LEWIS, ALFRED BAKER: nat. coun.
L.I.D. for Mass.; State organizer Socialist
LEWIS, JpSEPH: the "atheists' 'pope' ";
pres. Freethinkers of America (atheist) ;
aided and represented in his taxpayer's suit
to prevent Bible reading and other religious
exercises in N.Y.C. public schools by the
A.C.L.U.; author of "The Bible Unmasked"
and other irreligious, blasphemous books;
is proud of his biography entitled "Joseph
Lewis: Enemy of God," written by Arthur
H. Rowland, once a Methodist minister
(see Freethought Press Assn.) ; is called
"the most aggressive and effective leader of
irreligion in America today" by Prof. Harry
Elmer Barnes (hon. vice pres. Freethinkers
LEWIS, LENA MORROW: Socialist
Party nat. organizer, Los Angeles, Cal.
LEWIS, MARX: Socialist; was Victor
Berger's sec.; Fed. Press corres.; exec. dir.
Berger Nat. Found. 1932 ; A.A.A.I. Lg. 1926
LEWIS, SINCLAIR: Socialist; propa-
ganda author; A.S.C.R.R. book com.; Nat.
Mooney-Billings Com.; endorser "Letters
Sacco and Vanz."; (see 4A comment on
LIBBY, REV. FREDERICK J.: Congl.
minister until war time, then turned
Quaker; exec. sec. N.C. for P.W.; nat.
coun. C.M.E.; Nat. World Ct. Com.;
World Peaceways; was barred from speak-
ing in public schools of Wash. D.C.; asso-
ciated with Soc. of Friends in reconstruc-
tion and relief work in France 1918-9, as
European commr. Apr.-Dec. 1920, and in
Phila. office 1921; Seymour Waldman his
editor 1932 (head of communist Daily Wkr.
Wash, bureau, 1933).
LIBROS, SIMON: nat. coun, L.I.D.
(Cynwyd, Pa.) ; Pa. Com. for Total Dis-
LIBROS, MRS. SIMON: Pa. Com. for
LIDDELL, HOWARD SCOTT: advis.
LIEBERMAN, JOSHUA: exec. sec. Pi-
oneer Youth of Am.; Socialist Party execu-
tive; bus. agt. Knit Goods Wkrs. Union,
1918-9; Non-intervention Citiz. Com.
LIEBKNECHT, KARL: German Com-
munist; given 4-yr. sentence during war;
in 1919, led Spartacus Communist revolu-
tion under Lenin, with Rosa Luxemburg,
which threatened Sovietization of Germany
for two weeks; both Liebknecht and Rosa
L. killed in their uprising in Berlin, Jan.
IS, 1919; factories were seized and bloody
uprisings occurred in Dusseldorf, Hamburg,
Berlin, etc.; Communist Party hdqts. in
Berlin was named Liebknecht House until
Hitler abolished it.
LIEF, ALFRED: nat. sec. Griffin Bill
Com.; Peace Pat-'-ets: attended Rosika
Fchwimmer's reception for Albert Einstein,
LIFSCHITS, DORA: Communist Party
LIGHTFOOT, CLAUDE: Chgo.; sec.
communist Lg. Strugg. Negro Rts.; section
Who Is Who in Radicalism?
org. section 7, Communist Party, Chgo.;
LINDEMAN, E. C.: advis. com. A.S.C.
R.R.; Am. com. W.C.A.W.; contrib. ed.
"New Republic"; exec. bd. C.M.E.; Am.
Fed. Teachers; bd. dir. People's Lobby;
bd. dir. Prog. Edu. Assn.; Emer. Com.
Strik. Rel.; New Sch. for Social Research
lecturer; chmn. nat. com. Pioneer Youth
of Am. 1931; signer Fell. Recon. Pet. Russ.
