Ellen M. Dallas.

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rough whitish color, with reddish specks upon it, but chrome yellow at
the base, both outside and inside, and spongy within. Stem 2 to 4 inches
long, about ½ inch thick. This is not a hard boletus to distinguish on
account of the yellow color at the base of the stem. The Boleti seem to
be most abundant from the beginning of July until early in September.
There are many varieties of beautiful colors, and they are a most
interesting group, especially to beginners. This may be partly owing to
the fact that Professor Peck’s pamphlet on “Boleti” is clearly
expressed, and the descriptions so vivid and plain that one has less
trouble in naming them than any other class of fungi.

+The Vermilion Hygophorus.+

+Cap+ 1 inch broad, at first vermilion color and then paler, broad,
flattened and then even, depressed in centre by the margin becoming
elevated. It is thin and fragile at first, even, smooth, and then scaly.
+Stem+ from 1 to 2 inches long, slender, 1 line thick, a little paler
than the cap, equal, round, somewhat stuffed, smooth, shining. +Gills+
attached, seldom decurrent, distant, distinct, yellow color, shaded with
red. This species is very fragile. It grows in woods or in open country,
on mosses or on dead leaves. It may be cæspitose, or grows singly from
July to October.

+HYGROPHORUS COCCINEUS = scarlet color.+
+The Scarlet Hygrophorus.+

+Cap+, first bright scarlet and then changing to a paler hue. One to 2
inches broad and even more, convex, plane, often unequal, obtuse,
sticky, and even, smooth, flesh of the same color as cap. +Stem+ 2
inches long, 3 to 4 lines thick, hollow, then compressed and rather
even, scarlet color like cap, but always yellow at the base. +Gills+
wholly attached, decurrent, with a tooth, distant, connected by veins,
soft, watery, when full grown, purplish at the base, light yellow in the
middle, powdery at the edge, fragile. This species grows in pastures,
and is common. It is found from August to November.

+The Blood-red Hygrophorus.+

+Cap+ 2 to 4 inches broad, glittering blood scarlet, when older becomes
paler, at first bell-shaped, obtuse, commonly spread out or lobed,
irregular, even, smooth, sticky. Flesh of the same color as cap,
fragile. +Stem+ 3 inches long, 1 to 1½ inch thick. Solid when young,
at length hollow, very stout, swollen in middle, thinner at both ends,
marked with lines and generally scaly at apex; when dry either yellow or
same color as the cap, always white at first, and often incurved at the
base. +Gills+ ascending, swollen in middle, 2 to 4 lines broad, distant,
thick, white or light yellow, or yellow, and often reddish at base. This
is a very handsome species. It is found in pastures from July to


+The Chantarelle.+

+Cap+ bright orange or egg color, first convex, and then depressed,
at length top-shaped and smooth. The margin lobed and turning under
(involute). Flesh thick and white. +Stem+ 1 to 1½ inch long, thickened
upward, solid, fleshy. +Gills+ running down the stem, thick, distant,
fold-like. Stevenson does not give the size of the cap, but our
specimen measured 2 inches in breadth. It had an odor like ripe
apricots, and a pleasant taste. It is often tufted in its growth. It is
found in woods from July to December. This is a very striking looking
mushroom and easily distinguished. It often grows in rings or arcs of
circles. (Edible.)

+HYPHOLOMA FASCICULARE = a small bundle.+
+The Tufted Hypholoma.+

+Cap+ a beautiful reddish color, like a peach; the disc darker, about 2
inches broad, fleshy, thin, convex, then plane, with a slight mound or
umbo, even, smooth, dry; flesh a light yellow. +Stem+ variable in
length, 2 to 9 inches long, 2 lines thick, hollow, thin, incurved or
curved, covered with fibres of same color as cap. +Gills+ adnate, very
crowded, linear, somewhat liquid when mature (deliquescent), sulphur
yellow, and then becoming green, taste bitter. It grows in crowded
clusters. It is said to be poisonous.

