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Elizabeth Kirkpatrick Dilling.

The red network; a who's who and handbook of radicalism for patriots online

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Committee: Prof. Geo. S. Counts, Prof.
Harry Ward, Prof. Harold O. Rugg, Prof.
Goodwin Watson, Prof. Harrison Elliott,
Prof. Reinhold Niebuhr, Dr. Addison T.
Cutler. Hdqts. 261 Fifth Ave., N.Y. City.
(Same address as Intourist, Soviet Govt.
agency.)

FURNITURE WORKERS
INDUSTRIAL UNION

Communist T.U.U.L. union with organ-
izations at Grand Rapids, Jamestown, N.Y.,
Rockford, 111., Chicago, etc.; 818 Broad-
way, N.Y. City.



GARLAND FUND

The AMERICAN FUND FOR PUBLIC
SERVICE is popularly known as the
"Garland Fund" or the "Free Love Fund"
because it was founded by a radical, Chas.
Garland of Mass., who served a term in
the penitentiary for running a "Free Love
Farm." Being an opponent of private
ownership of property, he turned over his
inheritance to form this fund in order to
further the radical cause. The Fund's offi-
cial report states that between 1922, when
it was founded, and 1930, $1,378,000 was
given away and $780,000 loaned. (The
Fund is practically exhausted now.) To
quote: "The Board of Directors of the
Fund is a self perpetuating group, the
directors serving for terms of three years
each. The original directors were picked
out as persons of diverse connections with
radical, labor and liberal movements, who,
despite philosophical differences, were prac-
tical-minded enough to deal harmoniously
with immediate issues." These directors
have been members of the I.W.W., Com-
munist and Socialist parties, which are all
basically aiming for the same ends the
abolition of the property right and the
undermining and eventual overthrow of
our present form of government the dif-
ferences between them being largely those
of stress on certain tactics, such as use of
violence or of parliamentary action, to
gain control.

The Fund has been the life stream of
the Red Revolutionary movement in the
U.S., having sustained all the leading Com-
munist, Socialist and I.W.W. activities.
Samuel Gompers of the A.F. of L. wrote



the Fund asking for money for a legitimate
labor cause and was refused, Roger Baldwin
of the Fund replying that: "We do not
see our way clear to financing any enter-
prise except those definitely committed to
a radical program . . . ", etc.

The original directors and officers were
(from the Fund's report of July 31, 1923,
"for the first year of operation"):

Roger N. Baldwin, Wm. Z. Foster, Lewis S.
Gannett, Sidney Hillman, James Weldon Johnson
(colored), Robt. Morss Lovett, Scott Nearing,
Mary E. McDowell, Judah L. Magnes, Norman M.
Thomas, Harry F. Ward, Morris L. Ernst, Walter
Nelles.

The report of June 30, 1924, "for the
second year," lists:



Scott Nearing, pres. ; Robt. Morss Lovett, vice
pres.; Roger N.
treas.; Walter Nelles, counsel, and Eliz. Gurley



Baldwin, sec.; Morris L. Ernst,



Flynn, Wm. Z. Foster, Lewis S. Gannett, Clinton
S. Golden, James Weldon Johnson, Freda Kirch-
wey, Norman M. Thomas, Leo Wolman, fellow
directors.

The reports show that the directors
changed about during the year in serving
as officers. The report of Feb. 1929 (for
the three years 1925-8) lists the same
directorship with the exceptions that Com-
munist Wm. Z. Foster, Robt. Morss Lovett
and Leo Wolman are replaced by Com-
munists Clarina Michelson, Benj. Gitlow
and Robt. W. Dunn. The report of May
1931 (for 1928-30) lists same directors
except for the omission of Eliz. Gurley
Flynn. The 1932 officers (given in the
statement of ownership of the Communist
magazine "New Masses," which states that
its owner and publisher is the Am. Fund
for Pub. Service) were:

James Weldon Johnson, pres.; Robt. W. Dunn,
sec.; Morris L. Ernst, treas.

1933 Officers are:

Roger Baldwin, pres.; Clinton S. Golden, vice
pres.; Robt. W. Dunn, sec.; Morris Ernst, treas.;
with Gannett, Gitlow, Johnson, Kirchwey, Michel-
son and Thomas fellow directors as before.

