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Earl Browder (nat. sec. Communist
Party) was greeted with a burst of
applause. He said that Communism, while
opposing imperialist war was not opposed to
civil war, which was the only way to over-
throw capitalist imperialism and stop
imperialist war; and that the only answer
to the war dangers in schools was the
National Student League (Communist) ;
that the student of today must tear down
tradition and fight for the abolition of the
private ownership system; that in Russia
and throughout the world Communists
advocate birth control and allow only those
physically fit to bring children into the



Organizations, Etc.



229



world the same as manufacturing is limited
to the needs of the nation; and that any-
one really working against war must unite
with the Communist Party for the over-
throw of capitalism. Following Browder's
address was a question period in which the
question was asked "Can Communist stu-
dents strike against the R.O.T.C.?", to
which Browder replied: "The Communist
Party energetically supports any movement
designed to fight the R.O.T.C. Every stu-
dent should join in a united front against
the damn menace."

J. B. Matthews said the pacifists have
always been a failure because they were
one war behind; that in the next war they
must be organized in a united front to
march on the seat of authority where war
is declared, and that in order to do this
we must be organized and prepared to
overthrow any government that attempts
to plunge us into war for any cause what-
ever; that even if capitalism could outlaw
war, pacifists would still have a social duty
to perform, as there can be no peace in
the world for the workers as long as this
parasitical bloodsucking system has the
world in its grip. He also lauded Jane
Addams and Scott Nearing for their war
time work.

Jane Addams spoke next and said she
stood with Gandhi in his policy of non-
violence. (He unfortunately incites such
violence in others that he has to be jailed
continually.)

Communist Scott Nearing, who spoke
next, said that war is the central political
function of modern capitalist states, that
the only way to peace was through a new
social order based on production for use
and not for profit, and that the producers
must organize to take away the social and
economic machinery from the gang of
profiteers now in power. "We call it
seizure of power" he said. He said that
the Amsterdam Congress advocated strikes
in munition plants, fraternization among
troops of opposing armies, refusal to trans-
port war materials, and organization of
nuclei in armed forces to spread revolution-
ary ideals. Concluding, he said the day
would come when organized groups would
settle all differences over green-top tables
and say "Down with Capitalism and up
with the Soviet Union."

An evening discussion of Group No. 1
was led by J. B. Matthews and Mac Gor-
don and delegates from Toledo, Syracuse,
John Hopkins U., N.Y. City, etc. told of
their efforts to smash the R.O.T.C. A
delegate from Columbia stated: "If a col-



lege is in the Soviet Union, a military unit
should be an integral part of the institu-
tion's life but not so in the United States."
At Syracuse, it was explained, the pacifist
clergymen among the alumni body were
played upon to work against military
training in the schools. This was highly
recommended for a line of strategy in
Church schools. Mac Gordon summarized
the discussion by saying that "the most
important thing is not whether I take it
or not" (military training), "but to break
up the corps entirely by propagandizing
against it and to fight against the National
Guard, C.M.T.C. and American Legion."

Discussion Group No. 2 was led by
Communist Eugene Bechtold, instructor in
the communist Chicago "Workers School"
of revolution. Recommendations were:
"Present a petition to Congress refusing to
support militarism in any form. In case
of war, the students must call a strike in
all industry and agriculture. But we must
now join the R.O.T.C., C.M.T.C., Army
and Navy so we can bore from within to
cause its downfall. We changed from the
Feudal system to the Monarchy and from
the Monarchies to the Capitalist system,
of which the United States is the bastard
child. The Communist party calls on all
the workers and students of the United
States to overthrow this government and
set up a Communist state."

