Eliza Fowler Haywood.

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April 2, 1748.

The late great Demand for the FORTUNATE FOUNDLINGS, occasioning it to
be out of Print sooner than was expected; this is to advertise the
Public, that a new Edition of that Book is now in the Press, and will
be published the Beginning of next Month.

* * * * *



By the Author of

[Illustration: Portrait of the printer]

Printed by T. Gardner, and Sold at his Printing-Office, at Cowley's
Head, opposite St. Clement's Church, in the Strand.

* * * * *

Just Published by T. Gardner,

In Four Beautiful Pocket Volumes,
(Price Twelve Shillings bound.)
Correctly printed from the Octavo Edition,
(With New Engraved Frontispieces,)


'The great Encomiums bestowed on this Work by some of the most
distinguished Judges, have been so frequently inserted in all the
public Papers, that it is presumed no one can be unacquainted with
them, and therefore are thought needless here to be
particularized: But that so useful a Work may be more universally
read, (especially by the younger and politer Sort of Ladies, for
whom it is more peculiarly adapted,) it is now printed in the
above-mentioned Size, which will be less cumbersome to them, and
the Expence being reduced to one half of what the Octavo Edition
sells at, it may be more easily purchased The great Encomiums
bestowed on this Work by some of the most distinguished Judges,
have been so frequently inserted in all the public Papers, that it
is presumed no one can be unacquainted with them, and therefore
are thought needless here to be particularized: But that so useful
a Work may be more universally read, (especially by the younger
and politer Sort of Ladies, for whom it is more peculiarly
adapted,) it is now printed in the above-mentioned Size, which
will be less cumbersome to them, and the Expence being reduced to
one half of what the Octavo Edition sells at, it may be more
easily purchased'

The above Work is printed in a larger Letter, in Octavo, Price 1l. 4s.



BOOK the First.


Shews, in the example of Natura, how from our very birth, the
passions, to which the human soul is incident, are discoverable in us;
and how far the organs of sense, or what is called the constitution,
has an effect over us, Page 4.


Contains some proofs by what swift degrees the passions gain an
ascendant over the mind, and grow up in proportion with our reason,
Page 7.


The early influence which the difference of sex excites, is here
exemplified, in the fond, but innocent affection of Natura and Delia,
Page 21.


Shews, that till we arrive at a certain age, the impressions made on
us are easily erased; and also that when those which bear the name of
love are once rooted in the mind, there are no lengths to which we may
not be transported by that passion, if great care is not taken to
prevent its getting the ascendant over reason, Page 27.


That to indulge any one fault, brings with it the temptation of
committing others, is demonstrated by the behaviour of Natura, and the
misfortunes and disgrace, which an ill-judged shame had like to have
involved him in, Page 39.


Shews the great force of natural affection, and the good effects it
has over a grateful mind, Page 51.

BOOK the Second.


The inconsideration and instability of youth, when unrestrained by
authority, is here exemplified, in an odd adventure Natura embarked in
with two nuns, after the death of his governor, Page 63.


The pleasures of travelling described, and the improvement a sensible
mind may receive from it: with some hints to the censorious, not to be
too severe on errors, the circumstances of which they are ignorant of,
occasioned by a remarkable instance of an involuntary slip of nature,
Page 99.


The uncertainty of human events displayed in many surprizing turns of
fortune, which befel Natura, on his endeavouring to settle himself in
the world: with some proofs of the necessity of fortitude, as it may
happen that actions, excited by the greatest virtue, may prove the
source of evil, both to ourselves and others, Page 108.


The power of fear over a mind, weak either by nature, or infirmities
of body: The danger of its leading to despair, is shewn by the
condition Natura was reduced to by the importunities of priests of
different perswasions. This chapter also demonstrates, the little
power people have of judging what is really best for them, and that
what has the appearance of the severest disappointment, is frequently
the greatest good, Page 135.


Shews that there is no one human advantage to which all others should
be sacrificed: - the force of ambition, and the folly of suffering it
to gain too great an ascendant over us: - public grandeur little
capable of atoning for private discontent; among which jealousy,
whether of love or honour, is the most tormenting, Page 154.

BOOK the Third.


Shews in what manner anger and revenge operate in the mind, and how
ambition is capable of stifling both, in a remarkable instance, that
_private injuries_, how great soever, may seem of no weight, when
_public grandeur_ requires they should be looked over, Page 168.


Shews at what age men are most liable to the passion of grief: the
impatience of human nature under affliction, and the necessity there
is of exerting reason, to restrain the excesses it would otherwise
occasion, Page 178.


The struggles which different passions occasion in the human breast,
are here exemplified; and that there is no one among them so strong,
but may be extirpated by another, excepting _revenge_, which knows no
period, but by gratification, Page 185.