Recog. 1932 ; nat. com. Lg. Against Fascism,
1933; Labor Temple Sch. advisor; exec,
com. Am. Assn. for Adult Edu.; Teachers
Union of N.Y.; trustee Nat. Child Labor
Com.; Conf. Prog. Pol. Act. 1934.
LINDSEY, JUDGE BEN B.: author sex
compankmate marriage book; Garland
Fund aided (see) ; endors. "Professional
LINVILLE, HENRY R.: nat. com. A.C.
L.U. ; Labor Def. Coun.; pres. Am. Fed.
Teachers; on ed. advis. bd. of "The Am.
Teacher"; Socialist; Communist sympa-
thizer; Emer. Com. Strik. Rel. 1933; pres.
Teachers Union of N.Y.; Nat. Save Our
Schs. Com.; nat. coun. Berger Nat. Found.;
org. and chmn. admn. com. Pioneer Youth
of Am.; vice chmn. bd. dir. Manumit Sch.,
LIPMAN, JACOB G.: advis. coun. A.S.
LITTELL, ROBT.: advis. coun. A.S.C.
R.R.; contrib. to "New Republic."
LITVINOV, MAXIM: "peace" delegate
of U.S.S.R. to disarmament conferences;
after bank robbery at Tiflis, planned by
Stalin and Litvinov to secure money for
revolutionary overthrow of Govt. of Rus-
sia, 1907 (SO killed and injured), was
sought by police as Litvinov, alias Wallach,
alias Harrison; author of letter of "revolu-
tionary instruction" to Soviet agents in
Great Britain resulting in Arcos Raid and
severing of diplomatic relations; real name
Meyer Moisevitch Wallach, alias Buckman,
alias Finklestein ; see under "English Reds,"
LIUKKU, JACOB: sec. of communistic
Cooperative Trading Co., Waukegan, HI.,
since 1919; born Finland.
LIVERIGHT, HORACE B.: dir. A.S.C.
R.R.; nat. com. Sacco-V. Nat. Lg.; Nat.
Coun. Prot. For. Born Wkrs. (communist) ;
Boni & Liveright Pub. Co.; "Successful in
fight against Justice Ford's Clean Books
Bill before N.Y. Assembly, 1924. Contribr.
on censorship, sex freedom, also speaker and
debater on same subjects." (Who's Who in
Am.) ; "Jewish religion."
LLOYD, EDITH M.: sec. Chgo. Com.
for Struggle Against War, 1933.
LLOYD, JESSIE: wife of communist
Fed. Press corres. Harvey O'Connor; daugh-
ter of Wm. Bross and Lola - Maverick
Lloyd; N.C. to A.S.M.F.S.; Pris. Rel. Fund
of I.L.D.; sec. Recep. Com. Soviet Flyers;
corres. for Moscow Daily News, 1932; Nat.
Com. to Aid Vic. G. Fascism.
LLOYD, LOLA MAVERICK: divorced
wife of convicted Communist Wm. Bross
Lloyd; on Ford Peace Ship; active in Peo-
ple's Council; Am. com. and delg. to W.C.
A.W. 1932; Woman's Peace Soc.; active
W.I.L.P.F.; organized delegation to meet
"Comrade" Einstein at train when he
passed thru Chgo., 1931; Emer. Com. Strik.
Rel. Chgo.; Griffin Bill sponsor; US. Cong.
Ag. War; Recep. Com. Soviet Flyers; Am.
Com. for S.A.W.; Jessie, her daughter;
Nat. Com. to Aid Vic. G. Fascism; home
LOCHNER, LOUIS P.: see Jane
Addams; exec. sec. infamous People's Coun-
cil, etc.; Cong. Exp. Radicals.
LOCKE, ALAIN: colored; A.S.C.R.R.;
Prof. Philosophy, Howard U.; N.S. Lg.
Com. on Negro Student Problems.
LOCKNER, KARL: Communist; sec.
Cook County Unemployed Councils, 111.;
grad. U. of Wis. in chemical engineering;
police record; chmn. Fed. of Unemp. Org.
of Cook Co. 1933; former org. Y.C. Lg.
