Elihu Rich.

Appleton's cyclopædia of biography : embracing a series of original memoirs of the most distinguished persons of all time.. online

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443 & 445 BROADWAY.


1 1


1C13 L

EXTKREP, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1856, by

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern

District of New York.


THE "basis of the present work is the " Cyclopedia of Biography," edited by
Rich, and published in London during the past year. The plan of that book
will be found fully detailed in its preface, which is reprinted in the present

Upon the appearance of the work above mentioned, an early copy having
reached the hands of the publishers, whose names appear on our title-page, it
occurred to them that a reprint of Rich, with the addition of American names
(in which the English publication was almost entirely deficient), would be both
acceptable and useful in our country ; and at their request the present editor
undertook the task of making the desired additions.

As in the case of the European original, the articles supplied in this edi-
tion are from different hands, though it has not been thought necessary, by
initials, at the close of each, to indicate the authorship. Indeed some of the
writers were unwilling to be thus designated.

A moment's reflection must satisfy any one, that of all books, a biographical
dictionary is least likely to attain to perfection. Death postpones not his vi-its
to suit the convenience of the compiler ; and even while he works, as his labors
pass through the press, some new and distinguished victim drops into the grave,
and should be registered with the past, when the speed of the printing press
has made it too late to record, in its appropriate place, the name of the de-
parted. Nay, the very writers themselves of some of the American articles in
this book, passed into eternity ere yet their labors had reached the hands of
the compositor, and on the editor devolved the melancholy duty of adding to
the long list of the dead here recorded, the names of some of his co-labor
In such a book as this, therefore, there must be omissions that are unavoidable.

Again, a biographical dictionary is not a general obituary record ; hence,
designed omissions may to some imply imperfection, when they find little, per-
haps no space allowed to names which they may think deserved hononiM,-
notice. And, indeed, one of the difficulties of the editor has been to di-erimi-
nate. While he would gladly have allowed space for names not mentioned at
all, or increased the limits allotted to those but brieliy noticed, he could not



lose sight of the great object of the work, which was to present, in portable
form, the largest possible amount of biographical memoranda ; and thus fur-
nish to the student, as a book of ready reference, a companion to his study ta-
ble, which might serve readily to recall a leading fact or an unremembered date,
that might otherwise cost the labor of much, and perhaps unavailing research.

The want of such a book has been so often felt by the editor himself, that
he naturally supposed others must have shared the want with him ; and, in
fact, his own necessities were in part the motive which prompted him to un-
dertake the labors of the editor. Of the extent of those labors he has only to
say that he has added some thousands to the names in the English publication.
These are the names mostly of Americans ; but, as his wish was to bring up,
as far as he could, the work to the end of 1855, European names, not con-
tained in the English book, will be found here inserted.

His greatest fear is of inaccuracy in the matter of dates. Amid so many
thousands of these, it would be idle to hope for escape from all error. He can
only say, he has done what he could to avoid mistakes, and submits the work
to his fellow students in the hope that it may sometimes meet a present want,
or at least serve as a guide-book to the track that will lead to fuller informa-
tion. It may perhaps be worth something as " a labor-saving machine/' if it
be no more.

December, 1S55.


SEVERAL works, more or less resembling the present one, being already in
circulation, it is necessary to state why the Publishers have ventured to expect
a share of the public favor for a new Biographical Dictionary.

To many of these Dictionaries, considered as the production of individual
writers, a degree of merit, far from slight, must, in fairness, be conceded ; but
it would seem sufficiently evident, that no single scholar, however extensive his
attainments, could ever be expected to catch, or even appreciate all the points
of interest belonging to the numerous and varied classes of lives, which must be
included in a General Biography. The necessity of seeking a combination of
apt and effective talent, for the right production of any comprehensive Diction-
ary, has long been recognized in the case of our great ' Encyclopaedias ; ' and
such a combination was obtained for the service of Biography, by the editors of
the voluminous ' Biographic Universelle/ But the principle has not hitherto
been applied in the construction of any work of the latter kind, which would be
portable and adapted for general circulation.

The volume now issued aspires to be a first attempt in the important direc-
tion alluded to. The Publishers have desired to intrust the execution of tho
principal lives of each class of remarkable men, to practised writers, who have
cultivated the corresponding departments of Learning ; and from whom they
had therefore reason to expect biographical notices, really characteristic, and of
assured value.

In the departments appertaining to History, Politics, Law, Military science
and art, and Ecclesiastical affairs, valuable assistance has been obtained from
Sir Archibald Alison, John Hill Burton, Professor Creasy, Professor Eadie,
Professor Ferguson, and the Editor. The latter has also endeavored to delin-
eate the peculiar character and services of the leading Mystics.