The morning session of Thursday, Dec.
29, opened with the reading of a "Revo-
lutionary Greeting" from the communist
"Chicago Workers School." The first speak-
er was Donald Henderson, nat. sec. of the
communist National Student League. He
said the R.O.T.C. must be penetrated and
the cadets convinced that they were merely
being trained for cannon fodder and that
the students must also fight against the
economic system and demand that the
money for military training be given for
educational purposes instead. A Hyde Park
High School delegate stated that teachers
let girls talk to classes for five or ten min-
utes to get delegates to the Congress. C.
Jones, colored graduate of Columbia and
student of a "Wilkins College" in Chicago,
advocated boring from within and made a
vicious attack on Christianity which was
received with great applause. A woman
delegate from Antioch College, Yellow
Springs, Ohio, made a viciously revo-
lutionary talk urging the entire system of
profit be done away with and that a revo-
lution was the only way out. A delegate
from Milwaukee State Teachers College
attacked the National Guard and military



230



The Red Network



expenses and said his campus was too lib-
eral to support any R.O.T.C. unit. Jos.
Cohen presented resolutions on recognition
of Russia, Student Fight Against Militarism
in High Schools and Colleges, etc.

Communist literature was distributed
including: Student Review (of N.S. Lg.) ;
the Communist International's "Struggle
Against Imperialist War and the Task of
the Communists"; "Is the American Intel-
lectual?" by Maxim Gorki; "A Warless
World" by Scott Nearing; "Stop Mu-
nitions" by C. Bulazel, pub. by R.I.L.U.;
W.CA.W. pamphlet pub. by its Am. Com.
for Struggle Against War; Moscow Daily
News; Lenin's "The Threatening Catas-
trophe and How to Fight It"; "Socialism
and War" by G. Zinoviev and V. I. Lenin;
Intl. Publishers Catalogue; "The Soviets
Fight for Disarmament" by A. Lunachar-
sky; Anti-Imperialist Review; "Another
World War" by Scott Nearing; "The
World Crisis and War Danger" by N.
Rudolph, printed in Russia; etc.

Also distributed were: "Program 1931-
1932, Women's International League for
Peace and Freedom"; "Out of a Job
Why?" by Women's International League
for Peace and Freedom (headed by Jane
Addams) ; Application Blank of "Green
International, a World Movement for the
Higher Patriotism"; Prospectus of Green
International; "What Is War Resistance"
by Jessie Wallace Hughan, issued by War
Resisters Lg., 171 W. 12th St., N.Y. City;
"War Resistance" by Wm. Floyd, dir.
Peace Patriots, issued by Arbitrator Press,
114 E. 31 St., N.Y. City.

The "National Committee for the Stu-
dent Congress Against War" was formed
by members of the American Committee
for Struggle Against War (of the World
Congress Against War at Amsterdam) in
conjunction with the communist National
Student League. All of these committees
and Congresses are under the control and
direction of Moscow's Intl. Lg. Against
Imperialism and its leaders. A comparison
will show that certain leaders serve on the
various committees.

The Nat. Com. for the Student Congress
Against War as printed on the official pro-
gram is as follows:

Sherwood Anderson, Henri Barbusse, Eleanor
Copenhaver (Y.W.C.A.), George S. Counts, Leo
Gallagher (I.L.D.), Donald Henderson, H. W. L.
Dana, Corliss Lamont, J. B. Matthews, Herman J.
Muller. Scott Nearing, Margaret Schlauch,
Frederick L. Schuman, Thos. Woody, Robt.
Morss Lovett; Students: Edmund Stevens of
the N.S. Lg., chmn., Columbia U., N.Y.; Dora
Zucker, sec., Coll. City of N.Y.; Margaret Bailey,
treas., N.Y. Univ.; Gregory Bardacke, Syracuse



Coll., Mass.; Jos. Cohen, Brooklyn Coll., N.Y.;
Edwin L. Diggs, Lambuth Coll., Tenn.; Henry
Forblade. Commonwealth Coll., Ark.; Carl Geiser,
Tenn. Coll., Ohio; Edw. Hartshorne, Jr., Har-
vard U., Mass.; Richard Lake, State U., Mont.;
George Perazich, U. of Gal.- Eugene Schaffar-
man, U. of Mich.; Norman Spitzer, Cornell U.,
N.Y.; Nathaniel Weyl, Columbia U., N.Y.; Ira
Latimer, LeMoyne Coll., Memphis, Tenn.

STUDENT LEAGUE
See National Student League (Commu-
nist).

