Copyright
Elizabeth Kirkpatrick Dilling.

The red network; a who's who and handbook of radicalism for patriots online

. (page 27 of 59)
Online LibraryElizabeth Kirkpatrick DillingThe red network; a who's who and handbook of radicalism for patriots → online text (page 27 of 59)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


financed; for the I.W.W.'s, "Wayne,
Alberta, Canada for relief to striking
miners, $500"; and the "Speakers Service
Bureau" reed. $12,500. Donations to the
Labor Bureau were $1,107.24, $1,000,
$381.07; to the Bureau of Industrial
Research, N.Y. "for Mr. Raushenbush's
studies on coal situation $5,700"; "Mid-
land Empire Coop. Publishing Co., Bill-
ings, Mont. for 4 Farmer-Labor papers
$1,500"; "Oklahoma Leader, Oklahoma
City $6,000"; "Camp Tamiment, Forest
Park, Pa." reed, help; "Trade Union Com-
mittee for organizing Negro Workers" reed.
$2,434 and $600.

"In order to get a complete picture of
the enterprises in the labor and radical
movements in the U.S., a survey was made
jointly by Roger Baldwin and Stuart
Chase . . . ", so a Fund report says (It
covered them nicely it would seem) ; and
"after being assured of the sound manage-
ment of an enterprise, of the effectiveness
of its directing personnel and the signifi-
cance of its objects, the Fund has given or
loaned without further questions."

GARLAND FUND COMMITTEE
ON AMERICAN IMPERIALISM

Says the 1925 official report: "A number
of research jobs which no enterprise was



equipped to tackle were organized and
financed by the Fund. Chief among these
is a study of American imperialism under
the direction of Prof. Harry Elmer
Barnes of Smith College who heads an
advisory committee composed of Prof.
E. M. Borchard, Emanuel Celler, Prof.
Paul H. Douglas, Robt. W. Dunn, Ken-
neth Durant, Prof. Edw. M. Earle, Ernest
Gruening, Prof. Manly O. Hudson, Dr.
Samuel Guy Inman, Basil M. Manly, Dr.
Chas. Clayton Morrison, Kirby Page,
Judge Otto Schoenrich, Henrik Shipstead,
Edgar Speyer, Moorfield Storey, John F.
Sinclair, Oswald Garrison Villard and
Arthur Warner."

"Studies are now being made by Amer-
ican investigators in Cuba, Santo Domingo
and Bolivia. . . . Two studies made last
year under the auspices of the Fund have
been published in book form. They are
'American Foreign Investments' by Robt.
W. Dunn and 'Dollar Diplomacy' by Scott
Nearing and Jos. Freeman. These studies
are made under the direction of a com-
mittee of the Fund composed of Lewis S.
Gannett, Chairman; Morris L. Ernst,
James Weldon Johnson, Roger N. Baldwin
and Scott Nearing." (See A.A.A.I. Lg., etc.)

GENERAL DEFENSE COMMITTEE
Legal defense association of the I.W.W.

corresponding to the Communist I.L.D.;

hdqts. 555 W. Lake St., Chicago.

GORKI AWARD

Given yearly by Maxim Gorki of Russia
to American Communist authors who pro-
duce the best revolutionary literature of
the year.

GREEN INTERNATIONAL

To quote from its own literature, it "Is
a League of students from among the
schools, colleges and universities of the
world, intent on War Resistance. Aims:
To direct, to encourage . . . systematic
War Resistance. ... To radicalize the cause
of peace. . . . Symbol: The Green Inter-
national Shirt will be the outward symbol
of War Resistance the visible expres-
sion of World Patriotism. . . . The Green
International requires from its members a
personal spiritual pledge to refuse to take
part in or to support any kind of war
either directly or indirectly."

It aims to enlist at least 2 per cent of all
college students in the U.S. to affiliate with
war resisting societies. The 2 per cent idea
was advanced by Prof. Einstein in 1931
(see "Who's Who" for his Communist



Organizations, Etc.



169



affiliations). The theory is that if 2 per
cent of the population are organized as
militant war resisters they can cripple their
government in the prosecution of any war.
At that time thousands of buttons bearing
the insignia "2 per cent" were distributed
by radical pacifist groups. The Green
International is "Sponsored by Peace
Patriots, War Resisters International, War
Resisters League, Women's Peace Society,
New History Society; Cooperating organ-
izations: Committee on Militarism in
Education; Fellowship of Reconciliation";
hdqts. 132 East 65th Street, N.Y. City.
(See W. R. Intl. and W. R. Lg.).

