Emanuel Swedenborg.

Annual report of the State Board of Health of the State of Rhode Island. 1878-81 online

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during the lost four yeara is something phenomenal.



Table LI.

Showing the ages of Decedents froni Apoplexy and Paralysis in each
of the last sixteen years.



APOPLEXY AND PARALYSIS.



1865..

1806.

1867.

1868..

1869..

1870..

1871..

1872..

1878..

1874..

1875.

1S76..

1877.

1878.

1879..

1880..



Total.



10



Periods or Life.











1
1






t


1


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4


s


' 8


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8




i


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6
8
5
10

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9|
8 I

4 I

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11



6
16

6
11
13

9

I
14

17

14

19 1

18

12

14

18

18



I



19

'I

15

I
16

I

ao

SO I

80 I

I
28 I

4.1

27

21



20,



27



46 I
26

40 '
48>

50l
40 1



27
40
81
84

41 i
45 I

«i

40

45I
49 I
61 I
68 I



19!
7

17 1
16
16 ,
20

16

I

"i

16
25 I
22

28;

22

26 ;



40 ' 106 206 845



57,


59


38 .




5..


70


84

1


2


«»i


690


826


10



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130 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1881.

Apoplexy is not a disease to be expected in the earlier periods of
life. Paralysis resulting from other causes sometimes occurs, and is
occasionally fatal. Hence as the two diseases are taken together in
the above Table, there is one case recorded under 20 years of age.
The largest number in every year, with scarcely an exception, is be-
tween the ages of 70 and 80. Above the age of 50 years, the number
of decedents from apoplexy and paralysis increases rapidly in the ratio
of mortality. More than 80 per cent, of all the deaths from these
causes, are of persons above 50 years of age.

PROPORTION TO POPULATION.

Bristol Coanty One In every 683p«r8onfl.

KentCounty One In every 1,568 pereons.

Newport Coanty One In every 1,099 persons.

Providence County, Towns One In every 1,810 persou«.

Providence City One In every 1,344 persons.

Washington Coanty One In every 1,790 persons.

It appears that in 1880, there were nearly three times as many
deaths from apoplexy and paralysis in Bristol county, in proportion to
the population, as there were in Washington county, and more than
twice as many as in any other division, except Newport county.

BRAIN, DISEASES OF.

In Table XLIX., under the head of ** Diseases of the Brain," are
included all those reported as ** Cerebral Meningitis," ^'Cerebritis,"
** Congestion," ** Inflammation," and ** Diseases of the Brain.".

The number of decedents from these several causes, grouped under
the head of ** Diseases of the Brain," in 1878, was 139; in 1879 was
157; and in 1880 was 161. The proportion to whole mortality in the
State, was 3.72 per cent, in 1879, and 3.49 per cent, in 1880. Of the
161 decedents, 87 were males, and 74 were females. In regard to
parentage, 87 were of American, and 74 of foreign parentage.

The deaths in the different seasons of the year were as follows:

First Quarter 47 Second Quarter 41

Third Quarter 88 Fourth Quarter .. S5

ToUl 161

In relation to the periods of life, 96 of the deaths were of children
under 5 years of age, or nearly 60.0 per cent, of the whole number.

CANCER.

Cancer was rei)orted as the cause of 125 deaths in 1880. The term
*' Cancer" includes all the different varieties.

The number of decedents from this cause, in 1880, was the same as
in 1879.



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1881.] secretary's report. 131

The percentage of whole number of deaths in 1880, was 2.72, as
against 2.96 in 1879. The difference in the percentage is occasioned
by tlie larger number of deaths from other causes in 1880.

The varieties of cancer as reported, may be found in Tables VIII.
and IX., on pages 16 and 21. They were classed as follows: Cancer
in various general localities, or cancer (various), 78; cancer of the
breast, 8; of the stomach, 18; of the uterus, 21.

In 1880, the deaths from cancer, in the several seasons of the year,
were as follows:

First Qnarter 21 Second Quarter 88

Third Quarter 88 Fourth Quarter... 88

Total 126

CHILD-BIRTH.