STUDENT OUTLOOK

Organ of socialist League for Industrial
Democracy (see) ; pub. by its "Inter-
collegiate Student Council"; changed name
from "Revolt"; previously called Inter-
collegiate Socialist Review; 112 E. 19th
St., N.Y.C.

STUDENT REVIEW
Organ of communist National Student
League (see) ; staff and contributors affili-
ated with Revolutionary Writers Fed-
eration.

SUIT CASE AND BAG

WORKERS UNION
Now the Pocketbook section of the Shoe
and Leather Workers Industrial Union, a
communist T.U.U.L. union; under Fred
Biedenkapp.

"SURVEY"

And "Survey Graphic"; intellectual
socialistic publications; Paul U. Kellogg,
editor; evidence concerning its favorable
attitude toward the I.W.W., its "apologetic
attitude toward extreme radical activities,"
its articles "to encourage the demand for
the release of so-called 'political prisoners'
like Debs and Kate Richards O'Hare," is
printed in the Lusk Report, also that it
received $13,000 yearly from the Russell
Sage Foundation; Edward T. Devine,
Graham Taylor, Jane Addams, Jos. K.
Hart, Haven Emerson, M.D., Robt. W.
Bruere, Joanna C. Colcord, are contribut-
ing editors and Mary Ross, Beulah Amidon,
Leon Whipple, John Palmer Gavit, Loula
D. Lasker, Florence Loeb Kellogg, and
Gertrude Springer, assoc. editors (1933) ;
Arthur Kellogg is mg. ed. ; Lucius R. East-
man is pres., Julian W. Mack, Joseph P.
Chamberlain, John Palmer Gavit are vice
presidents, Ann Reed Brenner is sec., and
Arthur Kelloge treas, of Survey Associates,
Inc., the publishers, 112 E. 19th St., N.Y.C.

SYNDICALISM

Means: "The ownership and operation
of each industry by the workers in that



Organizations, Etc.



231



industry the political state to be abol-
ished." Anarchists, Communists, I.W.W.'s,
and Socialists are all in some degree syndi-
calists ; all favor the abolition of the present
political state. Hence laws passed against
seditious, revolutionary activities aimed at
the overthrow of the state have come to
be called "syndicalism" laws, the name
being derived from the foreign name for
labor unions or "syndicates."



TASS (CABLE SERVICE)
Official Soviet cable service; has office
with the Federated Press in Washington,
D.C.

TAXI WORKERS UNION
Communist T.U.U.L. union.

TEACHERS UNION
Radical-pacifist, anti-national-defense,
pro-Soviet Teachers Union of N.Y. City;
received from the red Garland Fund
"towards the educational campaign for
the repeal of Lusk Laws, $500," also $6,000
and $3,172.50 for "operating expenses" and
"research and publicity work outside of
regular activities." (The Lusk Laws were
anti-sedition laws recommended by the
Lusk Committee of the N.Y. State Legis-
lature.) Henry R. Linville is president. He
is also pres. of the radical American Fed-
eration of Teachers.

TEXTILE WORKERS INDUSTRIAL

UNION, NATIONAL
Communist T.U.U.L. union.

TOBACCO WORKERS
INDUSTRIAL UNION
A communist T.U.U.L. union; primarily
organized around Tampa, Fla.; agitated
strikes involving more than 9,000 workers
in cigar industry there in 1933; the Com-
munist Labor Defender, Aug. 1933, exults
over the freeing of all Tampa prisoners
by the communist I.L.D.; conducted gen-
eral strike affecting 40 shops and 4,000
workers, in N.Y. City, Aug. 1933, from
hdqts. at 350 E. 31st St., N.Y. City.

TRADE UNION
EDUCATIONAL LEAGUE

Organized Nov. 1920; reorganized as the
Trade Union Unity League at Cleveland,
Aug. 1929; headed then and now by Com-
munist Wm. Z. Foster; it specialized in
"boring from within" other unions while
the present organization in addition organ-



izes Red Unions; received $900 from Gar-
land Fund, 1925-26.

TRADE UNION UNITY LEAGUE
T.U.U.L.