LORE, KARL: Socialist; Unemp. Citiz.
Lgs., Chgo.; Nat. Mooney Coun. Act.
LORE, LUDWIG: former I.W.W., also
Communist; has held many offices in So-
cialist Party; sentenced with Communists
in 1919; ed. N.Y. Volkszeitung ; Chgo. and
N.Y.; Nat. Coun. Prot. For. Born Wkrs.
LOVE JOY, DR. A. O.: chmn. Maryland
Civil Lib. Com., Inc., of A.C.L.U., 1932;
contrib. to "Nation"; Prof. Philosophy,
Johns Hopkins U.
LOVE JOY, OWEN REED: former M.E.
and Congl. Minister; Russ. Reconst. Farms,
1925; Am. Assn. Labor Legis.; People's
Legis. Serv.; Nat. Parent-Teacher Assn.;
gen. sec. Nat. Child Labor Com.; Nat.
Mooney-Billings Com.; Cong. Exp. Radi-
cals; nat. coun. Berger Nat. Found.; Fla.
LOVELACE, RICHARD: Communist;
nat. treas. Vet. Nat. Rank and File Com.;
U.S. Cong. Ag. War; Oregon cand. for
Cong. 1932 on Communist ticket; regional
organizer of Wkrs. Ex-Serv. Men's Lg.,
Portland, Ore.; head Veterans Liason Com.
(of Communist Party) ; spkr. July 4, 1933,
for Socialist local Continental Congress at
Wash., D.C.; mem. group protesting ban
on Tom Mann, Aug. 1933.
The Red Network
LOVESTONE, JAY: former nat. sec.
Communist Party, U.S.A.; mem. Commu-
nist Intl.; now leader Communist Party
LOVETT, ROBERT MORSS: U. of
Chgo. Prof.; exec. bd. A.C.L.U. Chgo.
Com.; nat. com. A.C.L.U.; dir. and one of
four incorporators of Garland Fund ; leader
of communist N.S. Lg. at U. of C. 1932;
Russ. Reconst. Farms, 1925 ; endorser Com-
munist Janowicz, cand. for Aid. 5th Ward,
Chgo., 1933; L.I.P.A.; nat. com. C.M.E.;
nat. pres. L.I.D.; nat. com. A.A.A.I. Lg.;
N.C. to A.S.M.F.S.; Am. com. W.C.A.W.
and nat. com. Student Cong. Ag. War (U.
of Chgo.) ; chmn. exec. com. Sacco-V. Nat.
Lg.; assoc. ed. "New Republic"; advis. com.
Ky. Miners Def. and Rel. Com. of Chgo.
(I.W.W.); Nat. Mooney-Billings Com.;
was pres. of communists' Fed.PressLg.,
when organized in 1922; Fair Play to
China; Debs Memorial Radio Fund Com.;
India Freedom Found.; Am. Com. on Inf.
about Russia; chmn. Chgo. Emer. Com.
Strik. Rel.; Nat. Mooney Coun. of Action,
1933; arrested with picketers at strike of
communist Needle Trades Wkrs. Ind. Un.,
June 29, 1933; Humanist; exec. com. Nat.
Coun. Prot. For. Born Wkrs. 1927-1930;
endors. "Professional Patriots"; Cong. Exp.
Radicals; Am. Com. for S.A.W.; July 26,
1933 Advisory Associates Bulletin said:
"When 'Comrade' Lovett was up for trial
he used the old Communist tactics of de-
manding a jury trial. We have checked up
on the trial and find some peculiar cir-
cumstances. He was tried in the jury court,
but there was no jury trial. Judge Gut-
knecht, the judge of the Boys' Court, was
brought down to the jury court and turned
both Lovett and McKenna loose and cau-
tioned the State's Attorney not to try to
file further charges against the two for in-
citing to riot. Lovett brought with him to
court, probably as character witnesses,
Jerome Davis, Soviet sympathizing Yale
professor, Henry P. Chandler, former presi-
dent and 'liberalizer' of the Chicago Union
League Club, Annetta Dieckmann, indus-
trial secretary of the Y.W.C.A., Morris
Topchevsky, artist of the communist John
Reed Club, and others."; sponsor commu-
nist Chgo. Wkrs. Theatre, 1933 ; com. U.S.