FOR ANARCHIST-COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES
The inextricable interweaving of Red
forces is shown not only in the personnel
of the Fund's directorship but also in the
organizations it has supported. Studying
the Fund's reports is like studying the
whole Red network. Socialists, Commu-
nists and I.W.W.'s intermingle in organ-
izations, on committees and in practically
all Red activities. One sees, for example, in
the reports the sums of $500 and $500
donated to the anarchist-communist Fer-
rer or Modern School at Stelton, N.J.,
aided by Emma Goldman and Berkman.
In 1925-6, $1125 and $875 were given to



164



The Red Network



it. Wherever treason has lifted its head,
it seems, the Fund has aided financially.
When Wm. Z. Foster and other Commu-
nists were seized at Bridgman, Mich., with
two barrels full of documentary evidence
of their plans to overthrow the U.S. Govt,
the Labor Defense Council (later I.L.D.)
was formed to defend these criminals
caught in their Moscow-directed conspir-
acy. The Fund lists: "To Labor Defense
Council for defense of Michigan criminal
syndicalism cases $10,000," then "$3,000,"
then "$200." (Incidentally, treason is now
practically unchallenged and quite in the
open. Then traitors had to meet secretly.)
Then, to its successor the I.L.D. Chicago
"for substitution of bail in Michigan
criminal syndicalism cases $7,000," and
again "$5,000," and "for legal fees in en-
deavoring to secure dismissal of Michigan
criminal syndicalism cases $500"; also such
enlightening items as: To I.L.D. (1) Chi-
cago Office for legal expenses in the cases
of the Ziegler, 111. miners, $2,000. (2) Pitts-
burgh Branch for legal expenses in Pitts-
burgh sedition cases, $1,500. (3) Boston
Branch for legal expenses in Bimba blas-
phemy case, $500. (4) National Bail
Fund for substitution of bail in deportation
case, $1,000.

The "Daily Worker" official Communist
newspaper, received sums of $38,135,
$1,200, $6,500, $3,900, $1,050 and $6,875,
at different times.

The Fund's own Communist magazine,
"New Masses" received sums of $1,500,
$30,000, $28,000, $3,000, $2,000 and $400.

The Communist N.Y. "Workers School"
(to train leaders for the Communist Revo-
lution in the U.S., so it states) received
"for books for library $859.25" and also
for general expenses, $11,122 and $641.

International Publishers, the Communist
publishing house, received "for promotion
of Americanization of Labor by Robt. W.
Dunn, $298.95," and for publication of
fifteen Communist "International Pam-
phlets," $1,400 and $1,500.

Workers Library Publishers (Commu-
nist) received for publishing three pam-
phlets, $800.

The Passaic, N.J. Communist strike in
1926 was called the "first lesson in Revo-
lution" and the Fund spent generously in
supporting it. The committee formed for
this purpose by Norman Thomas, the
A.C.L.U. and L.I.D., called the "Emer-
gency Committee for Strikers Relief," re-
ceived $1,520 in 1926, and, later, for Passaic
and other activities, sums of $5,000 and
$1,000. The United Front Textile Com-



mittee, Passaic, N.J., "for expenses of Mary
Heaton Vorse for publicity work on textile
strike" reed. $818. Other items are:
"Passaic, N.J. strike relief, publicity and
research $25,318"; "bail underwritten
$45,000"; "Wm. Jett Lauck, for investi-
gating textile industry Passaic, N. J.,
$4,500," also $500; "/..>. for premiums
on bail in Passaic, N.J. cases, $3,022," and
other fees, $200.

Another Communist strike, well sup-
ported by the Fund, was the Gastonia, N.C.
strike, where, to quote U.S. Report 2290,
"there was a bloody conflict between the
Communist-led textile workers and the
police, in which the chief of police was
shot and killed and two of his assistants
wounded. Seven Communists were sen-
tenced to long terms in prison, but jumped
their bonds and went to Russia, where they
presumably are today. The I.L.D. headed
by J. Louis Engdahl, a well-known Com-
munist, and the A.C.L.U. cooperated in the
defense of the convicted strikers and
assisted in securing the money for the bail
bonds from the Garland Fund, which was
forfeited." And so we see in the Fund's
reports the items: "I.L.D. $29,218" and
"I.L.D. for legal fees and expense in con-
nection with Gastonia, N.C. cases," $15,000
and $5,475. The I.L.D. (N.Y. branch)
received other sums, such as $2,850 and
$2,000, for its general activities.