Communist federation of labor; Amer-
ican section of the Profintern or Red Inter-
national of Labor Unions directed by Mos-
cow; a federation of Communist labor
unions directing and spreading the Red
trade union movement and also directing
Communist members who have bored from
within A.F. of L. unions to gain control;
organizes the communist Unemployed
Councils; membership 1933 is 89,700;
organized at Cleveland, Aug. 1929; suc-
ceeded the Trade Union Educational
League, which specialized on "boring from
within" regular unions; Wm. Z. Foster is
nat. sec. and was also head of the former
Trade Union Educational League; official
organ is "Labor Unity"; hdqts. 2 W. 15th
St., N.Y. City.

TRANSPORTATION WORKERS

LEAGUE

A communist T.U.U.L. union; also the
American section of the International of
Transportation Workers.

TUNNEL WORKERS
INDUSTRIAL UNION
Communist T.U.U.L. union.

U

UKRAINIAN PROLETARIAN
WRITERS AND WORKER-
CORRESPONDENTS ASSOCIATION
Section of communist Revolutionary
Writers Federation.

UKRAINIAN WOMENS
TOILERS ASSOCIATION
UKRAINIAN WORKERS CLUBS
Communist Foreign Language Groups
(see).

UNEMPLOYED COUNCILS
Communist Party organizations for
agitating the unemployed; organized July
4, 1930 at a Chicago Congress of Commu-
nist District Organizers; is a section of the
T.U.U.L.; is controlled by "Party frac-
tions" and officerships (as are Foreign
Language Groups); nat. sec. Israel Amter;
Cook County, 111. sec., Karl Lockner; Chi-
cago has 71 city branches and local quar-
ters; HI. State hdqts. 2401 W. Roosevelt
Road; Cook Co. organ is "The Chicago



232



The Red Network



Hunger Fighter"; agitates in 36 States,
each State having State as well as local
hdqts.; nat. hdqts. N.Y. City.

UNEMPLOYED ORGANIZATIONS

In order to distinguish the unemployed
groups of one Party from those of another:

Unemployed Councils are groups of the
Communist Party.

Workers Leagues are those of the Pro-
letarian Party (Communist).

Unemployed Unions are those of the
I.W.W.

Unemployed Citizens Leagues, often
called Unemployed Leagues, are those of
the Conference for Progressive Labor
Action (left-wing, militant, Socialist, Com-
munist-cooperating organization led by A.
J. Muste).

Associations of Unemployed are those of
the Communist Party (Opposition) led by
Jay Lovestone.

(National) Federation of Unemployed
Workers Leagues is the Communist-I.W.W.
dominated united front of all groups,
organized by Karl Borders.

Workers Committees on Unemployment
(of N.Y., Chicago, etc.) are Borders' L.I.D.
Socialist groups cooperating with all of
the others.

UNION OF EAST AND WEST

See Fellowship of Faiths.

UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY
(AND ST. STEPHENS COLLEGE)

The notable number of ministerial
graduates and instructors of Union Theo-
logical Seminary who are also active agi-
tators in the Red Socialist-Communist
movement have helped, no doubt, to popu-
larize its nickname "The Red Seminary."
The L.I.D. conference "Guiding the Revo-
lution" held there Dec. 1931, the activities
of men like Karl Borders, Harry Ward,
Reinhold Niebuhr, Arnold Johnson (ar-
rested for criminal syndicalism), the
Seminary's advertised recommendation of
a filthy sex book for the Eugenics Publish-
ing Co. (fellow publishers of the atheist
Freethought Press), etc., etc., help this
reputation along.

The Lusk Report (p. 1115) states:
"There are two dangerous centers of Revo-
lutionary Socialist teaching of a university
type in ecclesiastical institutions. One is
the Union Theological Seminary of New
York, where Christian Ethics are taught
by Dr. Harry F. Ward; the other is St.
Stephens College at Annandale, N.Y., where



the president is the Rev. Iddings-Bell, and
the professor of economics the Socialist,
Dr. Edwards. . . .