Contains a further definition of _revenge_, its force, effects, and
the chasm it leaves on the mind when once it ceases. The tranquility
of being entirely devoid of all passions; and the impossibility for
the soul to remain in that state of inactivity is also shewn; with
some remarks on human nature in general, when left to itself, Page


Contains a remarkable proof, that tho' the passions may operate with
greater velocity and vehemence in youth, yet they are infinitely more
strong and permanent, when the person is arrived at maturity, and are
then scarce ever eradicated. Love and friendship are then, and not
till then, truly worthy of the names they bear; and that the _one_
between those of different sexes, is always the consequence of the
_other_, Page 206.


How the most powerful emotions of the _mind_ subside, and grow weaker
in proportion as the strength of the _body_ decays, is here
exemplified; and that such passions as remain after a certain age, are
not properly the incentives of nature but of example, long habitude,
or ill humour, Page 224.



I have often heard it observed by the readers of biography, that the
characters are generally too high painted; and that the _good_ or
_bad_ qualities of the person pretended to be faithfully represented,
are displayed in stronger colours than are to be found in nature. To
this the lovers of hyperbole reply, that _virtue_ cannot be drawn too
beautiful, nor _vice_ too deformed, in order to excite in us an
ambition of imitating the _one_, and a horror at the thoughts of
becoming any way like the _other_. - The argument at first, indeed,
seems to have some weight, as there is nothing, not even precept
itself, which so greatly contributes whether to rectify or improve the
mind, as the prevalence of example: but then it ought to be
considered, that if the pattern laid down before us, is so altogether
angelic, as to render it impossible to be copied, emulation will be in
danger of being swallowed up in an unprofitable admiration; and, on
the other hand, if it appears so monstrously hideous as to take away
all apprehensions of ever resembling it, we might be too apt to
indulge ourselves in errors which would seem small in comparison with
those presented to us. - There never yet was any one man, in whom all
the _virtues_, or all the _vices_, were summed up; for, though reason
and education may go a great way toward curbing the passions, yet I
believe experience will inform, even the _best_ of men, that they will
sometimes launch out beyond their due bounds, in spite of all the care
can be taken to restrain them; nor do I think the very _worst_, and
most wicked, does not feel in himself, at some moments, a propensity
to good, though it may be possible he never brings it into practice;
at least, this was the opinion of the antients, as witness the poet's

All men are born with seeds of _good_ and _ill_;
And each shoot forth, in more or less degree:
_One_ you may cultivate with care and skill,
But from the _other_ ne'er be wholly free.

The human mind may, I think, be compared to a chequer-work, where
light and shade appear by turns; and in proportion as either of these
is most conspicuous, the man is alone worthy of praise or censure; for
none there are can boast of being wholly bright.

I believe by this the reader will be convinced he must not expect to
see a faultless figure in the hero of the following pages; but to
remove all possibility of a disappointment on that score, I shall
farther declare, that I am an enemy to all _romances_, _novels_, and
whatever carries the air of them, tho' disguised under different
appellations; and as it is a _real_, not _fictitious_ character I am
about to present, I think myself obliged, for the reasons I have
already given, as well as to gratify my own inclinations, to draw him
such as he was, not such as some sanguine imaginations might with him
to have been.

I flatter myself, however, that _truth_ will appear not altogether
void of charms, and the adventures I take upon me to relate, not be
less pleasing for being within the reach of probability, and such as
might have happened to any other as well as the person they did. - Few
there are, I am pretty certain, who will not find some resemblance of
himself in one part or other of his life, among the many various and
surprizing turns of fortune, which the subject of this little history
experienced, as also be reminded in what manner the passions operate
in every stage of life, and how far the constitution of the _outward
frame_ is concerned in the emotions of the _internal faculties_.

These are things surely very necessary to be considered, and when they
are so, will, in a great measure, abate that unbecoming vehemence,
with which people are apt to testify their admiration, or abhorrence
of actions, which it very often happens would lose much of their
_eclat_ either way, were the secret springs that give them motion,
seen into with the eyes of philosophy and reflection.

But this will be more clearly understood by a perusal of the facts
herein contained, from which I will no longer detain in the attention
of my reader.

BOOK the First.


Shews, in the example of Natura, how from our very birth, the
passions, to which the human soul is incident, are discoverable in
us; and how far the organs of sense, or what is called the
constitution, has an effect over us.