GRIFFIN BILL COMMITTEE

Formed to uphold the radicals' Griffin
Bill, backed by the A.C.L.U., which pro-
posed admission of aliens without their
taking an oath to bear arms in defense of
the U.S. government. A letter signed by
the nat. sec., Alfred Lief, asking that
friends of the Griffin Bill come out to a
Hearing Jan. 26, 1932, and saying "Our
experience at the first Hearing of this Bill
during the past session was that the
patrioteers and militarists filled the room
ahead of us, thus creating an atmosphere
of hostility," lists on the letter head as
national chairman of the Griffin Bill Com-
mittee, Lola Maverick Lloyd.

Chmn. N.Y. City committee, Elizabeth Black;
chmn. Boston committee, Helen Tufts Bailie;
chmn. Northampton committee, Elaine Goodale
Eastman; chmn. Chgo. committee, Olive H. Rabe;
National sponsors: Willis J. Abbott (Boston),
Jane Addams, Emily Greene Balch, Harry Elmer
Barnes, Mrs. Victor Berger, Alice Stone Black-
well, Roy E. Burt, Carrie Chapman Catt, Dr.
Wm. C. Dennis (Pres. of Earlham College), John
Dewey, Arthur Fisher, Dorothy Canfield Fisher
(Arlington), Mrs. Caroline Foulke Urie (Yellow
Springs, O.), Felix Frankfurter, Dr. Alice Hamil-
ton. John Haynes Holmes, Fannie Hurst, Mercer
G. Johnston, Harold D. Lasswell, Alfred Lief, Robt.
Morss Lovett, James H. Maurer, Prof. Samuel E.
Morison (Harvard U.), Agnes Nestor, Willy
Pogany (Hollywood), Elmer Rice (N.Y.), James
T. Shotwell (Columbia U.), Lillian D. Wald, Dr.
Mary E. Woolley (Pres. Mt. Holyoke College),
and about twenty others. Hdqts. 135 W. 79th
St., N.Y. City, Alfred Lief.






H
HANDS OFF COMMITTEES

Various committees, such as the Amer-
ican Committee for Justice to China,
American Committee for Fair Play to
China, American Committee for Chinese
Relief, and Hands Off China Committees,
were formed under Communist inspiration
to create propaganda against U.S. inter-
ference in China when Red revolutionaries



were endangering American lives and
property there.

The Kuomintang, or Nationalist Party
of China, founded by Sun Yat Sen, were
in full alliance with the Communist Inter-
national and were at the height of their
revolutionary activities between 1924 and
1927, with the Soviet agent Grusenberg,
alias Borodin, as he was known when he
visited Chicago and Hull House circles,
acting as chief adviser of Chiang-Kai-Shek,
the Kuomintang leader. Communists claim
that the Kuomintang Party broke with
them and started fighting Communists
April 12, 1927. Kuomintang spokesmen
place this date as much as two years later.
However that may be, the Feb. 28, 1927
issue of the Third International pub-
lication, called "The Communist Inter-
national," stated: "In order to mobilize
all the reserves of the International Revo-
lutionary Movement, it is necessary to
carry out, with the speed commensurate
with the exceptional importance of the
matter, the united front under the slogan
'Hands Off China,' while, at the same
time, the Communists' parties must act
independently and employ all forms of
mass revolutionary struggle."

The Marvin Data Sheets report: that
Communist Manuel Gomez speaking at a
meeting of the "Hands Off China Com-
mittee" in Chicago, May 8, 1927, said his
organization, the Communist All-America
Anti-Imperialist League, had formed 172
Hands Off China Committees in the United
States and England; that Carl Haessler
presided at this meeting and Jane Addams
spoke, as did also Chandra Sena Gooner-
atne, "a Hindu U. of Chgo. student said
to be an active propagandist in the U.S.
for a revolution in India similar to the
one going on in China" ; Marvin adds that,
counting the "Hands Off Nicaragua" (Nica-
ragua was then seething under Communist-
supported Gen. Sandino) and "Hands Off
Mexico" Committees formed for similar
purposes, the total number of Communist-
inspired "Hands Off" Committees organ-
ized then was probably around 250.

