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lands of Cyprian Wright and those of Amasa Culver, and covered by warrant Wo.
233, within the limits of what is now Kelson borough, and later he and his son,
Lintsford, bought land and became residents of Elkland. The exact year, is, how-
ever, difficult to ascertain. Daniel Holiday was here previous to 1810, in which year
his son, Daniel, now a resident of Holidaytown, Middlebury township, was bom.

In March, 1811, came a colony from Elmira and Southport, New York, con-
sisting of Samuel Tubbs, Sr., his sons, Samuel, James and Benjamin, and his sons-
in-law, John Eyon, Jr., David Hammond and Martin Stevens. The members of this
colony became the owners and occupants of all the land from Barney Hill on the east
to the Stull farm on the west, including the Davenport Island and farm on the south
side of the river. John Eyon, Jr., and his brother James, settled in the center of
Elkland, which became known as Eyonsville. John Eyon, Sr., who joined the
settlement later, was the first postmaster of the village, and resided there until his
death in 1833. John Eyon, Jr., early became a prominent and leading spirit. He
was elected a justice of the peace in 1816, a member of the legislature in 1833 and
1833, and a member of the state senate in 1834. He was the first merchant of the
village and its most prominent citizen. In 1848 he removed to Lawreneeville, where
he died July 23, 1859. Samuel Tubbs settled on what is now known as the Dorrance
farm, and soon became identified with the material growth of the village. David
Hammond settled on the old Hammond homestead, now owned by Mrs. C. L. Pat-
tison.

The names given are those of the pioneers who settled within the borough
limits, so far as it has been possible to ascertain them. In time the village took the
name of Elkland, growing steadily year by year. It is now one of the most pros-
perous BJid progressive boroughs in the county.

TILLAGE GEOWTH.

As early as 1815 Col. Samuel Tubbs and his sons excavated a mill race
around the south side of what afterward became known as Davenport Island, and
erected a saw-mill and a grist-mill. Col. Lemuel Davenport, who came about 1830,
or soon after, acquired this property and owned and operated the mills. In 1870
they were purchased by Hon. John W. Eyon, of Pottsville, Pennsylvania. In 1885
the grist-mill was changed to a roller-mill. In 1890 the machinery, etc., was re-
25



386 HISTOEY OF TIOGA COUNTY.

moved to a site north of the Fall Brook railroad, at the head of Parkhurst street,
and the present mill erected. In 1894 a grain elevator with a capacity of 14,000
bushels of grain was built. During the latter part of 1895 the mill was completely
remodeled and the latest improved machinery added. It is now a 500-barrel mill,
and is one of the best equipped in the State. John W. Eyon, Jr., is in charge.
William Martindell is the superintendent and head miller. About 1840 D. B. SchofE
erected a water-power saw-mill on the river in the southern part of the village, and
operated it for a number of years. It was torn down in 1869 by George Dorrance.

The first store in the village was opened about 1834 or 1835 by John Eyon, Jr.,
and Eobert Tubbs. In 1838 Joel Parkhurst, who had previously been in business
with his brother in Lawrenceville, came to Elkland, joined with and later bought
them out. He became within a few years, not only a leadiag business man, but the
wealthiest citizen of the Cowanesque valley, maintaining at the same time a well-
deserved reputation for liberality, enterprise and public spirit. In 1833 George L.
and Samuel Eyon opened a store and continued in business until 1843. About 1833
Timothy S. and David Coates engaged in merchandising and lumbering, continuing
until 1854, when Claxk Kimball, of Osceola, succeeded David. Other changes oc-
curred previous to Mr. Coates' retirement in 1859 or 1860.

As the country became more settled, the village grew slowly, new stores being
started, a school house built, a church organized, and such other trade and indus-
trial enterprises set on foot as the condition and necessities of the people demanded.
In the winter of 1839-40 James Tubbs, father of Hon. Charles Tubbs, of Osceola,
and who is still living, taught a school in the village. Eecently, in a reminiscent
article published in the Elkland Journal, he described this school and the pupils
who attended, and closed with the following description of the village:

i''"At the time of my school Elkland was a mere hamlet, not even a four corners, as
there was no street from Skinner's store to the river. On what is now Buffalo street
two families lived— Anson Blackman's and Alvinzi Foote's. Stanley, the tailor, had
just occupied the house in which Dr. Rockwell now lives. Martin Stevens, carpenter,
and Asaph Johnson lived on the farm where the Postal Telegraph Company's office is,
and Benjamin Tubbs on the lower part of the Dorrance farm. The leading citizen was
John Eyon. He had been representative and senator, and at the time of my school
had a seat upon the bench as associate judge. He gave the land where the school house
was built; the land for the cemetery, and the site for the Presbyterian church, which
had then been built about one year. His son, John W., has become my most dis-
tinguished scholar, having been a member of Congress. Elisha B. Benedict was the
physician of the place, and Eev. Octavius Eitch, the Presbyterian minister. Joel
Parkhurst, who settled in Elkland eleven years previously, kept a store on the site of
the Journal office, and was the postmaster. The mail arrived twice a week at the
postoffice. There was no bridge across the river.