The origin of Natura would perhaps require more time to trace than the
benefit of the discovery would attone for: it shall therefore suffice
to say, that his ancestors were neither of the highest rank: - that if
no extraordinary action had signalized the names of any of them, so
none of them had been guilty of crimes to entail infamy on their
posterity: and that a moderate estate in the family had descended from
father to son for many generations, without being either remarkably
improved or embezzled. - His immediate parents were in very easy
circumstances, and he being their first son, was welcomed into the
world with a joy usual on such occasions. - I never heard that any
prodigies preceded or accompanied his nativity; or that the planets,
or his mother's cravings during her pregnancy, had sealed him with any
particular mark or badge of distinction: but have been well assured he
was a fine boy, sucked heartily of his mother's milk, and what they
call a thriving child. His weaning, I am told, was attended by some
little ailments, occasioned by his pining after the food to which he
had been accustomed; but proper means being found to make him lose the
memory of the breast, he soon recovered his flesh, increased in
strength, and could go about the room at a year and some few months
old, without the help of a leading-string.

Hitherto the passions, those powerful abettors, I had almost said sole
authors of all human actions, operated but faintly, and could shew
themselves only in proportion to the vigour of the animal frame. Yet
latent as they are, an observing eye may easily discover them in each
of their different propensities, even from the most early infancy. The
eyes of Natura on any new and pleasing object, would denote by their
sparkling a sensation of joy: - _Fear_ was visible in him by clinging to
his nurse, and endeavouring to bury himself as it were in her bosom, at
the sound of menaces he was not capable of understanding: - That
_sorrow_ has a place among the first emotions of the soul, was
demonstrable by the sighs which frequently would heave his little
heart, long before it was possible for him either to know or to imagine
any motives for them: - That the seeds of _avarice_ are born with us, by
the eagerness with which he catched at money when presented to him,
his clinching it fast in his hand, and the reluctance he expressed on
being deprived of it: - That _anger_, and impatience of controul, are
inherent to our nature, might be seen in his throwing down with
vehemence any favourite toy, rather than yield to resign it; and that
spite and revenge are also but too much so, by his putting in practice
all such tricks as his young invention could furnish, to vex any of the
family who had happened to cross him: - Even those tender inclinations,
which afterwards bear the name of _amorous_, begin to peep out long
before the difference of sex is thought on; as Natura proved by the
preference he gave the girls over the boys who came to play with him,
and his readiness to part with any thing to them.

In a word, there is not one of all the various emotions which agitate
the breast in maturity, that may not be discerned almost from the
birth, _hope_, _jealousy_, and _despair_ excepted, which, tho' they
bear the name in common with those other more natural dispositions of
the mind, I look upon rather as consequentials of the passions, and
arising from them, than properly passions themselves: but however that
be, it is certain, that they are altogether dependant on a fixation of
ideas, reflection, and comparison, and therefore can have no entrance
in the soul, or at least cannot be awakened in it, till some degree of
knowledge is attained.

Thus do the dispositions of the _infant_ indicate the future _man_;
and though we see, in the behaviour of persons when grown up, so vast
a difference, yet as all children at first act alike, I think it may
be reasonably supposed, that were it not for some change in the
constitution, an equal similitude of will, desires, and sentiments,
would continue among us through maturity and old age; at least I am
perfectly perswaded it would do so, among all those who are born in
the same climate, and educated in the same principles: for whatever
may be said of a great genius, and natural endowments, there is
certainly no real distinction between the _soul_ of the man of _wit_
and the _ideot_; and that disproportion, which we are apt to behold
with so much wonder, is only in fact occasioned by some or other of
those innumerable and hidden accidents, which from our first coming
into the world, in a more or less degree, have, an effect upon the
organs of sense; and they being the sole canals through which the
spirit shews itself, according as they happen to be extended,
contracted, or obstructed, the man must infallibly appear.


Contains some proofs by what swift degrees the passions gain an
ascendant over the mind, and grow up in proportion with our reason.

Natura had no sooner quitted the nursery, than he was put under the
direction of the school, to which at first he was every day conducted
either by a man or maid-servant; but when thought big enough to be
trusted alone, would frequently play the truant, for which he
generally received the discipline necessary on such occasions. - He
took his learning notwithstanding as well as could be expected; - he
had read the testament through at five years old, about seven was put
into Latin, and began the rudiments of Greek before he had attained
the age of nine.

As his understanding increased, the passions became stronger in
proportion: and here is to be observed the wonderful wisdom of nature,
or rather of the Great Author of nature, in the formation of the human
system, that the passions given to us, especially those of the worst
sort, are, for the most part, such opposites, that the one is a
sufficient check upon the other. - The _pride_ of treating those
beneath us with contempt, is restrained by the _fear_ of meeting the
same usage from those above us. - A _sordid covetousness_ is controlled
by _ostentation_. - _Sloth_ is roused by _ambition_, and so of the
rest. - I have been told that when Natura, by the enticements of his
companions, and his own eagerness to pursue the sports suitable to his
years, had been drawn in to neglect his studies, he had often ran home
on a sudden, and denied himself both food and sleep, till he had not
only finished the task assigned him by his school-master, but also
exceeded what was expected from him, instigated by the ambition of
praise, and hope of being removed to a higher form. - But at other
times again his love of play has rendered him totally forgetful of
every thing besides, and all emulation in him absorbed in
pleasure. - Thus hurried, as the different propensities prevailed, from
one extreme to the other; - never in a medium, but always doing either
more or less than was required of him.