Cong. Ag. War; Griffin Bill sponsor; nat.
com. Lg. Against Fascism, 1933 ; Nat. Save
Our Schs. Com.; People's Legis. Serv.; nat.
coun. Berger Nat. Found. ; chmn. Chgo.
Forum Coun.; bd. Lg. for Org. Progress
1931; Emer. Com. Strik. Rel. 1933; see
Hands Off Committees ; lives at Hull House,
Chgo.; Nat. Com. to Aid Vic. G. Fascism.;
nat. com. F.S.U. 1934; Conf. Prog. Pol.
Act. camp. com. 1934.
LOVING, PIERRE: Nat. Com. Def. Pol.
Pris.; Am. Com. for S.A.W.; endors. W.I.R.
letter for Hunger Marchers, 1932.
LOWENTHAL, BLANCHE (MRS.
FRED) : Chgo. Com. for Struggle Against
War; Recep. Com. for Ford (Communist) ;
resigned from Chgo. A.C.L.U. Com. be-
cause it did not endorse the communist
Tom Mooney Conference, May 1, 1933;
employed in Addison Street, Chicago, relief
station, and dismissed, charged with being
a communist agent (Daily News, Nov. 25,
1933); Chgo. Forum Coun., 1933; mem.
communist Office Wkrs. Union; reinstated
as relief worker, Jan. 1934, on plea of
radical social agencies and workers.
LOWENTHAL, MRS. JUDITH: Emer.
Com. Strik. Rel.; C.W.C. on Unemp.
LOZOWICK, LOUIS: Communist ;
Communist Lg. P. G. for F. & F. 1932;
artist; nat. com. W.I.R. ; Pris. Rel. Fund
(I.L.D.); ed. bd. "New Masses"; elected
intl. sec. John Reed Clubs at convention
held at A. Lincoln Center, Chgo., 1932;
contrib. F.S.U. "Soviet Russia Today";
Nat. Com. Def. Pol. Pris. (Dreiser) ; N.C,
to A.S.M.F.S.; Intl. Un. Revol. Writers;
perm, contrib. Intl. Lit.; Revol. Writers
Fed.; Nat. Com. to Aid Vic. G. Fascism.
LUCCOCK, HALFORD E.: M.E. min-
ister; grad. Union Theol. Sem.; Prof. Yale
U. Div. Sch.; Fed. Coun. Chs.; Non-inter-
vention Citiz. Com. 1927; nat. coun. C.M.
E.; favored Russian recog.; wrote "The
Christian Crusade for World Democracy";
Nat. R. & L. Found. 1933; assoc. ed.
"World Tomorrow"; endors. "Professional
Patriots"; exec. com. Meth. Fed. for Soc.
Serv.; endors. Lane Pamphlet.
LUDINGTON, KATHERINE: vice
chmn. N.C. for P.W.
LUDWIG, WALTER: former student
pastor at Athens, O. ; exec. dir. Pioneer
Youth of Am.; asst. treas. Fell. Recon.
LUMPKIN, GRACE: Communist Lg.
P. G. for F. & F. 1932 ; reed. Gorki Award
to communist authors 1932; endorser W.I.
R. letter for "Hunger Marchers" 1932;
contrib. ed. "New Pioneer"; contrib.
"Working Woman" (Communist) ; John
Reed Club; Nat. Com. Def. Pol. Pris.