Classical authors are treated by Professor Ferguson. Theological and Reli-
gious literature was given in charge to Professor Eadie and Dr. Jarnieson. 1 '
Novelists, and other great Men of Letters, are described by Profi-s^T Spaldin
a memoir of Shakspcare comes from the pen of Charles Knight ; and nt;
of the Bards of Scotland from James Hedderwick and Tli<>ni.i- 1 >avids >n.

The principal names in the department of the Mathematical and Phy.-ieal
Sciences were intrusted to Sir David Brewstcr and Professor Niehol. In the
Experimental Sciences, the department of Clu'iiiistry ha- been treated hy Hr.
R. D. Thomson ; that of Natural History by Dr. Baird ; and Appli.-.l Science
by Professor Gordon. The distinguished names in M '.liral Science are treated


by Mr. M'Conncchy. The eminent Geographers have been attended to by Mr.
Bryce, who has endeavored, by considerable research, to give exact information
on the discoveries made by great travellers.

In Mental Philosophy, our volume is chiefly indebted to Professor Kiel ml.
who has furnished a resume" of the doctrines taught by many of the Foiimi
of the great schools, under their respective names. To render this department
more complete, the Editor has ventured to introduce the name of Sir William
Hamilton, although, happily for science, that distinguished Metaphysician still
labors amongst us.

The list of articles written by Professor Eadie in Theology and Church His-
tory, includes the Fathers and Reformers, besides many of the medieval Di-
vines and Schoolmen. Dr. Jamieson's catalogue is graced by the names of our
modern Divines, Missionaries, and Philanthropists.

In the department of the Fine Arts, the great Painters, Engravers, Sculptors,
and Architects, are characterized by Mr. Wornum, whose exact acquaintance
with the literature of these subjects is well known. The same may be said re-
garding the Musicians, under charge of Mr. Manson ; and of the great Actors,
whose lives have been written by the dramatic writer and critic, Mr. Heraiul.

In a work so varied in its contents, so closely printed, and produced by so
many hands, the Editor is conscious that there must be error ; and that to
many readers, the space will appear unequally divided. Perfection in all re-
spects is not pretended to; but it is certainly hoped, that the design of the
work and its general execution, entitle it to be regarded as a step of the riyht
kind in furtherance of popular literature. It has been his aim to allot suf-
ficient space for a satisfactory however brief memoir of all the leading <>r
representative men in each department; room being provided, by limiting
those of lesser note to a chronological notice, or brief description. It will be
found, that many thousand names are contained in this volume more than in
any other portable Biography ; and among novelties, may be mentioned the
names of sovereigns, and ancient families of importance, arranged in complete
lists. The advantage of such lists to the reader of history, will be obvious :
many of them have been collated with great pains, in order to the removal of
current discrepancies.

The volume is further enlivened by numerous illustrations of the birth-places,
monuments, or other memorials of departed greatness ; all copied from the most
authentic sources.

LO>TK>X, 10th May, 1854.




AA, PETER VAN DER, a distinguished jurist, pres.
of the council of Luxembourg, 1530-1594.

AA, PETER VAN DER, a learned bookseller of Ley-
den, editor of numerous works, died 1730.

AA, CIIR. Cn. HY. VAN DER, a celebrated minis-
ter of Haerlem, 1718-1792.

AA, GERARD VAN DEB, a distinguished patriot of
the Netherlands, in the time of Philip II.

AAGARD, CHRISTIAN, a Dane, distinguished as a
writer of Latin poetry, 1616-1664.

AAGARD, NICH., a philosophical and critical wri-
ter, supposed brother of the above, 1612-1657.

AAGESEN, SVEND, better known as SUENO, a Da-
nish historian whose works date about 1186.

AALAM, a renowned Persian astrologer of the 9th
ccnty., confidant of the S'lltan Adah-Eddaulah.

Dutch painter, 1602-1658. His nephew WILLIAM,
of the same name, also a painter, 1620-1670.

AAMA, GUILLARDIN, a k. of Ethiopia, 8th cent.

AARE, DIRK VAN DER, bishop and lord of Utrecht,
celebrated for the perilous war which he maintained
against the count of Holland, d. 1212.

AARON, the associate and supposed brother of
Moses, died B. c. 1451.

AARON, ST., a British martyr, 303.

AARON, ST., an abbot of Brittany in the 6th cen-
tury, supposed founder of its earliest monastery.

AARON of Alexandria, a priest and physician of
the 7th century, the earliest writer who is known to
have mentioned the small-pox and measles.