LATEB ENTEBPKISES.

The ETkland Tannery was established about 1851 by James Hancock on the
south bank of the Cowanesque river. He was soon succeeded by S. G. Tabor & Son.
In 1853 Joel Parkhurst acquired the property, which he continued to own until
1873, when he sold it to Joseph Cornelius. He owned and operated it in connection
with his sons until 1893, when it passed into the hands of Proctor, Hunt & Co, of
Boston, Massachusetts, Mr. Cornelius retaining an interest in the business. In



ELKLAND BOKOUGH. 387



January, 1893, the tannery was destroyed by fire, and rebuilt on the present site,
north of the Fall Brook railroad, beginning operations November 11, 1893. The
new tannery has a capacity of 600 hides per day and is one of the largest in the county.
P. M. Cornelius is the superintendent. The company also owns and carries on a
large general store.

Decker & Metcalf's Sash, Door and Blind Factory was established about 1857.
They ran it nearly twenty years. The property had various owners afterwards,
finally falling into the hands of C. L. Pattison, who removed the plant north of the
railroads and incorporated it with the furniture factory.

The Pattison National Bank is the successor of a private bank established in
1867 by Joel and John Parkhurst, under the firm name of J. & J. Parkhurst. In
October, 1869, C. L. Pattison was admitted and the name changed to J. Parkhurst
& Company. On August 1, 1889, John Parkhurst retired and his son, L. K. Park-
hurst, was admitted. The name was then changed to C. L. Pattison & Company.
In June, 1890, Mr. Pattison and his wife became sole owners. C. L. Pattison died
April 10, 1896. Soon after his death steps were taken to re-organize the institution
as a national bank, and on June 3, 1896, a charter was secured for the Pattison
National Bank, so named in honor of the deceased financier, wMch was formally
organized by the election of the following officers: Orville Pattison, president;
Jerome Bottom, vice-president; W. Burton Foote, cashier; S. A. Weeks, teller, and
Orville Pattison, W. Burton Foote, and S. A. Weeks, of Elkland; Jerome Bottom
and J. D. Campbell, of Nelson; J. T. Gear and I. M. Edgcomb, of Knoxville, and
John W. Hammond, of Osceola, directors. This bank is ably conducted, occupies a
handsome building, erected expressly for its use, at a cost of $15,000, and is one of
the strongest financial institutions in the county.

The Cowanesque Valley Oil Company was incorporated in July, 1877, the incor-
porators being Garrett W. Benson, Clean, New York, and John Parkhurst, Charles
L. Pattison, Benjamin Dorrance and J. C. Edwards, of Elkland. An oil well was
sunk on the Hammond place southwest of the borough. Oil and gas were both
found, but in limited quantities.

The Tioga Telephone Company was incorporated November 28, 1881, the incor-
porators being James Horton, Westfield; J. W. Hammond, Osceola; J. D. Campbell,
Nelson; Charles L. Pattison, Elkland, and Austin Lathrop, Jr., and G. E. Brown,
Corning, New York. The capital stock is $3,500. This company operates a line
of telephone in Tioga and Potter counties. In Tioga county it includes the boroughs
of Nelson, Elkland, Osceola, Knoxville and Westfield.

The Elkland Furniture Association {Limited) was incorporated March 35, 1883,
by Charles L. Pattison, William L. Simmons and Abram Coon, with a capital stock
of $6,287.34. Its object was the manufacture and vending of furniture of every
description. The plant was installed in ample buildings north of the railroad, and
a large business sooii built up. In 1890 one hundred hands were employed. The
factory was destroyed by fire January 7, 1893. A movement to rebuild was imme-
diately set on foot, but was not successful.

The Favorite Folding Chair Company, with a capital of $26,300, was incor-
porated May 5, 1883, for the purpose of manufacturing chairs of every description.
The incorporators were B. H. Parkhurst, John Parkhurst, L. K. Parkhurst, Eichard



388 HISTORY OF TIOGA COUNTY.



K. Skinner, J. C. Edwards, C. L. Pattison, of Elkland; E. B. Campbell, of Nelson,
and H. E. Evans,- of New York. This company continued in operation for several
years.