The Communist " Young Workers
League" (now called Young Communist
Lg.), at Superior, Wis. was graciously pre-
sented with $1,200; and its Chicago branch
the same amount. These gifts are listed
under "Education" one may well imagine
what sort.

The Russian Reconstruction Farms (Jan.
1926) reed. $3,000, then $1,015, and "for
purchase of equipment in U.S.," $20,000.

The Communist (there is also an I.W.W.
union of same name) Agricultural Workers
Industrial Union reed. $3,000. The Com-
munist National Textile Workers Union
reed. $5,570 "for organizational work in the
South," and $500 "to Local No. 2, New
Bedford, Mass, for final payment on a lot
in Fall River on which to hold meetings."
The Communist Marine Workers League,
N.Y., reed, "for books for their library
$599.87." The House of the. Masses (Com-
munist) in Detroit reed. ?4,000.

In 1927 the Communist A A. A. I. Lg.,
then being organized all over the U.S., re-
ceived a nice gift of $1,000 "for organ-
ization work during summer months," and
in 1929-30, is listed "Anti-Imperialist
League of the U.S., N.Y.C. for preliminary



Organizations, Etc.



165



expenses of reorganization $500" (same
organization).

The Communist Trade Union Edu-
cational League, of which Wm. Z. Foster
was the head (now the T.U.U.L., and he
is still the head), reed, at the Chicago
branch "for publication of pamphlet on
Company Unions by Robt. W. Dunn
$600"; the N.Y.C. branch reed. $900; etc.

The Labor Research Assn., N.Y.C., a
Communist subsidiary organized by Robt.
W. Dunn, reed, "for secretarial assistance
for Scott Nearing in connection with series
of books on economic subjects $1,000";
it also reed. $750.

"Novy Mir," the Russian Communist
paper published in N.Y., reed, gifts and
loans of $3,000, $500, etc.

The Communist "Daily Worker Pub.
Co." reed. (1) For publication of one
volume of the works of Lenin in English
$2,500; (2) For publication of ten volumes
of the 'Little Red Library' $1,875; (3)
For the publication of Report of British
Trade Union Delegation to Russia $2,500,
etc.

The Communistic Vanguard Press was
started by the Fund itself and was a big
favorite, receiving in one report alone
$139,453 for capital, for books on Negro
labor, and for "series of studies on Russia,"
for which other large sums were also
appropriated.

To Communist "Max Eastman, Croton,
N.Y. for preparation and production of a
historic film on the Russian Revolution,
$2,500." (Loan.)

The Federated Press, regarded by Com-
munists as their own press service, reed,
generous aid; the first year, $15,640 (partly
for salary of director Leland Olds), the
second year, $12,640, the third year,
$10,130, for the next three years, $26,441,
and the next two years, $12,000.

FOR A.C.L.U. ACTIVITIES
The A.C.L.U., ever on the firing line in
behalf of Red revolutionaries, reed, sums
almost too numerous to list. These are
representative: "A.C.L.U., for special cam-
paign against criminal syndicalism law,
$5,000"; "A.C.L.U. for expenses in con-
nection with Tennessee Anti-Evolution
case, $500"; "A.C.L.U., N.Y.C. June 5
and July 12, 1923 for an investigation of
reactionary organizations, $1,972.50"; "A.C.
L.U., Southern Cal. Branch, Los Angeles,
Cal., Aug. 1, 1923 $1,000," (also other
sums) . The close connection between the
A.C.L.U. and the Fund is shown by such
items as these: "A.C.L.U., N.Y.C. revolv-



ing loan fund for civil liberties cases admin-
istered by agreement between the Union
and the Fund, $2,000"; "Emergency Case
Fund, administered by the A.C.L.U.
$14,989" (1925-28); "A.C.L.U. So. Cal.
Branch for deficit incurred in campaign
for release of Mooney and Billings $800";
"A.C.L.U., special projects, $4,197" (1928-
30) ; "A.C.L.U. Northern Cal. Branch, San
Francisco, Cal. $2,395.07" ; A.C.L.U.,
N.Y.C. (1) For lawyers fees in connection
with recovering of bail bond $750. (2)
For legal expenses in connection with Pas-
saic, N.J. strike cases $500; "Pa. Civil
Liberties Committee, Harrisburg, Pa.
$500"; "A.C.L.U. for free speech fight in
West Va. $1,000"; A.C.L.U. (1) For
expenses of field organizer for definite work
in civil liberties cases $500; (2) For cam-
paign against injunctions in labor disputes
$500; (3) For emergency case fund
$1,726.67 (1929-30) ; etc., etc., etc.