AARON, of Barcelona, a Spanish Jew, au. of a
work in Hebrew on the precepts of Moses, d. 1293.

AARON, a Scotchman by birth, made abbot of St.
Martin of Cologne, 1042, died 1052. Left a work on
the advantage of chanting the psalms and other vocal
music in churches.

AARON, ABIIAS, or AVES, a learned rabbi, and
editor of an edition of the foregoing, 1703.

AARON, of Ragusa, a rabbin of the 17th cent.

AARON, or ARON, PIETRO, generally called a
Florentine, hut supposed to be a Fleming by birth,
was canon of Rimini in the 16th century, a composer
and uuth. of many laborious works on music.

AARON, BEN ASSKR, a learned Masorite of the
llth century, miiiuionly called ]',I;N ASIIER, author
of a work on the Biblical Accents, and probably
chief df tlir cullrgi' df Tiberius.

AAKOX. J'.i:\ CHAI.M, born at Fez, in the 16th
century, author of Commentaries on the Scriptur. s.

AARON, HACMARON, a rabbi of the Caraitos, born
in Nicomedia 1346, author of several dogmatical
works and commentaries.

AARON, HARISCHON, a rabbi of the < 'araites, born
in the 13th century, at Constantinople*, author of a


celebrated ' Commentary on the Pentateuch,' a ' Trea-
tise on Grammar,' &c.

AARON, ISAAC, a Greek Jew, interpreter to tf\e
emperor Manuel Comncnus, died of torture upon ar
accusation of sorcery, 1 203.

AARON, MARGAHTIIA, a Polish rabbi, and pro-
fessor of Jewish antiquities, horn 1665. Remarkable
for his conversion to Christianity, and his unhappy
death, which occurred in prison about the year 1730 ;
author of numerous ' Dissertations.'

AARON, NASI BABEL, a great cabalist, supposed
to have lived early in the Christian era.

AARON, SCHASCON, a learned rabbin of Thessa-
lonica, died 1650.

AARSCHOT, Due D', a celebrated soldier of the
Roman Church, died at Venice, 1595.

AARSENS, CORNEILLE VAN, a renegade patriot
and statesman of Holland, 1543-1623.

AARSENS, FRANCIS VAN, son of the preceding,
celebrated as a diplomatist, 15721641.

AARSENS, FRANCIS, grandson of the last named,
author of a work of travels, 1655.

AARTGENS, or AERTGEN, a Dutch painter,

AARTSBERGEN, ALEX. VAN, a Dutch nobleman
of the 17th century, distinguished for his talents and
industry while at the university at Leyden, and af-
terwards eminent as a statesman.


AASCOW, A. B., a Danish phys., died about

ABA, OWON, or ALBON, a tyrant of Hungary, slain
by his soldiers, 1044.

ABA, a reputed magician, put to death by order of
the caliph Merwan, in the 7th century.

ABACO, ANTHONY, a Roman architect of the 1 6th
century, author of a work illustrated with engravings
by his own hand.

ABACO, Av. FEL. D'L., a celebrated composer
and violinist of Verona, 1662-1726.

ABACO, BARON, an amateur composer and violin-
ist, lived at Verona in the 18th century.

ABACUC, a Christian martyr, reign of Claudius.

ABAD I., first Moorish kinu of Seville and (\.rdo-
va, died 1055, after a reign of 2! ycar~.

ABAD II., son and sue. of Abaci I., d. 1

ABAD III. succeeded to the throne of Seville Ins;:.
made prisoner by the sultan d' M'>r> <'". and died
miserably in Africa.

ABADI, EBX AL, au. of a work on the Koran.

AP.AFFI, MiriiKL, a nobleman of Transylvania,
elected king, died 16'JO.

A3AFFI II., son of the preceding, wlimn he suc-
ceeded when only II years of age, \\r.s C"ini>el
renounce his sovereignty, and d. in Vienna, 1713.



ABAGA-KHAN, emperor of the Moguls, distin-
guished as an opponent of the crusaders, d. 1282.


ABAI, HUSSKIX, author of a Harmony to the va-
rious Commentaries on the Koran.


ABAISI, TOMMASO, a sculptor employed with his
two sons in the cathedral of Ferrara, 1451.


ABAKl'M, a Russian ecclesiastic, slain 1684.

ABALAXTIUS, LEO, a Greek, who aided in the
murder of Nicephorus.

ABALPHAT, a native of Ispahan, celebrated for
having translated the work of Apollonius on Conic
Sections into Arabic.

of the celebrated Calonne, and one of the victims of
the French revolution, 1792.

ABANCOL'KT, C. FREROT D', a French officer,
born 1801, author of 'Memoirs on Turkey.'