+The Fly Amanita.+

+Cap+ at first red, then orange, then becoming pale, about 4 inches
broad, convex, and then flat, covered with thick fragments of volva;
margin when grown slightly marked with lines; flesh white, yellow under
the cuticle. +Stem+ white, sometimes yellowish, 2 inches long, torn into
scales, at first stuffed, then hollow; the attached base of the volva
forms an oval-shaped bulb, which is bordered with concentric scales,
that is, having a common centre, as a series of rings one within the
other. +Ring+ very soft, torn, even, inserted at the apex of the stem,
which is often dilated. +Gills+ free but reaching the stem, decurrent,
in the form of lines, crowded, broader in front, white, rarely becoming
yellow. It grows in woods from July to November. This mushroom is easily
identified by its orange-colored cap, covered with white warts and _pure
white stem and gills_. We found several specimens in the woods, all of a
most beautiful striking color. (Poisonous.)

+Frost’s Amanita.+

+Cap+ a bright yellow, almost orange color, 1½ inch broad, convex or
expanded, covered with warts, but sometimes nearly smooth, the margin
marked with lines (striate.) +Gills+ white or tinged with yellow, free
from the stem. +Stem+ 2 to 3 inches long, white or yellowish, stuffed,
slender, bearing a slight evanescent ring; bulbous at the base, bulb
slightly margined by the volva. We found several specimens growing in
mixed woods. It is smaller than A. muscaria, more slender, with a
beautiful color.

+The Canary Mushroom, so called from its color.+

+Cap+ pale yellow, 3 to 5 inches broad, darker at disc, tinged with a
brick red hue, and yellow near margin, convex, then plane, wavy,
irregular; flesh white, thick. +Stem+ 1 to 2 inches long, and ½ to ⅔
inch thick, generally white, sometimes yellow, stout and solid. +Gills+
close, deeply notched near the stem, a beautiful pale yellow color,
scarcely adnexed, broad, somewhat swollen in middle. It grows in pine
woods and appears in the autumn.

+The Sulphury Tricholoma.+

+Cap+ dingy sulphur yellow color, ½ to 4 inches broad, at first round
with a slight umbo, at length depressed, rather silky, then smooth and
even. +Stem+ 2 to 4 inches long, 3 to 4 lines thick, stuffed, somewhat
equal but often curved, rather smooth, striate, sulphur yellow, of same
color as cap. +Gills+ adnexed, narrowed behind, rather thick, distant,
distinct, brighter than the cap. This is also found in autumn in the
woods, and is quite common. It has a strange disagreeable odor.

+The Delicious Lactarius.+

+Cap+ orange brick color, 2 to 6 inches broad, becoming pale, fleshy,
when young depressed in centre, margin turned under (involute), then
flat and depressed, or funnel-shaped, with margin unfolded, smooth,
zoned, slightly sticky. The zones become faded in the old plants. The
flesh is whitish or tinged with yellow. +Stem+ a little paler than the
cap, with spots of deeper orange, 1 to 4 inches long, ⅓ to ⅔ of an
inch thick, stuffed, then hollow, fragile. +Gills+ running down the stem
(decurrent), orange color, crowded, narrow, becoming pale and green when
wounded. The milk is orange color. It grows in pine woods and in wet,
mossy swamps. It resembles the orange brown Lactarius in size and shape,
but the color is different, so we have placed it in the orange-colored
section and L. volemus in the red division of colors.

[Illustration: Lactarius insulsus.
Photographed by C. G. Lloyd.]