A full page advertisement in the World
Tomorrow of Aug. 1925 said that Harry
Ward and Paul Blanshard were then in
Shanghai and had cabled a request asking
for immediate funds to aid the Chinese
Communist group then in charge of the
Hankow government, saying there was
little financial support from Russia and
urging the stopping of "every effort to
use American gunboats, American money
and American men to fasten foreign im-



170



The Red Network



perialism on China." This cablegram was
quoted with the appeal that contributions
be sent to the Garland Fund to aid this
cause ; and the appeal was signed by Kirby
Page, Robt. Morss Lovett and Rose
Schneidermann.

The N.Y. Herald Tribune of April 27th,
1927 referred to Harry Ward as Chairman
of the executive committee of the Amer-
ican Committee for Justice to China, the
same article referring to "another plea for
justice received by William Pickens of the
Hands Off China Association from Earl
Browder, American Communist editor,
who went to China as a delegate to labor
conference there and since Feb. 23 has
been a guest of the Cantonese government."

A vivid description of the great commu-
nist Hands Off China mass meeting staged
in Union Square, N.Y. City and quotation
from the columns of space proudly given
it in the communist Daily Worker are cited
in Marvin Data Sheets, and the following
committee listed:

Hands Off China Committee: Prof. John
Dewey, Paul Jones, H. H. Broach, Rev.
J. H. Holmes, Dr. James M. Yard, Louis
Budenz, Rev. Edmund B. Chaffee, Rev.
Chas. C. Webber, Lewis G. Gannett, Wm.
Pickens, H. Lanson, chmn. Chinese Stu-
dents Com. of Columbia. Speakers for
their meeting, May 9, 1927 (printed in
Daily Wkr.): Louis Budenz, L. Linson,
Alex. Trachtenberg, D. Benjamin (Wkrs.
Sch.), Richard B. Moore, L. Navarez
(Anti-Imp. Lg.), S. D. Ogino, Jap. Wkrs.
Alliance (Communist), Geo. Siskind, A.
Rosemond, Haitian Patriotic Lg. (Com-
munist), N. Napoli, Anti-Fascist Lg.
(Communist), Rebecca Grecht, A. Mark-
off, Lena Cherbnenka, and Juliet Poyntz
(all of Communist Party), Scott Nearing,
Robt. W. Dunn, H. M. Wick (Daily Wkr.),
Powers Hapgood. (Marvin Data Sheets,
28-29, May 11, 1927.)

HARLEM LIBERATOR

See Liberator.

HARLEM PROGRESSIVE
YOUTH CLUB

Communist club; 1538 Madison Ave.,
N.Y. City.

HARLEM TENANTS LEAGUES

Communist Negro subsidiary groups.
Richard B. Moore, director of the National
Negro Dept. of the Communist Party,
mailed out a report after the 1928 Com-
munist Party Convention in N.Y. City



saying: "The establishment of the Harlem
Tenants Leagues is considered by the Cen-
tral Executive Committee as an achieve-
ment in united front work among the
Negroes. It is necessary to link up the
problems of housing with the issues of
unemployment, segregation, etc." (Marvin
Data Sheets, 62-3.)

HOSPITAL WORKERS LEAGUE
Communist T.U.U.L. union.

HUMANISM

A new religion without God, without
worship or prayer and without belief in a
future life. The American Assn. for the
Advancement of Atheism in its June 1930
report said: "However much Humanists
for reasons of expediency shun the title
'Atheist,' they are godless. Consequently
we welcome their aid in overthrowing
Christianity and all other religions based
on the supernatural."

The first Humanist Society of New York
was founded by a New York preacher,
Chas. Francis Potter, several years ago. A
1933 conference on Humanism of about
40 ministers and educators meeting in Chi-
cago, signed the following resolutions said
to have been drawn up originally by Prof.
Roy Sellers of the U. of Michigan and
made public by Rev. Raymond B. Bragg,
Chicago Unitarian minister.

"Religious humanists regard the universe as self-
existing and not created.

"Religion must formulate its hopes and plans
in the light of the scientific spirit and method.

"The distinction between the sacred and the
secular can no longer be maintained.

"Religious humanism considers the complete
realization of human personality to be the end of a
man's life, and seeks its development and fulfil-
ment in the here and now.