LUNACHARSKY, ANATOL V.: Com-
missar of Education, U.S.S.R.; his "Work-
ers' Reader and Declaimer" a blood-curd-
ling collection of revolutionary poems; died
LUNDEEN, ERNEST: Farmer-Labor
Congressman, Minn.; com. on action Conf.
Prog. Pol. Act. 1933; Recep. Com. Soviet
Who Is Who in Radicalism?
Flyers; was endorsed by L.I.P.A.; hw Red
speech May 8, 1933 in House on "civil lib-
erties," right of revolution, hatred for
wealthy (printed by U.S. printing plant)
adopted by Continental Cong, for EC.
Reconst. as its "Declaration of Independ-
ence"; Conf. Prog. Pol. Act. camp. com.
1934. Introduced "Workers' Unemploy-
ment and Social Insurance Bill" (H. R.
7598), actively backed by all Communist
LUTTINGER, PAUL: M.D.; writer of
Daily Worker medical column; N.C. to
A.S.M.F.S.; prof, bacteriology; Commu-
LYALL, ALEX: nat. com. Nat. R. & L.
LYONS, EUGENE: A.S.C.R.R. book
com.; United Press corres. ; author of "Life
and Death of Sacco and Vanzetti"; con-
trib. "Nation"; former N.Y. corres. for
Tass (official Soviet Govt. News Agency).
MAcCRACKEN, HENRY NOBLE: pres.
Vassar Coll. where communistic Experimen-
tal Theatre is conducted by Hallie Flana-
gan; Nat. Citiz. Com. Rel. Lat. Am. 1927;
Open Road, 1933; endors. Lane Pamphlet.
MAcDONALD, J. RAMSAY: leader of
English "Independent Labour Party" (So-
cialist) ; Prime Minister of England; ex-
pelled and repudiated by Labour Party,
1931, for his supposed "whitened" attitude
in cooperating with new "National Govt."
and resistance to Labour P. demands, which
he called "Bolshevism gone wild"; act. sec.
2nd International (Socialist) 1920-2; au-
thor of numerous books on Socialism ; Bos-
well Ptg. & Pub. Co. of London, in "Potted
Biographies," states that during the War
"The Berliner Tageblatt said, 'Among those
who systematically combat the English pol-
icy, Ramsay MacDonald occupies first
place." (his writings were circulated in
Germany) ; quoting further from Potted
Biog.: "A Nonconformist minister of
Leicester wrote in local paper August 1915:
'You insult this nation, His Majesty the
King, and his Minister by your words. . . .
You have no moral right to enjoy liberty
and protection under the British flag, or
sleep another night defended by the life-
blood of British men.' In June, 1917, Mac-
Donald, assisted by Snowden, Smillie,
Ammon, Anderson, Roden Buxton, Mrs.
Despard, Mrs. Snowden, and many East
End Jews, held a conference at Leeds, and
agreed to the formation of Workmen's and
Soldiers' Councils, on Russian lines, to end
the war by outbreak of a revolution which
would paralyse our military operations.**
. . . "He was appointed to the committee
for acting and creating thirteen Soviets"
. . . "As leader of the I.L.P. he was fully
committed to the permanent policy which
has corrupted trade unionism, and is that
there shall be no amicable relation between
Labour and Capitalism short of the total
abolition of the Capitalist system." . . . "In
1925 delegates from Moscow were in Eng-
land arranging with members of the Tracks
Union Congress for strikes which might de-
velop into revolution; and on 1 May, 1926,
the great General Strike was declared at a
meeting of trade union leaders, when Mac-
Donald said: 'We (the Socialist Party) are
there in the battle with you, taking our
share uncomplainingly until the end has
come and right and justice has been done.'
He and J. H. Thomas then joined in sing-
ing 'The Red Flag'; and he became a co-
opted member of the Strike Committee,
which was later charged in a Cabinet paper
with 'having held a pistol at the head of
Constitutional Government.' " (see also
"Independent Labour Party").
MAcGOWAN, KENNETH: nat. com. W
I.R. ; Nat. Coun. on Freedom from Cen-
sorship; M.W.D. Def. Com. 1930.