Cases of death are reported as having been caused by child-birth,
without stating whether from hemorrhage, convulsions, nervous shock,
local injury or what. As child-birth was the primary cause, the im-
mediate cause is not so important. Under the head of ** Child-birth,"
therefore, are included puerperal fever, puerperal convulsions, and
whatever causes that can only occur as the result of child-birth.

The number reported in 1880, was 51; 33 of which were from the
immediate effects of child-birth, without specifying particular cause,
3 from puerpural convulsions, and 15 from puerpural fever.

Of the 33 decedents from the immediate effects of child-birth, 15
were of American, and 18 were of foreign parentage; of the 3 from
puerpural convulsions, 2 were of American, and 1 of foreign parent-
age; of the 15 from puerpural fever, 6 were of American, and 9 of
foreign parentage.

Of the whole number, 23 were of American, and 28 of foreign
parentage.

In the different seasons of the year they occurred as follows:

First Quarter 20 Second Quarter 8

Third Quarter 5 Fourth Quarter 18

Of the decedents, 20 were under 20 years of age, 27 between 20 and
30, 18 between 30 and 40, and the remaining 4 over 40 years of age.

CHOLERA INFANTUM.

The number of deaths reported as caused by cholera infantum, in
1880, was 247.

This number is very much larger than that of the two previous
years, as may be seen by reference to Table LII.

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132



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.



[1881.



This disease had been gradually growing less, diminishing from 391
in 1872, to 161 in 1879. It is quite probable that the number in 1879
will be the minimum of a long series of years following 1870.

Of the 247 decedents, 123 were males and 124 females; 109 were of
American, and 138 of foreign parentage; 180 were under the age of
one year, and 67 were between 1 and 2 years of age.

In regard to season, two deaths were reported in February, four in
April, five in May, 16 in June, 198, or about 80.0 per cent, in the
months of July, August and September, and 22 during the rest of
the year.

The following Table shows the whole number of reported deaths
from cholera infantum; the sex and parentage of the decedents, in
each of the larger divisions of the State, in each of the last sixteen
years:







Table


LII.




































1




CHOLERA


INFANTUM.








TEARS.


g Number of Deaths.


63 1 82 1


FARBNTAOlJ

1




DinSIOMS OF


THE STATS.




1


f


It

1 17




ll
14


1

48


»


1^


1866


61


84,


1 »


1886


... 110

1


67 48


60


60|


1 1


7


8


1 »


47


1 8


1867


...1 117


64 68


62 1 66


4


»


7


1 ^


40


, »


1868


.. 1 164

...| 161


86 69 1

1 1

81 70

j 1


Mi 88

79 1 72


18
6


4

16


12
6


1 *"

48


TO


n


1869


11

1


1870


...' «18


106 107


95 1 118


16


16


18


69


«


! 8


1871


...1 172


86 87


82 1 90


14


IS


12


59


"


18


1872


...1 8«1


196 106


167 1 224


16


16


21


157


151


80


1878


...1 286|


148 1 187


166


IW


17


14


16


120


90


10


1874


...f 266 1


140 126


116


ISO


4


12


6


84


184


96


1876


...1 818 1


156 162 1

1 '


166


Its


20


16


20


106


186


18


1876


...' 250 1


1 181 119


106


l«l


6


12


20


68


194


12


1877


...1 259'


189 120


96


168


12


18


9


96


va


7


1878


..! 168'


1 96 1 72 '
88 > 78 '


78


96


7

8


14
16


7
21


64
61


71
60


6


1870


... «3|

... 161 1


n 1 '90


6


1880


... 247|


128 I 124 '

1


109 ' 188


18

1


11


10


08


100


20


Total, 16 years


...'8.406


1,767 |1,68»


1,661 J 1,866


1
172


187


210


1,198


1,482


212



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1881.] flECRMARY's REPORT. 133

It will be seen that during the last sixteen years, 3,406 children have
died from cholera infantum, of which 1,767 were males, and 1,639 were
females.

Of American parentage there were 1,551, and of foreign parentage
1,855, or about 120 foreign to each 100 of American parentage.

CONSUMPTION.

The number of decedents during 1880, in Rhode Island, reported
as having died from consumption, was 642.

This number is less than during any year since 1874, with the ex-
ception of 1879.