"In place of the old attitudes involved in wor-
ship and prayer, the humanist finds his religious
emotions exprest in a heightened sense of per-
sonal life and in a cooperative effort to promote
social well-being.

"There will be no uniquely religious emotions
and attitudes of the kind hitherto associated with
belief in the supernatural. Man will learn to face
the crises of life in terms of his knowledge of
their naturalness and probability. Reasonable and
manly attitudes will be fostered by education and
supported custom.

"We assume that humanism will take the path
of social and mental hygiene, and discourage
sentimental and unreal hopes and wishful thinking.

"The goal of humanism is a free and universal
society in which people voluntarily and intelligently
cooperate for the common good.

"The time has come for wide-spread recog-
nition of the radical changes in religious thoughts
throughout the modern world. Science and economic
change have disrupted the old beliefs.

"Religions the world over are under the necessity
of coming to terms with new conditions created
by a vastly increased knowledge and experience."

Signers and endorsers of the above Program
include Prof. J. A. C. Fagginger Auer, Harvard



Organizations, Etc.



171



University; John Dewey; Prof. Robert Morss
Lovett, University of Chicago; Chas. Francis
Potter; Rabbi Jacob J. Weinstein, Advisor to Jew-
ish students at Columbia University; Prof. Edwin
Arthur Burtt, Cornell University; Prof. Frank
Hankins, Smith College; Prof. A. Eustace Hay-
don, University of Chicago; Prof. Oliver L.
Reiser, University of Pittsburgh; and Prof. Roy
Wood Sellers, University of Michigan.

HUNGARIAN DRAMATIC CLUB (N.Y.)
Communist mass foreign language section
cultural group.

HUNGARIAN PROLETARIAN

WRITERS ASSN.

Section of communist Revolutionary
Writers Federation.

HUNGARIAN SICK AND DEATH
BENEFIT SOCIETY

Communist fraternal insurance foreign
language organization.

HUNGARIAN WORKERS CLUB
HUNGARIAN WORKERS

HOME SOCIETY

Communist Hungarian mass organ-
izations.

I

ICOR

Jewish Communist society helping the
colonization of Biro Birdjan, the Jewish
Soviet Socialist Republic in Russia; has
branches in Brooklyn, New York City,
Chicago, etc. Chicago hdqts. 3301 W.
Roosevelt Road.

IL NUOVO MONDO NAT. COM.

The full title is "The American Commit-
tee for the Support of II Nuovo Mondo."
II Nuovo Mondo was previously heavily
financed by the Garland Fund (see). A
letter in 1931 signed by Marguerite Tucker
the secretary of the Committee said: "II
Nuovo Mondo is a pro-labor, anti-mili-
tarist and anti-fascist daily for the Italians
living in this country. Without II Nuovo
Mondo the long Sacco-Vanzetti campaign
could never have been carried on," and
solicited funds to aid the campaign of II
Nuovo Mondo "to amend our immigration
laws so that the right of asylum for political
prisoners from other lands . . . may be
assured." Radicals use the term "political
prisoners" to indicate those jailed for revo-
lutionary activities. Headquarters 81 East
10th Street, New York City.

Clinton S. Golden (of the Garland Fund),
treas. ; Marguerite Tucker, sec. ; Nat. Com. :
Morris Berman, Sarah Bernheim, Leroy Bowman,
Paul F. Brissenden, Heywood Broun, Louis F.
Budenz, Dr. Charles Fama, Dr. Ninon Firenze,



Elizabeth Gilman, Arturo Giovannitti, Clinton S.
Golden, Florence Curtis Hanson, John Haynes
Holmes, Alexander Howat, Harry W. Laidler, Vito
Marcantonio, James H. Maurer, Mrs. John F.
Moors, A. J. Muste, Jacob Panken, J. Nevin
Sayre, Joseph Schlossberg, Vida Scudder, A. I.
Shiplacoff, Dr. M. Siragusa, Norman Thomas,
Girolamo Valenti, Stephen S. Wise.

INDEPENDENT LABOUR PARTY

OF GREAT BRITIAN
Ind. Lab. Party or I.L.P.