'Fables,' &c., 1754-1803.


ABAXT1DAS, a tyrant of Sicyon, k. B. c. 251.


ABARCA, or AB-ARCA, SAXCTICS, king of Arra-
gon and Xavarre, killed in an engagement, 926.

ABARCA, D. JEROMIAXO, author of a history of
Armgon, lived in the 16th century. To another of
the same family a history of Levant is attributed.

ABARCA, MARTIX DE, a nobleman of Arragon,
eminent for his love of literature and knowledge of
numismatics: about the end of the 16th century.

ABARCA, DOXA MARIA DE, a Spanish lady, dis-
tinguished as an amateur painter, time of Rubens.

ABARCA, PEDRO DE, a Jesuit of Spain, eminent
as an historian and theologian, 1619-1682.

All AIMS, a reputed magician of Scythin.

ABAS, an ancient sophist, to whom certain histor-
ical commentaries are attributed.

ABASCAL, D. JOSE FERN., viceroy of Peru during
the South American war of independence. He was a
native of Madrid. 1743-1821.

ABASCAXTUS, a physician of Lyons, 2<1 cent

ABASSA, a Turkish officer, strangled 1G34.

ABASSA, ABBATSA, or A'BBAZAH, a sister of
Haroun al Raschid, whose singular marriage and its
results have furnished the romantic incidents of many
an oriental story.

ABASSARUS, the name of an officer who was
charged by Cyrus with the rebuilding of the Temple.

ABASSOX, an impostor who persuaded the French
and the Grand Turk that he was the grandson of
Abbas, and was finally put to death.

ABATE, AXUREA, an artist of Xaplcs, d. 1732.

A 11 ATI, DEGU, a mediaeval Florentine family, one
of whom is placed in the ninth circle of hell, by
Dante, for his treacherous conduct to the Guelphs.

ABATI, an Italian ecclesiastic and poet, 16th cen-

ABATI, A-NTUOXY, an Italian poet, d. 1667.

ABATI, an Italian physician of the 16th century.

ABATI, XICOLO, a painter in fresco, employed at
Foutainebleau and many Italian palaces, born 1512,
died 1571, called also Dell 'Abate. His relations An-
thony and Peter of the same name were also distin-
guished as painters.

ABATIA, F. AXTOXI, an alchymist, 17th cent.

ABATIN'I, GUIDO UBALUO, a fresco painter of
Rome, 1600-1656.


ABAI N/ A, PETER, a Spanish an., 1599-1649.

ABAUZIT, FIRMIN, an esteemed French author,

distinguished also by the friendship of Sir Isaac New-
ton, born at Uzes, 1679, die-1 a, 1767.

ABAZA, a Turkish pasha, remarkable for hi- mi-
litary talents and official career, dii-d 1 n;ii!.

ABBA, author of a work explaining the difficult
words of the Talmud, 1543.

ABBA, ARICA, a Jewish rabbi of the 3d cent.

ABBA, THVLLE, king of the Pelew Isles, 1783.

ABBACO, PAUL DEL, a Florentine poet and as-
tronomer, contemporary with Boccaccio.

ABBADABU, AMOX, sultan of Seville, 1042, noted
for his magnificence and military talents.

ABBAD1E, JAMES, a celebrated Protestant theo-
logian, 1658-1727.

ABBADIE, the author of a Dissertation on tho
Conversion of the Gauls, published in 1702.

ABBADIE, VINCENT, a French surgeon, transla-
tor of MacBridc's Essays, 1766.

ABBAS, an uncle and zealous partisan of Maho-
met, died 653.

ni, was a son of the foregoing, and chief of the Sahabuh
or companions of the prophet, d. 687.

ABBAS I., the seventh shah or king of Persia, by
whom the ancient seat of empire was transferred to
Ispahan. This prince is celebrated for his victories
over the Ottomans. Many acts of domestic cruelty
tarnish the successes of a long reign of 4 1 years : died
1628, aged 70.

ABBAS II., the son and successor of Sephy, be-
came shah of Persia, 1642, at the age of 13 ; died
16'J'J from the effects of his debaucheries. The most
remarkable event of his reign was the conquest of

ABBAS III. succeeded to the throne of Persia
when only eight months old, and died in 1736, ofter
a merely nominal reign, under the usurpation of Na-
dir Shah.

ABBAS, ALI, a Persian physician and a-stronomer
of the 10th century.

ABBAS, IBU, paternal uncle of
Mahomet. His great grandson founded the dynasty
of the Abassides.


ABBAS, MIRZA, prince royal of Persia; di-tin-
guishcd by his efforts to introduce the culture of Eu-
ro]* among his countrymen, 1785-1833.