In like manner was his _avarice_ moderated by his _pity_; - an instance
of which was this; - One morning having won at chuck-farthing, or some
such game, all the money a poor boy was master of, and which he said
had been given him to buy his breakfast, Natura was so much melted at
his tears and complaints, that he generously returned to him the whole
of what he had lost. - Greatly is it to be wished, the same sentiments
of compassion would influence some of riper years, and make them scorn
to take the advantage chance sometimes affords of ruining their
fellow-creatures; but the misfortune is, that when we arrive at the
state of perfect manhood, the _worst_ passions are apt to get the
better of the more _noble_, as the prospect they present is more
alluring to the eye of sense: all men (as I said before) being born
with the same propensities, it is _virtue_ alone, or in other words, a
strict _morality_, which prevents them from actuating alike in
all. - But to return to the young Natura.

He was scarce ten years old when his mother died; but was not sensible
of the misfortune he sustained by the loss of her, though, as it
afterwards proved, was the greatest could have happened to him: the
remembrance of the tenderness with which she had used him, joined to
the sight of all the family in tears, made him at first indeed utter
some bitter lamentations; but the thoughts of a new suit of mourning,
a dress he had never yet been in, soon dissipated his grief, and the
sight of himself before the great glass, in a habit so altogether
strange, and therefore pleasing to him, took off all anguish for the
sad occasion. - So early do we begin to be sensible of a satisfaction
in any thing that we imagine is an advantage to our persons, or will
make us be taken notice of. - How it grows up with us, and how
difficult it is to be eradicated, I appeal even to those of the most
sour and cynical disposition.

Mr. Dryden admirably describes this propensity in human nature in
these lines:

Men are but children of a larger growth,
Our appetites as prone to change as theirs,
And full as craving too, and full as vain.

A fondness for trifles is certainly no less conspicuous in age than
youth; and we daily see it among persons of the best understanding,
who wholly neglect every essential to real happiness in the pursuit of
those very toys which children cry to be indulged in; even such as a
bit of ribband, or the sound of a monosyllable tacked to the name;
without considering that those badges of distinction, like bells about
an ideot's neck, frequently serve only to render their folly more
remarkable, and expose them to the contempt of the lookers on, who
perhaps too, as nature is the same in all, want but the same
opportunity to catch no less eagerly at the tawdry gewgaw.

Natura felt not the loss of his dear mother, till he beheld another in
her place. His father entered into a second marriage before much more
than half his year of widowhood was expired, with a lady, who, though
pretty near his equal in years, had yet remains enough of beauty to
render her extremely vain and affected, and fortune enough to make her
no less proud. - These two qualities occasioned Natura many rebuffs, to
which he had not been acoustomed, and he felt them the more severely,
as the name of mother had made him expect the same proofs of
tenderness from this, who had the title, as he had remembered to have
received from her who had been really so.

He endeavoured at first to insinuate himself into her favour by all
those little flattering artifices which are so becoming in persons of
his tender years, and which never fail to make an impression on a
gentle and affable disposition; but finding his services not only
rejected, but also rejected with scorn and moroseness, his spirit was
too great to continue them for any long time; and all the assiduity he
had shewn to gain her good-will, was on a sudden converted into a
behaviour altogether the reverse: he was sure to turn the deaf ear to
all the commands she laid upon him, and so far from doing any thing to
please her, he seemed to take a delight in vexing her. This
occasioning many complaints to his father, drew on him very severe
chastisements both at home and abroad; but though while the smart
remained, he made many promises of amendment in this point, the hatred
he had now conceived against her, would not suffer him to keep them.

His sister, who was five years older than himself, and a girl of great
prudence, took a good deal of pains to convince him how much it was
both his interest and his duty to pay all manner of respect to a lady
whom their father had thought fit to set over them; but all she could
say on that head was thrown away, and he still replied, that since he
could not make her love him, he should always hate her.

This young lady had perhaps no less reason than her brother to be
dissatisfied with the humour of their stepmother; and it was only the
tender affection she had for him which made her feign a contentment at
the treatment both of them received, in order to keep him within any
manner of bounds.

It may be reckoned among the misfortunes of Natura, that he so soon
lost the benefit of these kind remonstrances: his fair adviser having
a considerable fortune, independent on her father, left her by a

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Online LibraryEliza Fowler HaywoodLife's Progress Through The Passions Or, The Adventures of Natura → online text (page 1 of 16)