The Elkland Manufacturing Company, manufacturers of toys and novelties,
was established in Elkland in January, 1887. E. W. Crandall, the superintendent,
is the son of Asa Crandall, known as the maker of Crandall's building blocks and
■who ran a furniture factory in Covington in 1840. Mr. Crandall was in the same
business in Montrose, Pennsylvania, where his large factory burned August 37, 1886,
involving a loss of $46,000. His present plant is located in the old chair factory
building. From sixty to seventy-five men are constantly employed, the annual
output amounting to about $40,000. Toys and novelties are shipped to all parts
of the world.

The Elkland Carriage Works was established in the old rink building in 1889,
by B. H. Parkhurst, and operated until his suspension in 1893. Over sixty hands were
employed, the annual output exceeding $100,000. A factory building north of the
railroad was erected in 1890. This property is now owned by the National Advertis-
ing Company, who purpose engaging in the manufacture of snow shovels and other
articles of utility.

The Elkland Planing Mill was established in 1890 by E. B. Campbell and J. C.
Edwards. Since August, 1895, it has been run by I. H. Fields, who employs eight
hands. In addition to his planing mill business Mr. Fields engages in the manu-
facture of hardwood bedsteads.

The Elkland Foundry was established in 1891 by C. B. Bailey. It was destroyed
in the fire of January 7, 1893, and rebuilt in the following spring. It is now operated
as a foundry and machine shop by William "Wilhelm.

The Elkland Basket Works was established in 1893 by C. B. Bailey and F. G.
Bemis for the manufacture of fruit and farm baskets. About seventy-five hands were
employed, the output amounting to about $60,000 annually. The plant was removed
to Coudersport, Pennsylvania, March 1, 1896.

The Elkland Pure Oil and Gas Company was organized in February, 1896, for
the purpose of making a thorough test for oil and gas on lands leased for that purpose.
The ofiicers are F. W. Crandall, president; M. G. Fitzpatrick, secretary; A. W.
Campbell, treasurer; George C. Signor, E. P. McCann, F. T. Smith, J. W. Eyon, Jr.,
Jay Beard, J. C. Dulso, G. S. Walker, Charles Cornelius, W. G. Humphrey, C. B.
and C. E. Bailey, directors. A well was sunk about half a mile southwest of the
village, and gas and oil both struck, but not in paying quantities.

The Elkland Bicycle Club was organized in July, 1894, as a stock company, with
B. H. Parkhurst, president; Dr. W. H. Humphrey, vice-president; George C. Signor,
corresponding secretary; Fred W. Crandall, treasurer, and Fred T. Smith, secretary.
This club owns twelve acres of enclosed ground northwest of the business part of the
borough, containing a half-mile track, grand stand, judges' stand, etc. Eace meet-
ings are held here each season, and state records have been made on this track.

SCHOOLS.

The early schools in Elkland, as in other places throughout the county, were
supported by subscription, and until the building of the first school house in 1837,



ECKLAND BOKOUGH. 339



were taught in any house that could be secured for the purpose. The year when the
first school was opened has not been ascertained, but it was probably as early as 1814
or 1816. Among the first teachers were Henry "Womer, Miss Mary Ryon and Harriet
B. "Wright. Miss Wright, who aiterwards became the wife of Ira Bulkley, taught
a term of thirteen weeks beginning June 14, 1834, in an old log dwelling house
"located where C. L. Pattison now resides." She had eighteen pupils — eight boys
and ten girls. They were John, Amariah and Hannah (wife of George L. Ryon)
Hammond; Esther "Wright (second wife of Ira Bulkley); Elizabeth Cook (wife of
Orsemus Eathbone); "Willis and Nancy (wife of Brockhurst L. Baker) Hammond;
George L. and Harris T. Ryon; Benson, Elizabeth and Charles Tubbs; Maria Coates
(wife of Lorenzo Cook); Edward, Charlotte and Hester Buck; Phebe Mascho, who
died young, and her brother Charles; and a girl named Rifle, who lived in the family
of John Ryon, Sr. Miss "Wright's pay for teaching was "calculated at one dollar per
week, or one bushel of good merchantable wheat." In 1893 her sister Esther, one
of her pupils, who became the second wife of Ira Bulkley, dictated for publication
an article which appeared in the Elkland Journal, in which she said:

Elklaud, at ttat time, did not stow signs of becoming' a village. It had no tavern,
nor store, nor stop of any kind — not even a distillery. There was no church in the
Cowanesque valley, and the itinerant Methodist ministers vrho passed this way once in
six weeks, held preaching services in some barn in the summer season. John Ryon,
Sr., was postmaster and kept the office at his dwelling house, at which the mail arrived
by carrier on horseback, once a week (Tuesdays). "John Ryon, Esq.," as my father
vrrote his name among the patrons of my sister's school, was at that time a member
of the state senate, deservedly popular, a most generous and obliging gentleman.