A left wing Socialist Party founded by
Friedrich Engels, collaborator of Karl
Marx, in 1893, aided by Marx' youngest
daughter, "Tussy" (who disdained "bour-
geois" marriage with Dr. Aveling, her "hus-
band"), G. B. Shaw and others. The April
17, 1933 issue of the American communist
Daily Worker quoted from the National
Administrative Council of the Independent
Labour Party recommendation " 'to the
party that its affiliation with the Labor and
Socialist International (2nd International)
should be terminated. ... It takes the view
that there is now no hope of the Labor
and Socialist International becoming an
effective instrument of revolutionary so-
cialism,' " etc. Whether the I.LP. will now
join the Third International (Communist)
remains to be seen. It has long been in
close sympathy with Moscow and "took
the lead in Pacifist agitation 'during the
war'; its anti-recruiting meetings formed
the nucleus out of which all Defeatist and
Bolshevik movements developed." (From
"Socialist Network" by Nesta Webster.)
Among its past and present leaders are
Ramsay MacDonald (recently expelled for
cooperating with the present Coalition
Government), Tom Mann (now Commu-
nist), Arthur Ponsonby, Chas. Trevelyan,
H. N. Brailsford, Josiah Wedgewood, E. D.
Morel, Philip Snowden, Pethwick Lawrence,
A. Fenner Brockway (recent lecturer in the
United States for the L.I.D.), etc. The
I.L.P. program states: "The I.L.P. is a
Socialist organization and has for its object
the establishment of the Socialist Common-
wealth." Mrs. Pethwick Lawrence was a
co-worker with Jane Addams in the United
States in forming the W.I.L.P.F. (see).
Socialist Margaret Bondfield was the long
time associate in the Labor Party move-
ment of Ramsay MacDonald, who made
her Britain's first woman Cabinet Minister
in his 1929-31 Cabinet when he was I.L.P.
Premier of England. She was not made a
member of the Coalition government which
followed. She took a prominent part with
Jane Addams in the congress of the Inter-
national Council of Women held July 16,
1933 in Chicago (see Ramsay MacDonald's



172



The Red Network



activities ay I.LP. leader under "Who's
Who," also "English Reds" for further
information).

The Daily Worker, Oct. 4, 1933, report-
ing the arrival of Tom Mann, English
Communist, said: "Responding to a ques-
tion about the recent action of the I.L.P.
of Great Britain in support of united front
action with the Communist International,
Mann said that 'the rank and file of the
I.L.P. is more and more taking part in
joint actions with the Communists not
gingerly, mind you, but heartily!'"

INDUSTRIAL WORKERS

OF THE WORLD
I.W.W.

From 1905, when it was founded, until
the advent of the Bolsheviks to power,
after which many of its unions and leaders
joined the Communist forces, the I.W.W.
was the most formidable revolutionary
organization in the United States. Only
about 25,000 of the 100,000 membership
remained in 1933, but new blood is now
being recruited.

Among the Socialists and Anarchists who
founded it or served as its early leaders
were Eugene V. Debs, "Big Bill" Hay-
wood, Wm. Z. Foster, Eliz. Gurley Flynn
and her husband Carlo Tresca, "Mother"
Jones, Ernest Untermann, etc. Wm. Z.
Foster and "Big Bill" Haywood went over
to the newly-formed Communist Party,
which began assuming the more dominant
role. However, the Garland Fund donated
thousands of dollars to the I.W.W. and
during the depression it has had a con-
siderable revival, largely in the west.

As an Anarcho -Syndicalist organization
its purpose is the organization of industrial
workers into unions to war against em-
ployers by any and all means, including
sabotage, burning of forests and wheat
fields, murder and violence, and eventually,
by means of the General Strike, to over-
throw the government and present capital-
ist system of society. A 48-page I.W.W.
booklet, sold in 1933, entitled "The General
Strike," is entirely devoted to the subject
of the General Strike as the I.W.W. revo-
lutionary weapon. After the revolution the
plan is to have no central government but
only a government by unions.