MACINTOSH, D O U G L A S C.: Cana-
dian; Prof. Theol. Yale U. since 1916;
chmn. Dept. Religion, Yale Grad. Sch.;
exec. com. Nat. R. & L. Found. 1933;
"pacifist"; backed by radicals, a test case
was pushed in behalf of his admission to
U.S. citizenship without promising to bear
arms in defense of this government in case
of war; he was denied citizenship by a
5 to 4 vote of the U.S. Supreme Court.
MACKAYE, JAMES: nat. coun. L.I.D.
for New Hampshire.
MACLEOD, NORMAN: Communist;
Intl. Un. Revol. Writers; perm, contrib.
Intl. Lit.; "New Masses"; Revol. Writers
Fed.; John Reed Club; contrib. ed. "Left
MAGIL, A. B.: Communist; writer Intl.
Pamphlets; John Reed Club; delg. Intl.
Union Revol. Writers, 1930; helped form
Wkrs. Cult. Fed.; perm, contrib. Intl. Lit.;
Revol. Writers Fed.; contrib. ed. "New
Masses," 1931; contrib. ed. ''Soviet Russia
Today," 1932 ; ed. "Michigan Worker," offi-
cial wkly. organ of Communist Pty., Dist.
No. 7; instr. N.Y. Wkrs. Sch., 1930.
MAGNES, JUDAH LEON: Rabbi; nat.
com. A.C.L.U.; Emer. Peace Fed. 1917;
org. of infamous People's Coun.; dir. Gar-
land Fund; Fell. Recon.; now Chancellor
of Hebrew U. in Palestine, where he also
acts as corres. for the Nat. R. & L. Found.
The Red Network
1933; People's Legis. Serv.; Cong. Exp.
MAHONEY, WM.: Mayor St. Paul; So-
cialist; Conf. Prog. Pol. Act. 1933; exec,
com. L.I.P.A., 1931; nat. com. L.I.D.; sec.
And- War Lg. 1917; helped organize Na-
tional Farmer-Labor Party; nat. com. A.A.
A.I. Lg. 1928; spkr. Pub. O. Lg. conv.,
Chgo. Sept. 28-Oct. 1, 1933.
MALIN, PATRICK MURPHY: C.M.E.
exec, bd.; contrib. ed. "World Tomorrow";
Com. for Thomas 1929; spkr. Y.M.C.A.
Conf. (N.Y. Times, 2/4/33).
MANLY, BASIL M.: Socialist; dir.
People's Legis. Serv. 1921-7; was on I.W.W.
Defense Com.; Conf. Prog. Pol. Act.; mem.
Garland Fund Com. on Am. Imperialism;
was contrib. ed. of Inter-Coll. Socialist
Society organ; 1933 appointed mem. Fed.
Power Commission by Pres. Roosevelt ; Nat.
Save Our Schools Com.; author of publi-
cations distrib. by Rand Sch.; Nat. Citiz.
Com. Rel. Lat. Am. 1927.
MANN, HEINRICH: German Red; intl.
com. W.C.A.W.; Intl. Com. for S.A.W.
MANN, LOUIS L.: Rabbi of Sinai Tem-
ple, Chgo., and U. of Chgo. Prof.; A.C.L.U.
Chgo. Com.; Chgo. Forum Coun.; Chgo.
Emer. Com. Strik. Rel.; N.A.A.C.P.; Util.
Cons, and Inv. Lg. 1932; Non-Partz. Com.
Lillian Herstein 1932; Am. Com. for Out-
lawry of War (S. O. Levinson) ; advis.
coun. Am. Birth Control Lg.; Eugenics
Commn. of U.S.; vice chmn. Chgo. Fell.
Faiths; Nat. R. & L. Found. 1933; conducts
radical Hirsch Center Forum; edtl. contrib.