In 1837 the first school building was erected. It is still standing just west of
the Presbyterian church and is occupied as a dwelling by James Brocksley. It was
built by Rodney Shaw, afterwards a well known citizen of Mansfield. At the raising
there was used one and one-half gallons of whiskey, bought of H. Freeborn, of
Shaver's Point — now Lawrenceville — for fifty cents. This school house was also
used as a church imtil 1835. It was built by subscription. One of the early teachers
here after the adoption of the public school system was James Tubbs, who taught
in the winter of 1839-40. In the article already quoted from, he says: "I had no
blackboard. My only classes were in spelling and reading. Grammar was not a
branch of study in my school. In arithmetic I had no class. Each student began
and ciphered as far as he or she could in the science of numbers with my assistance.
In teaching geography the same method was pursued. Considerable attention was
given to penmanship."

The second school house was built in 1855, and was a two-story frame, with
rooms for two departments. In 1876 Joel Parkhurst proposed to give the district
a new brick school house, costing $4,000, provided the people would raise a fund of
$1,500, to be placed at interest and the interest used to keep the house in order
and purchase apparatus. The offer was accepted and the building erected. It
ranks as third among the school houses of the county. Prof. M. E. Cass has been
principal of this school since 1891, and has proven himself an able, efiicient and
popular educator.



390 HISTOBT OP TIOGA COITNTY.

HOTELS.

For some time previous to 1836, a man named Smith kept a wayside ian on the
site of the old Case Hotel — ^now the Sandbaeh House. In the year named Leander
Culver bought it, and became the first regular hotel keeper in the village. In 1851
he built the present building, which has since had numerous landlords, among whom
were Charles Eyon, Life Blaekman, David Dunbar, John E. Westlake, A. J. Fillman,
Peter Duvall, Fred Bunnell, "Sandy" Simpson, A. D. Graves, W. E. Coles and T.
D. Case. In September, 1894, after Mr. Case's death, the property was purchased
by Mrs. Mary Sandbaeh, of Wellsboro, who placed her son, Eichard E. Sandbaeh, in
charge as manager. The name was changed to the Sandbaeh House. It is well
conducted and popular.

In 1841 D. B. and J. W. SchofE built a hotel near the Dorrance farm. It burned
in 1867. In the same year another hotel was built on its site by Enos D. and Leander
Culver. About 1871 it was converted into a dwelling, and since 1880 was owned
by C. L. Pattison.

The Signor House was built about 1880, Eobert Traver being the first landlord.
In the spring of 1886 George C. Signor bought the property, and in the summer of
1894 rebuilt the hotel, expending $2,000. The building was thoroughly remodeled
inside and out, and is now one of the best hotels in the county. Mr. Signor is a
popular landlord and commands a large share of the traveling patronage.

The Arlington Hotel was opened in July, 1891, near the Fall Brook railroad
depot, by Eobert Traver, as landlord. It was destroyed by fire December 17, 1893,
being owned and occupied at the time by J. G. Parks.

BOEOUGH OEGANIZATION AND OFFICIALS.

The borough of Elkland was incorporated by a special act of the legislature,
approved April 10, 1849, and in May following the first election was held at the house
of J. L. Davenport, resulting in the election of John Parkhurst, burgess, and Leander
Culver, J. L. Davenport, J. C. Whitaker, D. B. Schoff and Joel Parkhurst, council-
men. The following are the names of the burgesses since elected: John Parkhurst,
1850; W. T. Humphrey, 1851; E. I. Kelsey, 1852; Edward Kennedy, 1853; S. E.
Hunt, 1854; Truman Sanford, 1855; Joel Parkhurst, 1856-60; F. G. Loveland,
1861; Kasson Parkhurst, 1862; John Parkhurst, 1863; John Chase, 1864; Joel
Parkhurst, 1865; J. C. Whitaker, 1866; Joel Parkhurst, 1867; T. S. Coates, 1868;
Joel Parkhurst, 1869-74; C. P. Evans, 1875; E. K. Skinner, 1876; T. D. Chase,
1877; "W. W. Wright, 1878; Henry Miner, 1879; G. T. Harrower, 1880; T. Coates,
1881; E. P. McCann, 1882; John Parkhurst, 1883; W. H. Eedfield, 1884; E. G.
Webb, 1885; John Parkhurst, 1886; J. E. Wilcox, 1887; John Brown, 1888-89; G.
G. Dorrance, 1890; John Brown, 1891; Joseph Smith, 1892; G. S. Walker, 1893;
Charles L. Pattison, 1894, served until his death, April 10, 1896; E. B. Campbell,
1896, and J. C. Edwards, 1897.