"Dr. Ward is the author of 'The New
Social Order,' in which he shows a decided
sympathy for Socialist social forms and is
friendly to Bolshevism in Russia. . . . He
characterized the cognate I.W.W. 'phil-
osophy' as the most ideal and practical
philosophy since the days of Jesus Christ,
and as expressing the ideas of Christ much
more closely than any church of the present
day.

"... He is chairman of the American
Civil Liberties Union which champions the
I.W.W., and presided over the I.W.W.
meeting of Feb. 9, 1920, held at the Rand
School, to raise money for the defense of
the I.W.W. murderers of the four members
of the American Legion at Centralia.

"... The pro-Bolshevik articles which
Dr. Ward contributed to 'The Social Ser-
vice Bulletin' of the Methodist Federation
for Social Service were considered partic-
ularly objectionable because the Bulletin
was circulated not only by the Methodist
Church but by the Congregational, North-
ern Baptist and other organizations. They
called attention to Dr. Ward's text books
circulated by the Graded Sunday School
Syndicate. Dr. Ward is also connected with
the Y.M.C.A., the Y.W.C.A. and the Inter-
Church World Movement.

"... Such specialists in Bolshevism as
Lieutenant Klieforth and Wm. English
Walling have characterized Dr. Ward's
statements as downright falsehoods or dis-
torted facts, and as a kind of Bolshevism
far worse than the Bolshevism of Russia.

"The same attempt to swing existing edu-
cational institutions to the support of the
atheism and materialism of the I.W.W. and
Bolshevism is shown in the movement in
the Episcopal Church of which the nominal
leader is the Rev. Bernard Iddings Bell. He
is at the head of St. Stephens College at
Annandale. . . . The head of the department
of economics is the Rev. Lyford P. Ed-
wards, an able expositor of Socialism and
member of the Socialist Party. He gives
courses at the college on the I.W.W., on
Syndicalism, Socialism and Bolshevism. As
a Socialist ... he teaches these movements
to the young Episcopalians sympathetically.

"What the President, Dr. Bell himself,
thinks, can be judged from his book, 'Right
and Wrong after the War.' He here bases
the whole history and character of civil-
ization on what he calls the two great
'Urges,' the Hunger Urge and the Sex
Urge. He accepts, in other words, the low-



Organizations, Etc.



233



est form of the Karl Marx materialistic
conception of history, in which there is
absolutely no place for God in the evo-
lution of the universe. Logically this is
inescapable atheism. As a corollary he
states two fundamental articles of faith: (1)
that private property should be absolutely
abolished and (2) that interest on invested
property, rents, savings, etc. is robbery. He
also condemns, as the Bolsheviki do, the
present institution of the family, which he
regards as a purely sexual relation, except
insofar as it subserves the raising of the
young.

"In a sermon delivered on May 23,
1920, in the Cathedral of St. John the
Divine, Dr. Bell announced his sympathy
with the revolutionary element of labor
which demands the abolishing of the wage
system and the communistic assumption of
control."

UNITED CONFERENCE FOR
PROGRESSIVE POLITICAL ACTION

See under Conference for Progressive
Political Action.

UNITED COUNCILS OF

WORKING CLASS HOUSEWIVES

UNITED COUNCILS OF WORKING

CLASS WOMEN

American sections of the Womens Com-
munist International; very active in pre-
venting evictions, in unemployed demon-
strations, in picketing and, in 1932, led
strikes in N.Y., Chicago, etc., to compel
reduction of price of bread; the official
organ is "The Working Woman," "published
monthly by the Central Committee of the
Communist Party U.S.A. Section of the
Communist International, Fifty East 13th
St., N.Y. City" (price SOc year). The fol-
lowing groups bought space in the May
1933 issue to send "Revolutionary Greet-
ings to the Workers of the Soviet Union":

Nairjosta, Waukegan, 111.; Scandinavian Work-
ing Women's Council of Cleveland; Womens
Councils of Elmwood, 111. and of Albany Park,
Chicago; Council No. 3 Chicago; Lithuanian
Working Womens Alliance branch No. 17, Detroit;
Branch No. 130; Ukrainian Working Women Red
Star of Dearborn, Mich.; Armenian Working
Women, Detroit; Womens Council of Stamford,
Conn.; Fitchburg Womens Club and Secretariat,
Fitchburg, Mass.