Criminals convicted of treason, sedition
and Red revolutionary activities are always
referred to sympathetically by the Reds as
"political prisoners." The International
Committee for Political Prisoners, formed
by the A.C.L.U. to aid them, reed. $300
and $1,527.50 from the Fund.

Loyal aid to Communists is indicated in
items like these:

"Walter Pollak and Carroll Weiss King,
N.Y.C. For fees and expenses in case of
Emanuel Vatjauer, in the U.S. Supreme
Court, held for deportation as a Commu-
nist $1,900"; Isaac Schorr, N.Y.C. Ex-
penses in the case of Herbert Mahler and
others, U.S. Supreme Court, ex-political
prisoners held for deportation $300."

As soon as the U.S. Govt. tries to protect
its existence by jailing or deporting Reds,
the Fund, the I.L.D., the A.C.L.U., and the
whole army of Reds and their organizations
are there to fight it. A united Red fight
against Criminal Syndicalism laws in the
States is now being waged in order that
sedition shall not be punished.

FOR I.W.W. ACTIVITIES
These donations to I.W.W. activities
show a "unity of spirit" in the "class war":
"General Defense Committee (of I.W.W.)
San Francisco, Cal. for fighting criminal
syndicalism cases $500" (1923); to Chi-
cago branch "for relief of released polit-
ical prisoners, $1,250"; to Cal. branch
"$500"; "for payment and repairs on build-
ing, $6,500"; "for expenses in connection
with Centralia case," $170 and $170; "To
Chgo. Gen. Def. Com. $20,007.79"; items
of $10,475.68, $12,000 and $6,000 are listed



166



The Red Network



to the Equity Printing Co. (owned by the
I.W.W.).

Harry F. Ward, director of the Fund in
1922 and chmn. of the A.C.L.U., had shown
his friendly spirit of cooperation with the
defense of the I.W.W. murderers of four
American Legion men at Centralia, Wash.,
by presiding over a meeting held at the
Rand School, N.Y.C., Feb. 9, 1920, to raise
money for their defense (Lusk Report).
The Fund, later, donated to "Centralia,
Publicity Committee For publicity in con-
nection with release of Centralia prisoners
$250."

The Rand School, at which the I.W.W.
defense meeting and so many other Red
meetings have been held, must practically
have been supported by the Fund, to
judge by the contributions, sums of $5,000,
$3,200, $400, $4,400, $7,200, $10,140,
$16,116, $7,957.26, etc., being listed from
time to time, and large sums to the Rand
Book Store for publication of the "Am.
Labor Year Book" (covering radical
activities) .

Brookwood Labor College, another So-
cialist institution, fared bountifully also
at the Red feeding trough, receiving in one
period (1928-30) $41,751 and in another
(1925-28) $74,227.

The National Association for the Ad-
vancement of Colored People (N.A.A.C.P.)
was well cared for with appropriations of
$31,552 (1925-28), $7,365 in 1923-24, and
a loan of $5,000 in 1929-30.

Significant items are these: "Teachers
Union, N.Y.C." (1) "towards the campaign
for the repeal of Lusk Laws $500"; (2)
"For research and publicity work outside
of regular activities, mimeograph machine,
$3,172.50"; the Teachers Union also reed.
$6,000 in a three-year period for "oper-
ating expenses"; the "Minneapolis Fed-
eration of Teachers, Mpls., Minn. for
legal expenses and publicity in connection
with dismissal of two members $250";
"American Federation of Teachers
$2,000"; and "The New Student, N.Y.C.
for traveling expenses of editors of col-
lege papers to conference $333.06."

The Manumit School at Pawling, N.Y.,
which is directed by Nellie Seeds (wife of
Communist Scott Nearing), reed. 1928-30,
$5,000; and 1925-28, $10,907.

Communism-Socialism fights the Chris-
tian standards of marriage and morality.
Ben Lindsey is looked upon evidently as an
ally of this Red cause, since this item was
voted to him: "Ben B. Lindsey, Denver,
Colo. For election contest in Denver,



involving the issue of the Ku Klux Klan
$1,000" (1924-25 Report, April 22).