A. Lincoln Center "Unity"; exec. bd. Cent.
Conf. Am. Rabbis and on its commn. on
social justice; Chgo. Com. for S.A.W.
MARGOLD, NATHAN: chmn. A.C.L.U.
Com. on Indian Civil Rights.
MARKOFF, DR. A.: Communist Party
central com. member; N.Y. Wkrs. School;
Recep. Com. Soviet Flyers.
MARLEY, LORD: Ind. Lab. Party Brit-
ish whip; tour conductor 1933 for "Open
Road" to Russia ; delg. to communist Cong,
against War, Shanghai 1933; refused per-
mission to land in Japan; intl. officer of
Nat. Com. to Aid Vic. German Fascism
MARRIOTT, REV. VICTOR: C.W.C.
on Unemp. adv. com.
MARSH, BENJ. C.: born Bulgaria; exec,
com. Conf. Prog. Pol. Act.; exec. com. Jt.
Com. on Unemp.; exec. sec. People's Lobby;
a sponsor of Barbusse's Wash, appearance
(Wash. Star 10/7/33) ; speaker, Fell. Faiths,
Chgo. 1933; "was a prominent supporter
Non-Partizan Lg. ; toured the Pacific North-
west in 1921 in the Fall seeking to collect
money to prevent the recall of Frazier as
gov. of N. Dakota." (Marvin Data Sheets,
12-5); nat. coun. Berger Nat. Found.; sec.
N.Y. Lg. for Unemp.; home now Wash.,
MARTELL, C. J.: A.A.A.I. Lg. Chgo.;
Chgo. Watch and Clockmakers' Union.
MARTIN, ANNE H.: former Prof. U.
of Nevada; prominent in woman's suffrage
movement; nat. com. A.C.L.U.; western
regional dir. W.I.L.P.F., U.S. section; Com.
for Thomas 1929; People's Legis. Serv.;
home Reno, Nev., and Carmel-by-the-Sea,
MARX, KARL: German Jew; born
1818; descendant of long line of Rabbis;
real name Mordechia; a lifelong grief to
his parents because of his violent temper,
notoriety, domineering nature, poverty,
wretchedness and "disregard for everything
decent" (J. Spargo, "Karl Marx, His Life
and Work") ; saturated at college with
Hegelian atheism and its motto, "Whatever
exists is worth destroying"; his reputation
as an aggressive atheist and violent rebel
thwarted his efforts to secure a Prussian
governmental or academic post after leav-
ing college and he became the more enraged
at all those more prosperous than himself;
in 1842 became editor of the Rheinisch
Zeitung, which was suppressed by the Govt.
1843 ; he then moved to Paris where he
associated with anarchist Michael Bakunin,
Friederich Engels, and imbibed French so-
cialism from Proudhon; expelled from
France, Jan. 1845, he moved to Brussels
where he labored for three years to organ-
ize an international communist league to
carry through an immediate bloody revolu-
tion, for which league he and Engels wrote
the Communist Manifesto (1848) ; he par-
ticipated in the French and German revolu-
tionary disturbances of 1848; banished
from Cologne, June, 1849, from France,
July, 1849, he then went to England where
he lived in extreme destitution until his
capitalistic friend, Engels, gave him a dole
of 350 a year (out of the proceeds,
according to his own theory of "value,"
of the robbery of Lancashire work-
ingmen). During his 34 years in England,
he read, wrote, organized and controlled
the First International, and quarrelled with
his fellow revolutionaries (particulars con-
cerning fourteen embittered brawls are
given by Spargo) ; died May 5, 1883, after
about 15 yrs. of ill health.
MATES, DAVE: 1933 Communist org.
in Calumet dist. of Chgo.; formerly sec.
Unemp. Councils of Cook County.
MATHES, MRS. G. M.: A.CX.U, Chgo.
Who Is Who in Radicalism?
Com.; Chgo. W.I.LP.F.; Chgo. Fell.
Faiths; pres. Christian Citizenship Coun.