+STROPHARIA SICCAPES = dry and foot.+
+The Dry Stropharia.+

Stropharia is taken from a Greek word meaning sword belt, referring to
its ring (Stevenson). Siccapes is from two words meaning dry and foot.
It grows on horse manure. Stevenson does not mention this species. It is
described by Mr. Peck in the State reports. +Cap+ is a light yellow,
darker in the centre, ¼ inch to 1 inch broad, bell-shaped, sticky, shiny
when dry, even. +Stem+ sometimes 4 inches long, slender, straight, dry,
base almost club-shaped. +Ring+ scarcely perceptible, but forming a
whitish zone, shining, persistent, apex of stem whitish, and slightly
striate. +Gills+ dark gray, almost blackish, the margin paler, adfixed,
thin. We found a great many in one place, of all sizes, from 1 line
across cap to 1 inch. In some specimens the ring was wanting, but in
others it was apparent.

+The Orange Chanterelle.+

This species takes its name from its color. +Cap+ is orange yellow, 2 to
3 inches broad, fleshy, soft, depressed, often eccentric, with the stem
between centre and margin, and wavy, somewhat tomentose and involute at
the margin. +Stem+ 2 inches long, stuffed, and then hollow, somewhat
incurved and unequal, yellowish. +Gills+ decurrent, tense, and straight,
repeatedly dividing by pairs from below upward (dichotomous) and
crowded, often crisped at base, orange color. This species grows in
woods, and is often found there during the months of autumn. Some
consider it poisonous.

+The Funnel-Shaped Chantarelle.+

+Cap+ yellow when moist, 1 to 2 inches broad, umbilicate, then
funnel-shaped, wrinkled on the surface, at length wavy at margin. +Stem+
2 to 3 inches long, 2 lines thick, hollow (fistulose), a little
thickened at the base, even, smooth, always a light yellow. +Gills+
decurrent, thick, distant, dichotomous, straight, light yellow; when
old, ash color (cinereous.) This is found in the woods from July to

+BOLETUS HEMICHRYSUS = half and golden.+
+The Half Golden Boletus.+

The descriptions of the Boleti are all written after comparing the
specimens we found with those described in Professor Peck’s work on
Boleti. We examined and analyzed all those placed on the list. The
descriptions written by Professor Peck are so clear and faithful to
nature that it makes the task of calling them by name much easier than
any other fungi we have studied. +Cap+ bright golden yellow, 1½ to
2½ inches broad, convex plane and depressed, with minute wooly scales
(floccose squamulose), and covered with a yellow powder (pulverulent),
sometimes with cracks (rimose). Flesh thick and yellow. Tubes decurrent,
yellow, becoming brown; mouths large, angular. +Stem+ short, about 1
inch long, 3 to 6 lines thick, irregular, narrowing toward the base,
sprinkled with a yellowish dust, tinged with red. We found it growing on
an old stump, in pine woods, in the month of August.

+The Granulated Boletus.+

This Boletus varies much in color. In our specimen it was a
pinkish-yellow, and covered with yellow spots of a darker shade. We
found it in all sizes, from 2 to 4 inches broad. +Cap+ was convex,
nearly plane, viscid when moist. It became more of a yellow color when
it was dry. Flesh pale yellow. The tubes were adnate, short and
yellowish. +Stem+ 1 to 2 inches long, 4 to 6 lines thick. Some were
united in tufts (cæspitose), others were gregarious (in groups) or
solitary. They grew on the edge of pine woods, and near the roadside.
The stem was dotted in the upper part with glandules and was pale

+BOLETUS CYANESCENS = bright blue.+
+The Bluing Boletus.+

+Cap+ a light pale brownish-yellow, or a light yellow color
(alutaceous), 2 to 5 inches broad, with minute wooly scales, convex or
nearly plane. Flesh white, changing quickly to blue when cut. Tubes
free, white, afterward yellow; mouths small, round. Tubes change also to
a bluish-green when bruised. +Stem+ 2 to 4 inches long, ¾ to ½ inch
thick, swollen in the middle (ventricose), covered with a bloom
(pruinose), stuffed and then hollow, tapering toward the apex, colored
like the cap. This is a very easy Boletus to distinguish from others,
and interesting to the beginner on account of the striking and beautiful
change of color. Found in hemlock and pine woods toward the end of