ABBAS, Pacha, viceroy of Egypt, grandson of Me-
hemct Ali, whom he succeeded in 1849, d. 1854.
His successor is Said Pacha.

ABBASAH, 1558-1634, a pasha of the Turkish
empire. Distinguished as a military leader in two
successive revolts.

ABBATUCCI, JA. P., a native of Corsica, distin-
gui.-hed in its wars with the Genoese and the French,
afterwards opposed to Paoli, 1726-1812.

ABBATUCCI, CHARLES, son of the foregoing, be-
came general of brigade in the French army, and
was killed at the early age of 26, 1796.

ABBATISSA, a poet of Sicily, 1570.

ABBE, II., a painter, lived at Antwerp, 1670.

ABBE, LOUISE, called La Belle Cardonniere, cele-
brated for her personal attractions and poetical talent.-,
lived at Lyons in the 17th century.

ABBEVILLE, CLAUDE D', a Capuchin father, one
of a mission to Marignon, the history of which he
wrote, 1614.

ABBIATI, FIIJPPO, an historical painter in oil
and fresco, born at Milan 1640, died 1715.

ABBO, ! I.ORIACEXSIS, a learned ubliot and histori-
an of the 10th century, who was employed in an im-
portant mission to the pope, killed in a tumult, lnu|.

ABBOX, or ABBO, CERXUUS, a Xormau monk



who was at the siege of Paris in 886, of which he left
an account in Latin verse ; died about 923.

ABBOT, ABIEL, D. IX, a congregational minister,
born at Andover, Mass., in 1770. He was a good
scholar, having taken his degree with high honor at
Harvard, in 1787. His first pastoral charge was at
Haverhill, on the duties of which he entered in 1794 :
after continuing in this situation eight years, he re-
moved to Beverly, where he spent the residue of his
ministerial life about 24 years. In the winter of
1827-1828 he spent three months in Cuba; he em-
barked at Havana, seemingly with restored health,
but died just as the ship reached the quarantine ground
at New York, on the 7th of June, 1828 ; and was
buried on Staten Island. He had imbibed the con-
tagion of the yellow fever at Havana before his em-
barkation. He possessed a refined literary taste, and
was deemed an eloquent preacher.


ABBOT, CHARLES, created Baron Colchester 1817,
on retiring from the speakership of the H. of Com-
mons, was distinguished as a practical statesman, 1757

ABBOT, CHARLES, author of a work on the flora of
Bedfordshire, was vicar of Oakley and Goddiugton in
that county ; died 1817.

ABBOT, GEORGE, archbishop of Canterbury in the
reigns of James I. and Charles I., was a clothworker,
and early remarkable for his polemical skill. He
was an influential man at court until Laud came into
favor : he lost ground from his attachment to Calvin-
ism, 1562-1633.

ABBOT, ROBERT, bp. of Salisbury, and eldest
brother of the foregoing, is esteemed for his profound
and extensive learning, 1516-1617.

ABBOT, MAURICE, youngest brother of the fore-
going, was an eminent merchant, and one of the first
directors of the East India Company. Served in the
office of sheriff and lord mayor, and was knighted by
Charles I.; died 1610.

ABBOT, GEORGE, son of Sir Maurice, took up
arms in favor of Parliament, was author of several re-
ligious works, 1600-1648.

ABBOT, SAMUEL, an English painter, born 1762,
became insane and died 1803.

ABBOT, SAMOEL, a merchant of Boston, and a lib-
eral benefactor to the Theological seminary of Ando-
ver, Mass., of which town he was a native. He ac-
cumulated a large fortune in trade, and retired from
Boston to his native place, where he died in 1812, at
the age of 80. In the establishment of the seminary
in 1807, his donation was $20,000, and by his will he
left it more than 100,000. He was a man of great
prudence and piety, remarkable for his methodical ex-
actness. Never wasteful of his means, he was still
very liberal, and gave many thousands for the pro-
motion oT benevolent objects. He had adopted for
himself certain rules or maxims for his own govern-
ment in the several relations of life, and conformed
his conduct to them. One was " never to praise one
in his presence, or dispraise him in his absence." He
died in great tranquillity, saying, he desired to live
only if God had any tiling more fur him to do or suffer.
He died childless, but left a widow, to whom he bad
been married fifty years and more, and who possessed
such business talents that she assisted her husband in
trade, and aided him much in the accumulation of his

ABBT, THOMAS, a German moralist, professor of

Online LibraryElihu RichAppleton's cyclopædia of biography : embracing a series of original memoirs of the most distinguished persons of all time.. → online text (page 1 of 284)