The proportion to the whole number of deaths, 14.02 per cent., is
not only less than that of 1879, because of the larger whole number
of deaths in 1880, but also less than in any year during the whole
period of registration.

The average of twenty years, from 1860 to 1879 inclusive, was
16.84 per cent.

Of these 642 decedents, 287 were males, and 355 were females.

In regard to parentage, 287 were of American, and 355 were of
foreign parentage.

The proportions of the sexes are 44.7 males, and 55.3 females in
each one hundred, or 123.7 females to each 100 males.

The proportions in regard to parentage are 44.7 males, and 55.3
females in each one hundred, singularly coinciding in proportion with
the sexes, in the order named.

There were 123.7 of foreign parentage to each 100 of American.

In regard to season, the largest number of deaths occurred in the
first quarterly division of the year, and the smallest number in the
second, as will be seen by the following summary:

First Quarter 168 Second Quarter 146

Third Quarter 166 Fourth Qnarter 162

Total 648

The largest mortality in any one month was in March, the next
largest in April, and the smallest in June.

The month of May has shown the largest number of deaths from
consumption, with a very few exceptions, during the whole twenty-
eight years of registration. In 1880, this month reported only 44,
the next to the smallest monthly number in the year.

In relation to age, consumption spares no period of life, but the
largest number of decedents are found between the ages of twenty
and forty.

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134 STATE BOABD OF HEALTH. [1881,

In 1880, 334, or more than 50 per cent, of the whole number of
deaths from consumption, were of persons between twenty and forty
years of age. In order to show more concisely tlie relation of age to
mortality, the following synopsis is presented:

Ages. No. of Deaths.

Under 10 years of age 3S

Between 10 and 20 years 58

Between 20 and 80 years 199

Between 80 and 40 years 185

Between 40 and 80 years 88

Between 50 and 70 years 106

Over 70 years , 80

Total MS

The distribution of mortality from consumption, in the different
sections of the State, is very unequal, not only in the percentage to
the whole number of deaths in each section, but also in proportion to
the population.

The following Table shows the total deaths from all reported known
causes, with the number and percentage of deaths from consumption,
in each of the larger divisions of the State, and in the whole State,
in each of the hist fifteen years, and in the aggregate for a jieriod of
twenty years, from 1860 to 1879 inclusive:



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1881.]



secrbtaby's report.



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136



STATE BOABD OF HBALTH.



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1881.] secretary's report. 137

The statistics of consumption presented in Table LIII., in regard
to the number and percentage of decedents, in connection with
locality, will enable the reader to make ready and conclusive com-
parisons.

It was remarked in a previous report that by arranging in parallel
columns the items of single years, and combining together a long
series of years, the results of single years can be readily compared, and
the averages of a long period conclusively ascertained.

The variations of one year with another in the same locality, and
of different localities in the same year, and the averages for a con-
siderable number of years, are shown in such manner as to allow very
definite conclusions.

In Bristol county, the annual percentages of mortality from con-
sumption, to total deaths in the same county, have varied from 9.09
per cent, in 1880, to 19.13 per cent, in 1876.

The percentage of 1880, 9.09, is less than in any previous year.
The average of twenty years is 13.45 per cent., and is the smallest of
any county.

Kent county shows a variation of from 12.69 per cent, in 1874, to
26.17 per cent, in 1867. In 1879 the percentage was 13.72, scarcely
above half that of 1867. The mean average percentage of the long
period is 18.28, thejargest, with one exception, of any county in the
State.

Following close upon the low average percentage of the twenty year
period in Bristol county, we find Newport county with a mean of
14.24 per cent., or about four-fifths of one per cent, larger.

The variations in the annual percentages of Newport county, as
seen in the foregoing Table, are from 10.75 per cent, in 1871, to 16.07
per cent, in 1876. The percentage of 1880 is 10.49, the smallest on
record.

Providence county towns show variations from 11.42 per cent, in
1874, to 23.28 per cent, in 1867, as may be seen in the Table. In 1862,
there waa in the towns of Providence county the high rate of 24.78
per cent., the largest on record for that county. In the same year the
percentage of the whole State was 21.22, also the largest on record.