+The Stout Pholiota.+

+Cap+ bright yellowish or orange color, 3 to 7 inches broad, convex,
then flattened, gibbous, that is, more convex on one side than on the
other; viscid, covered with woolly (floccose) scales, which often
separate. Flesh whitish. +Stem+ 3 to 6 inches long, ½ to 1 inch thick,
solid, large at base, first white and then light yellow, with darker
scales. +Ring+ yellow, and then ironrust color (ferruginous.) +Gills+
adnate, slightly rounded, broad at first, yellow and then darker. We
were driving through a thick woods when we saw the bright yellow cap of
this mushroom peering among the bushes. There was no apparent ring and
few scales except on the margin. It was irregularly shaped, fleshy and
thick. It was not a typical specimen, and a beginner would have found it
difficult to name. The then recent hard rains had washed nearly all the
scales from the cap, and the ring was hardly to be seen. It grew on the
trunk of a tree in the month of September. Not edible.

+The Showy Pholiota.+

This Pholiota was found much later in the season. +Cap+ is from 2 to 5
inches broad, a golden yellow, then growing paler, fleshy, torn into
squamules, dry, flesh thick, hard, sulphur yellow. +Stem+ about 3 inches
long and 1 inch thick, solid, hard, swollen in the middle, and extending
into a spindle-shaped root. It is sometimes smooth and shining and
sometimes scaly, sulphur yellow color and mealy _above_ the ring.
+Gills+ adnate, crowded, narrow, at first pure yellow and afterward
ironrust color. Gills have sometimes a small decurrent tooth
(Stevenson), but our specimen had none. It grew together (cæspitose) on
a stump. Not edible.

+MARASMIUS OREADES = a mountain nymph.+
+The Fairy Ring Mushroom.+

+Cap+ when young and moist is of a pale yellowish-red, but fades when
dry to pale yellow. It is from 1 to 2 inches broad, fleshy, tough,
convex, then plane, somewhat umbonate, even, smooth, slightly striate at
margin when moist. +Stem+ 1 to 2 inches long and less than ¼ inch thick;
slender, solid, tough, equal, sometimes cartilaginous, straight, covered
with a close woven skin that can be rubbed off. +Gills+ free or slightly
attached, whitish or creamy yellow, broad, distant, the alternate ones
shorter, rounded, or deeply notched at inner end. These mushrooms grow
in circles and are called fairy rings. They are found chiefly on lawns
and pastures from May till October. We saw one specimen in October. It
grew in a waste lot at Kaighn’s Point, Camden, N.J. It was solitary, of
a brownish-yellow color, the cap 1 inch broad, and the stem 1 inch long.
It was growing amidst some ballast plants, the only mushroom there.

+The Glistening Coprinus.+

+Cap+ varies from buff to tawny yellow, 1 to 2 inches broad, bell-shaped
(campanulate) or conical (cone-shaped), thin, marked with lengthwise
lines, which extend half-way up from the margin. The disc is even and is
more highly colored. It is often sprinkled with shiny atoms when young.
+Gills+ at first whitish, then brown or black. +Stem+ 1 to 3 inches
long, slender, hollow and white. The spores are dark brown. We found it
in great numbers growing on the ground amidst the grass in September and
October. It may be seen as early as April. It is a pretty species.


+The Warted Amanita.+

+Cap+ light gray, or dingy white when young; 7 to 9 inches broad when
expanded fully. It is covered with large pyramidal, persistent warts.
The margin is even, and extends beyond the gills. Flesh firm and white.
+Stem+ 6 to 8 inches long, 1 to 3 inches thick, solid, scaly, tapering
upward, with a bulbous base and marked with a series of rings near the
root, which extends deep into the ground. +Ring+ large, torn. +Gills+
white, free, rounded near the stem, ⅜ inch broad. This is said to be
rather rare. We found it twice in August growing solitary on the
roadside in the grass. It was large-sized, measuring 7 inches across
cap, of a grayish-white color, with prominent warts; the stem was mealy,
the volva was large. It was marked with distinct rings near the base.
When kept many hours the smell becomes disagreeable. The name is given
on account of the shape of the warts, which are conspicuous.