The League for Mutual Aid received for
"Social Service for radicals" sums of $200,
$450, $3,000, and $500.

The Brooklyn, National and N.Y. Urban
Leagues reed, gifts and loans of $15,000,
$1,000 and $500. One item was for the
study of "relations of Negroes to trade
unions."

The American Birth Control League,
another movement used by Reds to break
down the fear of sex relations outside of
marriage and to generally loosen the mar-
riage tie, reed. $10,400, $500, and "for
salary and expenses of organizer $2,000"
(1928-30).

The Red agitation in behalf of Anarchist-
Communist Mooney reed, hearty support
from the Fund. The "National Mooney-
Billings Committee" (1928-30) reed, "for
publicity campaign for Mooney and Bill-
ings $1,000," and also $800. "Mooney
Holders Defense Committee for campaign
for pardon of Mooney and Billings $500";
"N. Col. Committee for Mooney and Bill-
ings $250"; "Mooney Defense Committee
$900" (also $100 and $100), etc.

Sacco and Vanzetti, the gentle Anarchist
murderers and thieves who died yelling
"Long Live Anarchy," reed, loving aid as
well; "Provisional Committee for calling
Sacco and Vanzetti conference, N.Y.C.,
expenses in connection with meeting
$1,000"; "Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Com-
mittee $20,000" (loan), and gift of
$2,500. Between 1925 and 1928, $11,000
was given to "Sacco-Vanzetti case."

Intellectual-Red papers and periodicals
were evidently considered suitable agen-
cies, for the New Republic (the Fund
director, Robt. Morss Lovett, being an
editor) reed, a loan of $1,000, "for book
on 'The Supreme Court and Minimum
Wage Legislation,' published by National
Consumers League"; The World Tomorrow
(of Kirby Page) reed, "for general ex-
penses $3,000" (1925), $1,000 (1923),
$2,000 (1924); and to "Fellowship Press,
N.Y.C. For operating expenses of the
World Tomorrow, to Dec. 31, 1925, (May
27) $3,000," etc.

The Socialist New Leader reed, large
sums, as did Labor Age (organ of the Conf.
Prog. Lab. Act.) ; one item was "For
financing testimonial dinner to James
Maurer $250."

"For Mr. Brophy's salary as director,"
the Pittsburgh Educational Forum and
Labor College, Pittsburgh, Pa., reed.
$1,700.



Organizations, Etc.



167



The Conference for Progressive Labor
Action reed. $5,266 at one time and also
"for publication of a pamphlet $1,065.76."
The Committee on Coal and Giant Power
"for completion of Mr. Raushenbush's
research work and half budget of Com-
mittee under Prof. Bird $5,266," and also
$2,847, 1928-30. The New York Call, and
Leader reed. $54,500; etc.

The reports are peppered with donations
to the LJ.D., which changed its name
from "Intercollegiate Socialist Society"
after the unsavory Socialist War record,
in order not to frighten off prospective
student members, but which now grows
ever bolder and bolder in its talk of Red
Revolution. That it was always con-
sidered a useful organization is shown by
gifts of $6,400 the first year; $3,500 and
$2,000 the second year "for field secretary's
salary" and "for field secretary's traveling
expenses, contingent upon raising their
budget for the year"; between 1925 and
1928, $10,500 was given for "field secre-
tary's salary"; also (1) "For study on
Coal and Superpower by H. Stephen
Raushenbush $5,000." (2) "For survey of
conditions in cotton mills in the South by
Paul Blanshard $700." (3) "For study on
'New Developments of Capitalism in the
U.S.' $600"; and many thousands for
publication of pamphlets (to be found in
student Y.M.C.A.'s such as at N.U., Evan-
ston).

The International Ladies Garment
Workers reed, a huge loan of $100,000 (in
Communist-led strike of 1926) and also
a loan of $25,000 for their Workers Center
at Forest Park, Pa. Nor were their friends
the Amalgamated Textile Workers Union
forgotten, receiving thru L. Hollingsworth
Wood and Albert De Silver (in strike of
1919) $850. The Central Trades and
Labor Council reed. $2,000. The Nat.
Women's Trade Union Lg., Chgo. branch,
reed. $1,147.33 and $629, and the N.Y.
branch, $2,500, $2,500, and $913. The
Nat. Consumers Lg. reed. $2,945.84, $1,000,
etc. The Cooperative League of America,
N.Y., reed. $2,000 and $1,500. The
Northern States Cooperative League, "For
organization work in Minn., Wis., and
Mich.," reed. $1,000. The Cooperative
Central Exchange, Superior, Wis. reed,
loans amounting to $10,000.