UNITED FARMERS LEAGUE

(and Communist Farm Movement)
Communist Party organization; formerly
known as the United Farmers Educational
League. To quote: "As to making the
U.F.L. a mere propaganda organization I
want to say we have purposely taken the



word 'educational' from the name of the
United Farmers Educational League, to
indicate that we now abandon our propa-
ganda stage among the farmers and now
enter into actual struggles. ..." "The
leadership in the . . . revolution itself, must
go to the city proletariat as the really con-
scious, revolutionary class by virtue of the
fact that the city proletarians are so situ-
ated, socially and economically, that they
can gain control of, and dominate the insti-
tutions which are of decisive importance
when it is a question of seizing and hold-
ing power. Obviously the farmers are not
so situated. . . . However the city proletariat
must diligently seek the masses of poor
farmers as an ally in the Revolution, and
the consummation of such an alliance, is a
necessary prerequisite for a successful
Revolution in America. The revolutionary
city industrial workers, guided and led by
the Communist Party, cannot seize and
hold power without such an alliance."

"What is the function of the United
Farmers League ? The Party has set up the
U.F.L. and its official organ the United
Farmer, as a means of reaching the poor
farmers with the revolutionary message, as
an aid to the Party . . . not in any passive
or extraneous sense, but quite actively, and
as a means of actual struggle and combat
with the capitalists and the capitalist
authorities."

"The U.F.L. is not and will not be a
'dead' organization. That the poor farmers
will actually do something for themselves
... is proved by what took place in a
small town in Wisconsin recently, where
the farmers objected to the high taxes
foisted upon them, and took physical action
against the tax collectors, and also by an
incident in Arkansas, where a group of
farmers, who were starving, helped them-
selves to foodstuffs by stealing it openly."
"Yes, the poor farmers will fight. Just try
them out and see!" (From Alfred Knut-
son's Communist Party treatise "Function
of the Revolutionary U.F.L.")

The Communist farmer movement has
been growing by leaps and bounds. In the
Western States such as Colorado, Cali-
fornia, etc., where there are large numbers
of Japanese, Mexican and Filipino laborers
in the fruit and vegetable areas, the com-
munist Agricultural Workers Industrial
Union of the T.U.U.L. has been operating
successfully. December 7-10, 1932 at
Washington, D.C. the communist-controlled
Farmers National Relief Conference under
the leadership of Lem Harris formed a
National Farmers Committee for Action.



234



The Red Network



NATIONAL FARMERS COMMITTEE FOR ACTION

Typical Red resolutions were adopted
demanding: recognition of Russia; Negro
equality; unlimited "free speech" and
rights to parade; elimination of all appro-
priations for national defense; "Hands Off"
Haiti, China, Philippines, or wherever
revolutionary activities endanger American
holdings. To quote: "No American investor
in foreign lands should have any claim on
our government for the protection of his
property."

Lem Harris' executive committee was
composed of John Marshall (Ohio Com-
munist executive) ; Fred Chase, New
Hampshire Communist leader; Lew Bentz-
ley, for whom the Young Pioneers sawed
wood (see United Farmers Protective
Assn.) ; and Philip Smith of New Hope,
Pa., close associate of Bentzley. The
organization voted to maintain a permanent
office at 1622 H St., N.W., Washington,
D.C. and to publish the Farmers National
Weekly as its official organ with Robt. H.
Hall as editor (now combined with United
Farmers Lg. organ).

Others elected on the National Commit-
tee were:

Chmn., A. O. Rosenberg, vice pres. Nebr. State
Holiday Assn.; L. B. Stein, Connecticut Valley
Farmers; George Keith, communist United Farmers
Lg. of Idaho; Geo. C. Wright of Iowa; W. M.
Hobby, Mass. Farmers Lg.; Booker T. Thurman,
Keystone Club of Negro Farmers, Mich.; George
Casper, communist United Farmers Lg. of Mich.;
James Flower, Wadena Committee of Action,



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