MATTHEWS, J. B.: exec. sec. Fell. Re-
con.; circulator of Fell. Recon. petition for
recog. of bloody Soviet Russia (humor-
ously) "in the interests of peace"; said to
be sympathetically close to Moscow; has
been annual visitor to Russia for past five
years; presided at Student Congress against
War; chmn. Am. Lg. Ag. War and Fascism;
communist Anti-Imperialist Lg. Delg. to
Cuba, 1933; U.S. Cong. Against War; treas.
Nat. Com. to Aid Vic. G. Fascism; assoc.
ed. "Student Outlook" (formerly "Revolt")
of L.I.D.; Nat. R. & L. Found. 1933; mem.
coun. Jt. Com. on Unemp.; speaker at
Communist Mooney meeting May 1, 1933,
Chgo. and applauded when he inferred he
might soon change from the Socialist to the
Communist Party; Nat. Scottsboro Com.
of Action 1933; nat. com. F.S.U. 1934;
ousted as sec. Fell. Recon. because of too
open support of "Class Struggle," 1934.
MAURER, GEO.: Nat. Com. Def. Pol.
MAURER, JAMES H.: left wing Social-
ist; vice chmn. nat. com. A.C.L.U.; vice
pres. L.I.D.; nat. coun. C.M.E.; nat. com.
A.A.A.I. Lg. 1928; vice pres. A.A. for O.A.
S.; mem. Am. Commn. on Conditions in
Ireland, 1920; Nat. Mooney-Billings Com.;
Fell. Recon.; II Nuovo Mondo Nat. Com.;
Conf . Prog. Pol. Act. nat. com. 1922 ; Labor
Age Pub. Co.; dir. Brookwood Labor Coll.;
Griffin Bill sponsor; with Scott Nearing
and Lochner sent cablegram to Soviet Com-
missars at Petrograd, Mar. 3, 1918 (Lusk
Report); Emer. Peace Fed.; war-time
"peace" worker; mem. First Am. Trade
Un. Delg. to Russia, 1927, which was repu-
diated by the A. F. of L. because of its
communistic nature; Socialist cand. for
Vice Pres. 1932; Am. Birth Control Lg.;
exec. com. Nat. Coun. Prot. For. Born Wkrs.
1930; spkr. for infamous People's Coun.
during war; pres. Pa. State F. of L. since
1912; nat. com. Lg. Against Fascism; vice
pres. Berger Nat. Found.; org. Pioneer
Youth of Am.; endors. Lane Pamphlet;
vice chmn. L.I P. A.
MAURER, OSCAR E.: pastor Center
Ch., New Haven, Conn., since 1909; nat.
com. Nat. R. & L. Found. 1933 ; dir. Congl.
Home Boards; exec. com. Am. Missionary
MCAFEE, jos. ERNEST: dir. for John
Haynes Holmes' church of "community
service" since 1924; Union Theol. Sem.;
edtl. contrib. A. Lincoln Center "Unity."
McCONNELL, FRANCIS J.: M.E.
Bishop; close associate of Harry F. Ward;
mem. A.C.L.U.; pres. Meth. Fed. for Soc.
Serv.; in its Bulletin No. 8 for 1932, he
and Ward signed the statement that they
were cooperating with the Communist I.L.
D., Labor Research, C.M.E., L.I.D., Fell.
Recon., and A.C.L.U., "agencies working
definitely for a new social order" (see Wini-
fred Chappell, co-ed, with Ward of Meth.
Fed. for Soc. Serv. Bulletin) ; on Socialist
campaign committees in 1929 and 1932;
C.M.E.; Nat. Citiz. Com. on Rel. Lat. Am.
1927; endorser Lane Pamphlet; signer A.C.
L.U. petition for Sacco and V. May 1927;
Emer. Com. Strik. Rel. (N.W.F.S.T. Strik.)
1930; pres. A.A. for O.A.S. 1931; vice