[Illustration: Amanita vaginata.
Photographed by C. G. Lloyd.]

+AMANITA VAGINATA = a sheath.+
+The Sheathed Mushroom.+

+Cap+ gray, mouse color, sometimes slate-colored gray, and even
brownish, 2 to 4 inches broad. It is thin and fragile, convex, and then
nearly flat, with a slight mound or umbo, but sometimes none. It is
deeply striate or grooved (sulcate) on the margin. +Stem+ is white and
often covered with mealy particles. It is slender, either hollow or
stuffed, 3 to 5 inches long, ⅓ to ½ inch thick. It is not bulbous,
but is sheathed quite high in a loose, soft wrapper, the remains of the
volva. There is no ring. +Gills+ are whitish, free from the stem, and
rounded. It is easily broken. There are several varieties (Peck). In one
the plant is white, Var. alba. In Var. livida the cap is a leaden
brownish color, and in the Var. fulva the cap is tawny yellow and
ochraceous. The mouse-colored form is the most common. We found many
specimens in July and August.

+The Wrinkled Cortinarius.+

+Cap+ gray, with a pinkish-yellowish tint, 2 inches broad, campanulate,
sticky, broken up into squamules, pellicle scaling, margin thin. +Stem+
slender, 5 inches long, shiny, mealy at apex, slightly bulbous. +Gills+
gray color, adnexed, distant, ventricose. This is a pretty mushroom. The
shade of color of the pileus is delicate. We found it in August in the

+The Bitter Boletus.+

This Boletus varies much in color; our plant was a brownish-gray,
a dingy color. +Cap+ 3 to 8 inches broad, convex or nearly plane,
glabrous, even, flesh white, turning to flesh or pink color when
wounded. Taste bitter, tubes adnate, long, depressed around the stem,
crowded. +Stem+ variable, 2 to 4 inches long, about ½ to 1 inch thick,
equal or tapering, reticulated above, bulbous or enlarged at base, a
little paler than the pileus. The Boleti we found grew in great numbers,
in different localities, and were of all sizes. The color of the
reticulations was a brownish-gray.

+The Gray Boletus.+

+Cap+ dark gray, 2 to 4 inches broad, broadly convex, smooth, soft,
silky, flesh whitish. Tubes adnate, slightly depressed, mouths small.
+Stem+ 2 to 4 inches long, 3 to 6 lines thick, yellowish, much
reticulated, sometimes reddish toward the base. Our plant was of a
brownish color at base, and grew in the month of September.

+The Common Mushroom.+

There are several edible species of the genus Psalliota, chiefly the
Field or Common Mushroom, which is constantly seen on our tables. +Cap+
varies from white and gray to brown. It is 2 to 4 inches broad, fleshy,
convex, then flattened, dry, sometimes covered with silky fibrils, and
when old smooth. The margin of the cap generally extends beyond the
gills. Flesh white. +Stem+ rather short, 1 to 3 inches long, ⅓ to ⅔
inch thick, white or whitish, slender, stuffed and then hollow, nearly
even. +Ring+ distant, simple. +Gills+ free, ventricose, narrowing at
both ends, thin, first a pink color, then afterward brown or
blackish-brown. It grows in rich pastures or in meadows, and is
found in autumn. It has a most delicious flavor.

+The Flat-capped Mushroom.+

+Cap+ a whitish-gray, about 3 inches broad, convex, and then expanded
and flat. It is covered with small, distinct, brown, persistent scales,
except on the disc, where they are so close together that they appear of
a brown color. +Stem+ is long and slender, 3 inches and more, stuffed
and then hollow, equal and bulbous at the base. It is whitish, but
sometimes has yellowish stains toward the base. +Gills+ are first white,
then pink, and lastly a blackish-brown. It grows under trees, and is
found in summer and autumn.