The percentage of consumption to total given causes of mortality
in Providence county towns, in 1880, was 15.35; for twenty years,
1860 to 1879 inclusive, the average was 17.95 per cent.; or about two
and two-thirds per cent, higher than the rate of 1880.

In Providence city, the proportion of deaths from consumption to
total specified deaths, was 15.00 per cent.

Washington county has almost invariably shown a large percentage
of mortality from consumption. The average percentage for the term



17



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138 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1881.

of twenty years, is larger than any other section of the State. The
smallest percentage daring the last sixteen years was recorded in 1880,
that is, 12.22; the largest in 1870, which was 24.04 per cent.

The average mortality of twenty years is 19.08 per cent.; and of
1879, 21.82 per cent., or more than 9.5 per cent, larger than in 1880.

The smaller proportional number of deaths from other diseases,
makes the percentage of deaths from consumption larger. For in-
stance, in 1879, the proportion of deaths from all diseases to popula-
tion, in Washington county, was 11.1 in each one thousand; in
Providence county, 17.2 in each thousand.

The variation of the extremes of proportion in the whole State,
during the last fifteen years, is from 20.74 per cent, in 1867, to 12.96
per cent, in 1874.

The percentage of 1880 is, as before stated, 14.02, and the annual
average of twenty years 16.84 per cent.

PROPORTION OP DEATHS TO POPULATION.

For the purpose of ascertaining and presenting the percentage of
deaths from consumption, in proportion to the population, in the
different divisions of the State, the following summary was prepared.
It will show the yearly average number of deaths from this cause, and
the proportion to population in each division, for a period of nineteen
years; namely, from 1860 to 1879. If the population of all sections
increased with equal ratio, such comparison would show the relative
liability of the inhabitants of each section to the disease, with quite
full accuracy. But as it is, an average of the semi-decennial enu-
merations will afford such an approximation to exactness, as to make
the comparisons suflSciently correct.

1860 to 1879.

NINETEEN YEARS.

Yearly Yearly average

average. to popalaUon

No. of DeaUie. one in every

Bristol Coonty 21.4 44S or 3.96 In each 1.000

Kent County 48.8 408 or 8.48 In each 1. 000

Newport County 42.7 492 or 2.0^ in each 1.000

Providence County, Towns 182.8 408 or 2.48 in each 1.000

Providence City 229.0 849 or 2.87 In each 1,000

Washington County 42.0 409 or 2.2Un each 1,000



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1881.] secretary's report. 13d

For the purpose of comparison with the long period of nineteen
years, as well as each with the other, the following summary for the
two years 1879 and 1880 is presented:

CONSUMPTION, PROPORTION OF DEATHS TO POPULATION.

1879.

Total To population

Deaths. one in every

Bristol County 16 718 or 1.40 In each 1,000

Kent County 88 542 or 1.84 in each 1,000

Newport County 46 688 or 1.86 in each 1,000

Providence County, Towns 1»7 478 or 8.11 in each 1,000

Providence City 898 868 or 8.80 in each 1,000

Washington County 48 470 or 9.18 in each 1,000

1880.

Total To population

Deaths. one in every

Bristol County 1» 609 or 1.66 in each 1,000

Kent County 46 468 or 2,18 in each 1,000

Newport County 84 711 or 1.40 in each 1,000

Providence County, Towns 180 496 or 8 06 in each 1,000

Providence City 828 896 or 8.07 in each 1,000

Washington County 88 681 or 1.60 in each 1,000

The proportions of 1879 and 1880 are based on the Census of 1880.

It would appear by a comparison of the last two years, with the
long period of nineteen years, that the proportion of deaths from
consumption to population, was diminishing in all parts of the State
outside of Providence city. The results of one or two years, however,
are very inconclusive in regard to proportion, as very considerable
changes in numbers not infrequently occur, from one year to another.

CROUP AND DIPHTHERIA.

These two diseases, similar in many respects, have been considered
together in these reports since 1858. The contrast is made for the
purpose of showing their various relations, the same as with other
diseases, and not from any suspicion of identity, croup being
primarily, by general belief, a local disease, and diphtheria a consti-
tutional disease.