Its organ "One Big Union Monthly"
(Oct. 1920), describing its "Chart of
Industrial Communism," stated: "Please
note that this plan leaves no room for a
political party which specializes in gov-
ernment and ruling other people. All power



rests with the people organized in branches
of the Industrial Unions. From production
and distribution standpoint this means
Industrial Communism. From Administra-
tion standpoint it means industrial democ-
racy. Such is the program of the I.W.W."
The Aug. 11, 1920 issue stated: "The
I.W.W. views the accomplishments of the
Soviet government of Russia with breath-
less interest and intense admiration. . . . The
I.W.W. has always expelled members who
were not true to the basic principles of the
world revolution." In answer to Zinoviev's
invitation to the I.W.W. to join the Third
International, the I.W.W. moved: "That
we endorse the Third International with
reservations as follows: 'That we do not
take any part whatever in parliamentary
action and that we reserve the right to
develop our own tactics according to con-
ditions prevailing.' "

The few surviving leaders of the old
I.W.W. are now free from prison and came
from all sections of the United States to
attend the I.W.W. convention held Sept.
29-30, 1933 at the Irving Plaza Hotel, N.Y.
City. Among these were: James P. Thomp-
son, leader of the pickets in the great 1912
textile strike at Lawrence, Mass.; James
Price, once kidnaped and badly beaten dur-
ing trouble in Kentucky mines; Arthur
Boose, agricultural organizer; Monoldi
from the metal mining districts of the west;
F. Leigh Bearce, building trades organizer;
Jack Walsh, marine organizer; and Ben
Fletcher, Negro waterfront organizer in
Phila. Herbert Mahler, who was among
the group arrested after the explosion of
the bomb in the Chicago post office and
afterwards sent to Leavenworth Peniten-
tiary with Thompson, Walsh and Price,
gave an interview in Sept. 1933 at the new
I.W.W. headquarters, 94 Fifth Ave., N.Y.
City, on the I.W.W. present plans to build
anew a militant aggressive organization on
the old lines insisting now on a four-hour
day and four-day week with no wage cuts
for workers.

Official organs 1933: Industrial Worker (weekly
newspaper in English), 555 W. Lake St., Chicago;
Tie Vapauteen (Finnish monthly), Box 99,
Duluth, Minn.; Industrialiste (Finnish daily
newspaper), Box 3912, Sta. F.F., Cleveland, O.;
II Proletario (Italian weekly), Box 24, Sta. T,
Brooklyn, N.Y.; Jedna Velka Unie (Czecho-
Slovakian weekly), 11314 Revere Ave., S.E.,
Cleveland, O. I.W.W. main hdqts. 555 W. Lake
St. and 1618 W. Madison St., Chicago; branches
in England and Australia; legal defense society
is called General Defense Committee (555 W.
Lake St., Chicago); its unemployed organizations
are "Unemployed Unions"; cooperates with Social-
ists, Anarchists and Communists in the revolution-
ary "united front" "class struggle."



Organizations, Etc.



173



INPRECORR

An abbreviation, in typical Soviet style,
of "International Press Correspendence" ;
published under the latter title in pam-
phlet form and sold at Communist book-
stores; published by the Communist Inter-
national, originally in Vienna, then, until
Hitler's regime, in Berlin, now in London;
in four languages German, French, Rus-
sian and English ; contains articles by Com-
munist leaders in various countries on
revolutionary activities, speeches by Stalin,
etc.; 31 Dudden Hill Lane, London, N.W.
10.

INTERCOLLEGIATE STUDENT
COUNCIL

Of the League for Industrial Democracy
(see).

INTERNATIONALS (1st, 2nd and 3rd)
The 1st International was formed Sept.
28, 1864 in St. Martin's Hall, London, by
a group of peaceful French syndicalists aim-
ing to improve conditions of labor, joined
by English members and the Karl Marx
clique, which latter completely captured
the organization. It was then known as
the International Workingmen's Association.
In 1869, the "Alliance Sociale Democrat-
ique," a secret society headed by the Rus-
sian anarchist Michael Bakunin was
admitted to the International and here
commenced the struggle for power which
ended in Marx wrecking the International
to get rid of these powerful anarchist
rivals. In advocacy of the class war and
militant atheism Marxists and Bakunists
were one, but, while Marx stood for State
Socialism, conquest of political power, that
is the State, by the working classes,
"nationalization of production and distri-
bution of wealth" unttt all classes should
become one and "bourgeois" desire for
individualism should be eradicated, at which
time (eternity, perhaps) State control
would become unnecessary and the State
political machine would then simply



Online LibraryElizabeth Kirkpatrick DillingThe red network; a who's who and handbook of radicalism for patriots → online text (page 27 of 59)