+The Inky Coprinus.+

+Cap+ gray or grayish-brown, smooth, except a slight scaly appearance on
the disc. It is silky near the margin, and the margin is irregular. When
young it is often egg-shaped. +Gills+ crowded, whitish, soon becoming
brown and then deliquescent. +Stem+ smooth, hollow, white. It grows in
clusters until late in the autumn. We found our plants on a lawn in
great profusion in the month of October.

+The Fawn-colored Pluteus.+

+Cap+ about 3 inches broad, whitish-gray color, at first bell-shaped,
then expanded, smooth, even, but afterward broken up into fibrils,
margin entire; flesh soft, white. +Stem+ 3 to 6 inches long, nearly
equal and solid, whitish, striate with black fibrils. +Gills+ rounded
behind, free, crowded, ventricose, white, then flesh color as the spores
mature. This is a common species, appearing early in the season - April
to November. It usually grows from stumps and old logs. It can be easily
known by its gills, being quite free from the stem, where it joins the


+The Greenish Russula.+

+Cap+ of a grayish-green color. It is 2 to 4 inches broad, dry and
broken up into small warts, the margin straight, obtuse, even; flesh
white. +Stem+ 2 inches long and ½ inch thick, solid, spongy inside,
firm, white, sometimes marked with lines (rivulose.) +Gills+ free,
whitish, narrowed toward the stem, somewhat crowded, sometimes equal and
forked, with a few shorter ones between. It is easily distinguished by
the dull green pileus, being without a cuticle, and scaly in the form of
patches. It is found in woods in July and September. We have not seen a
specimen of R. virescens, so have used Stevenson’s description. Edible,
taste mild.

+The Forked Russula.+

+Cap+ from 3 to 5 inches broad, of an olive green color, sometimes
greenish umber, covered with a silky bloom, fleshy, gibbous, then
plano-depressed and funnel-shaped, cuticle here and there separable;
margin at first inflexed, then spreading. Flesh firm, thick, white.
+Stem+ 2 to 3 inches long, solid, firm, stout, white. +Gills+
adnato-decurrent, thick, distant, broad, narrowed at both ends, often
forked, white. Our specimen was 5 inches broad, and the margin slightly
striate, and when the cuticle was removed it was purplish underneath.
It was found in August, in woods. Poisonous, taste bitter.


+AMANITA VIROSA = poison.+
+The Poisonous Amanita.+

+Cap+ shining white, from 2½ to 4 inches broad, fleshy, at first
conical and acute, afterward bell-shaped and expanded, viscous in wet
weather, shining when dry, margin even, sometimes unequal, spreading and
inflexed, flesh white. +Stem+ 4 to 6 inches long, wholly stuffed, almost
solid, split up into lengthwise fibrils, cylindrical from a bulbous
base, surface torn into scales, springing from a loose, thick, wide
volva which bursts open at apex. +Ring+ large, loose, silky, splitting
into pieces. +Gills+ free, thin, a little broader toward margin,
crowded, not decurrent, though the stem is sometimes striate. This is a
poisonous species, but striking in appearance from the shining white of
the whole fungus. Found in the woods in August.

+AMANITA PHALLOIDES = appearance, phallus-like.+
+The Death Cup.+

This species is considered the most deadly of all the poisonous
mushrooms, and yet it is one of the most beautiful. We place it in the
section of white-colored mushrooms, though the cap is sometimes tinged
with light yellow and delicate green. +Cap+ 2 to 4 inches broad, ovate,
campanulate, then spreading, obtuse, with a cuticle, sticky in moist
weather, rarely sprinkled with one or two fragments of the volva, the
margin regular, even. +Stem+ 3 to 5 inches long, ½ inch thick, solid,
bulbous and tapering upward, smooth, white. +Ring+ superior, reflexed,
slightly striate, swollen, white. Volva more or less buried in the
ground, bursting open in a torn manner at the apex, with a loose border.
+Gills+ free, ventricose, 4 lines broad, shining white. This species, as

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