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140



STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.



[1881.



The following Table shows the number of deaths and the sex of the
decedents in Rhode Island, from croup and from diphtheria, in each
of the seven years, from 1858 to 1864 inclusive:

Table LIV.



CROUP.



TEARS.



DIPHTHERLi.



1868

1889

1860

1861

186SI

1888

1864

Seven Years. .



Males.


Females.

1 J


Total. 1


H.le..


Females.


Total.


85


84


1
69 1


1


5


6


87


81 '


68 1


10


10


80


27


80


57 '


84


48


67


88


86


68


66


74


140


84


89 1


^ ;


81


60


81


61


1
46


97 '


78


88


165


48


67

1


106


67


98


160


864


! -


617 1


878


867


089



Table LIV. has been continued from previous reports for the reason
that comparisons of deaths and sex of decedents may be made, from
year to year, from the first appearance of diphtheria in the State. It
could not well be combined with Table LV., because the parentage of
decedents prior to 1865 had not been presented in these Reports.

The aggregate number of decedents from diphtheria during the
first five years of its prevalence in the State, were exactly the same as
the total decedents from croup during the same period. During the
succeeding two years, diphtheria had exceeded croup about fifty per
cent.

The following Table gives the number, the sex and the parentage
of the decedents from croup and from diphtheria, in Rhode Island,
in each of the last sixteen years, from 1865 to 1880 inclusive:



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1881.]



secretary's report.
Table LV.



141







C


ROUP

X.














i


PABKNTAOI.!


DIPHTHERIA.




81


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50


82


02


82


41


41


62


20


1866


5,


96


27


22


81


64


26


88 86


28


1867


&0
80


95, 26

18 17


2,

14


29

16


81
90


14

8


17
12


19
11


12


1868...


9


1869


41


10 22


14


27


88


18


16


19


14


1870


58


29 24


26


28


88


17


16


18


15


1871


72
66
68
66


89; 88
87 29
80 j 88
89 26


81
17
86
88


^'1

88
27


57
48
45
69


28
24
24

80


84 , 29


28


187J


24
21
29


86

85
87


18


1878. .i


10


1874


22


1875


96


68


43


48


58


88


17


16


18


16


1876


.0,


50


62


42


60


158


77


82


09


90


1877


96


48' 47


84


61


492


289


268


288


259


1878


98


46 ' 48


48


50


486


224


211


201


284


1879


96


68 88


40


56


269


121


188


148


116


1880


66


82 84


27


89


162


78


79


75


77


Total, 16 yeftrt


1,140


687


»


478


m


2,002

1


976


1
1.026

1


1,040


962



The remarkable difference in the number of decedents one year with
another, between croup and diphtheria, will hardly fail to be noticed.
During the last 16 years, the largest number of deaths in any year
from croup, was 102, in 1876, and the smallest number was 30, in
1868.

During the same time, the variation in the number of deaths from
diphtheria, was from 20, in 1868, to 492, in 1877.

Diphtheria has declined largely in number of decedents since 1878,
numbering only 162 in 1880.

SEX AND PARENTAGE.

During the twenty-three years, 1858 to 1880 inclusive, of the whole
number of decedents from croup, 851 were males, and 806 were
females; or 105.5 males to each 100 females.

Digitized by VjOOQIC



142



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.



[1881.



Of the whole number of decedents from diphtheria during the
the same period of time, 1,248 were males; and 1^383 were females;
or 90.2 males to each 100 females.

The preponderance of males in the decedents from croup, and the
preponderance of females in the decedents from diphtheria, will not
fail to be observed.

In regard to parentage, it will be seen that the mortality from
croup is the largest in that of foreign, and the mortality from diph-
theria the largest in that of American parentage.

SEASON AND MORTAUTr.

The influence of season in regard to mortality from croup and diph-
theria, may be seen in the following Table, where these diseases may
also be compared with scarlatina, to which they bear resemblance in
some respects. The Table will give the whole number of deaths
during the periods named, and the average monthly and quarterly



Online LibraryEmanuel SwedenborgAnnual report of the State Board of Health of the State of Rhode Island. 1878-81 → online text (page 82 of 100)