Commonwealth College, where the Inter-
nationale is sung with fervor, was hand-
somely provided for, being given $1,000
in 1924 and $23,580 in the next three-
year period. After this Red sympathizers



were called upon to take up its support
by donations.

Pioneer Youth of America reed. $25,710,
1925-28, $6,227, 1928-30, and other sums.

W. E. B. Du Bois was paid $5,000 for
services evidently considered valuable to
the cause. "For expenses Albert Coyle's
trip to Mexico $549.64"; "For expenses of
trip to Pa. and W. Va. coal fields by Louis
Budenz $321.29." These last two items
appear under Federated Press gifts for the
year 1925-26. // Nuovo Mondo, a daily
paper, reed. $12,000, 1925-28, and was a
mainstay in the Sacco-Vanzetti agitation.

"Am. Student Delgation to Russia,
N.Y.C." cost $950, plus $350 for "organ-
ization." The item in the 1924 report,
"Investigation of Department of Justice
'spy system' $1,345," coincides nicely with
the cessation of funds granted the Dept.
of Justice the following year for investi-
gation of radical activities and the Dept.
is crippled today because of this lack.

FOR "PACIFISM"

Truly the Red tentacles reach far. While
opposing the mild, liberal, modern, so-called
"Imperialism" of America, England and
France, which has brought civilization to
still barbarous lands, the Socialists and
Communists strive to bring about a world
imperialism on Russian lines in which
absolute autocracy and force would rule.
While talking "Peace," they work to weaken
national defense and patriotic spirit in
order that at the right moment a bloody
revolution may put the "dictatorship of
the proletariat" (in reality a dictatorship
of combined intellectual and gutter Red
revolutionaries) into power. Bearing in
mind the Fund's policy to give only to
enterprises "definitely committed to a rad-
ical program," the following donations to
"Peace" causes are interesting:

"To a group of students at Northwestern
University and Garrett Biblical Institute,
Evanston, 111. April 9, 1924 for anti-
militaristic movement $497.41"; To
"Wyoming State Conference Methodist
Church, Laramie, Wyo. for publication of
literature against compulsory military
training $300" (1926); "Fellowship of
Youth for Peace, N.Y.C. for distribution
of 1,100 copies of June number of 'World
Tomorrow,' among Japanese students in
America $88" (now Fell. Recon.) ;
"Women's International League for Peace
and Freedom, N.Y.C. For traveling ex-
penses of speakers on imperialism to
Senate Committee hearing and to Chicago
conference, (Mar. 4th and May 22nd)



168



The Red Network



$543.17" (1924-25) ; To "W.IJ..P.F.,"
Wash, D.C., "For general expenses, 6
months (Oct. 22nd) $1,000"; To W.I.L.
P.F., Wash., B.C., "For publication of
monthly bulletin Tax' $2,400" (1925-26);
To W.I.L.P.F., "For publication of
Monthly bulletin Tax' $1,200" (1926-27) ;
To W.I.LP.F. "For publication of
monthly bulletin Tax' $1,200" (1927-28);
To "Committee on Militarism in Edu-
cation, N.Y.C." (1) "For preparation and
distribution of pamphlet on 'Military
Training in Schools and Colleges in the
U.S.' $5,400" (Lane Pamphlet), and (2)
"Toward general budget $5,000" (1925-
26) ; also "To Committee on Militarism in
Education for general expenses $2,000"
(1926-27).

For "Studies of American Imperialism
(research and publication) $27,956"
(1925-28), is a staggering item indicating
to what pains the Fund went to discredit
America by propaganda representing the
U.S. as "bullying" and "imperialistic." Red
intellectuals hired to "research" must have
been well pleased at this appropriation.

The Communist Workers International
Relief, many radical "Labor" schools,
periodicals, Pioneer Camps, and "Summer
Schools for Workers in Industry," were



Online LibraryElizabeth Kirkpatrick DillingThe red network; a who's who and handbook of radicalism for patriots → online text (page 26 of 59)