and foreign debt 354

States assent to impost 354-355

Report of committee on state of finances. 355-356

Conflicting State laws 356

The struggle in New York over the impost 356-357

The coinage system 357-359

The struggle over paper money 359-366

CHAPTER m

1788-1787.

FOBSIGN ATTAIBS.

Dispute over carrying out terms of peace

treaty 366-367

Property confiscations 367

British violations of treaty 367-368

Negotiations of John Adams in England. 368-371
Dispute with Spain regarding navigation of

the Mississippi 371-374

Negotiations of Guardoqui and Jay 374-376

Letters of Lee and Washington 377

Action in the Western States 878-380

Madison's compromise 380

Debate in Congress 381

Dispute with the Barbary Powers 381-383



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Vlll



CONTENTS OF VOLUME III.



CHAPTER IV.
1784-1789.

LAND CESSIONS: WESTERN SETTLEMENTS:

NEW QOVEBNMSNTS. PAQK

Lands owned by States 383

Cessions by New York, Massachusetts, and

Connecticut 384

The Virginia territory 384-385

The Ordinance of 1784 385

Jefferson's scheme of erecting States. . . . 385-386

The slavery proviso 387

The Ordinance of 1787 introduced 387

Machinations of the Ohio Company 387-390

The Ordinance of 1787 passed 390

Cutler's negotiations for land grants.... 390-391
Provisions of the Ordinance of 178-7.... 391-394

The North Carolina Cession 394

John Sevier and the State of Franklin 395

North Carolina's authority reestablished in

Tennessee 395-396

Dispute between Virginia and the Ken-

tuckians 397-398

Clark's and Logan's expeditions against

Indians 398

The Miami Company; Cincinnati founded 398-399

Wilkinson's intrigues 400-401

Appendix to Chapter IV.

i. The Ordinance of 1787 401^05

ii. Letters of Dane and King regarding

authorship of the Ordinance. . 406-^07

CHAPTER V.

178S-1787.

THE WEAKNESS OF THE CONSTITUTION.

The powers of Congress 408-409

Defects of the Confederation 409-410

Recommendations of Congress treated with

contempt 410-411

Washington's interest 411-413

Suggestions for amending Articles of Con-
federation 414-416

Boundary dispute between Virginia and

Maryland 416-417

The Alexandria Convention 417

The Annapolis Convention 417-419

Delegates to Federal Convention appointed 419-421

Action of Congress 421-423

Action hastened by Shays' rebellion 423-428



Appendix to Chapter V. page

i. Hannie Taylor on Pelatiah Webster's

Plan of Gk>vernment 428-432

ii. Webster's Dissertation on the Political
Union and Constitution of the
Thirteen United States 432-446

CHAPTER VL

1787.

FBAKINQ or THE CONSTTrnTION.

Opening of the Convention 447

Prominent members 448

Defects to be remedied 449-450

Randolph presents the Virginia Plan . . . 450-452

Charles Pinckney's plan 452-456

Debate on executive and representation. 456-460

The New Jersey plan 460-461

Hamilton's plan 461-462

New Jersey plan declared inadmissable 463

Debate respecting legislature and representa-
tion 463-467

Report of the oonunittee of compromise 467

Debate on apportionment and basis of repre-
sentation 468-471

The question of taxation and representa-
tion 471-472

The President's term and manner of elec-
tion 472-473

Resolutions referred to the committee of de-
tail 474-476

The Constitution as reported by the com-
mittee 476-480

Citizenship, naturalization, and suffrage quali-
fications 481-482

Ratio of representation 483

Electoral College, money bills, and other de-
bates 484-485

Powers of the government; the judiciary 485-486
Sectional differences respecting commerce,

navigation, taxation, and slavery 486-491

Provisions for amendment and ratification 491-493
The Constitution signed; submitted to Con-
gress 493-494

Omissions from the Constitution 494-497

Appendix to Chapter VI.

L Members of the Federal Conven-
tion 497^98

ii. The Constitution and Its Amend-
ments 498-505



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SERIES FIVE
LECTURES SIXTEEN (Part 2) AND SEVENTEEN



The Revolutionary Era, 1764 — 1783

(Continued)



16. The Northern Campaigns; Foreign Relations and Finances (Part 2)

17. The Southern Campaign and the Establishment of Independence



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The United States



CHAPTER XV.
1777.

BATTLES OF TRENTON AND PRINCETON: PLUNDERING EXPEDITION.

Waahington's letter to Congress regarding army affairs — Washington appointed dictator — He determines to
strike an effective blow at the British — Captures the Hessians under Rail at Trenton^ — Consternation
of the British — Comwallis attacks Washington — The battle of Princeton — American troops overrun
Jersey — Americans take advantage of Howe's proclamation — Washington's counter proclamation — Excesses
and barbarities of both armies — Howe's treatment of prisoners — Washington's protests — Army is inocu-
lated — Heath attempts to capture Fort Independence — British depredations at Peekskill and in Connecti-
cut — Attack on Sag Harbor — Capture of General Prescott.

had a greater choice of difficulties to contend
with than I have. It is needless to add, that short
enlistments, and a mistaken dependence upon
militia, have teen the origin of all our misfor-
tunes, and the great accumulation of our debt. We
find, Sir, that the enemy are daily gathering
strength from the disaffected. This strength, like
a snowball, by rolling, will increase, unless som«
means can be devised to check effectually the
progress of the enem}r's arms. Militia may pos-
sibly do it for a little while ; but in a little while,
also, and the militia of those States, which have
been frequently called upon, will not turn out at
all ; or, if they do, it will be with so much reluct-
ance and sloth, as to amount to the same thing.
Instance New Jersey! Witness Pennsylvania!
Could any thing but the river Delaware have
saved Philadelphia? Can any thing (the exigency
of the case may indeed justify it), be more de-
structive to the recruiting service than giving ten
dollars' bounty for six weeks' service of the



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