The names of the persons serving as justices of the peace during the existence
of Elkland township are as follows: John Eyon, Jr., 1816; Cyprian Wright, 1819;
Nathaniel Seely, second, 1819; Amariah Hammond, 1825; Eeuben Cloos, 1837;
Martin Bowen, 1831; Samuel Snow, 1832; A. M. Compton, 1834; John C. Whitaker,



ELKLAND BOKOTJGH. 391



1836; re-elected, 1840; Eiehard Ellison, 1838; re-elected, 1840; Luke B. Maynard,
1841; re-elected, 1853; William Barker, 1844; G. C. Blake, 1847; Daniel Shumway,
1847; Albert M. Loop, 1849; Andrew K. Bosard, 1850; re-elected, 1855; Allen
Seely, 1855, and G. H. Baxter, 1857.

The following named persons have served as justices of Elkland borough:
Charles Eyon, 1850; re-elected, 1855; Joel Parkhurst, 1850; John Parkhurst, 1855;
re-elected, 1860, 1865; Enos L. Culver, 1860; F. G. Loveland, 1864; re-elected,
1869, 1874, 1882, 1889; T. C. Coates, 1870; E. B. Benedict, 1873; A. A. Amsbury,
1874; W. B. Meade, 1876; J. C. Whitaker, Sr., 1880; John S. Eyon, 1880; William
Potter, 1883; C. C. Ward, 1884; re-elected, 1885; Windsor Gleason, 1888; re-elected,
1893; Eobert P. McCann, 1890; John S. Ellis, 1894; re-elected, 1895;. Alonzo
Porter, 1895.

POSTMASTEES.

A postoffice called "Eyonsville" was established in the village in December,
1833, John Eyon, Sr., being the first postmaster. In 1830 he was succeeded by Joel
Parkhurst, who was succeeded in June, 1834, by Samuel Eyon. In 1838 George
L. Eyon was appointed. About this time the name of the office was changed to
Elkland. He was succeeded in 1839 by Joel Parkhurst, whose immediate successors
were John and J. G. Parkhurst. The next incumbent was Prank G. Loveland, who
was succeeded in 1886 by John S. Eyon. In 1889 E. G. Webb was appointed. He
was succeeded May 38, 1894, by Eobert P. MeCann, the present incumbent. In 1890
Elkland was made a presidential office and brought within the civil service rules.

PHYSICIANS AND LAWTBES.

In 1830 Seth John Porter came to Elkland and began the practice of medicine.
He was also a minister of the gospel and, as stated elsewhere in this chapter, organized
the first church in the village. He remained until September, 1833, when he
removed to Kalamazoo, Michigan, and soon afterwards died. Dr. Elisha B. Benedict,
also a minister of the gospel, came about 1831, and practiced until his death in 1873.
In January, 1849, Dr. William T. Humphrey, a native of Bainbridge, N"ew York,
and a graduate of the Albany Medical College, came to Elkland from Addison, New
York, and engaged in the practice of his profession. He remained until 1857, when
he removed to Osceola, where he has continued in practice to the present time, with
the exception of three years and seven months spent in the service during the Civil
War. Dr. W. W. Wright, a native of Greene county, ISTew York, came with his
parents to Tioga county in 1844, graduated from the Geneva Medical College in 1848
and began the practice of his profession in Elkland in 1850, and is still engaged ia
active practice. W. E. Hatheway, a homeopathic physician, located about 1876 and
practiced several years. Dr. Thomas 1^. Eockwell located in Elkland in 1887 and
continued to practice until his death, January 30, 1896. Dr. W. G. Humphrey, a son
of Dr. W. T. Humphrey, began practice in Elkland in 1890 and has continued to the
present time.

Col. E. T, Wood, who is still a resident of the borough, began the practice of
law in Elkland ia 1853. S. D. Brooks came in 1855 and remained until 1867. Kasson
Parkhurst practiced but a short time, during and after the Civil War. John S. Eyon



392 HISTOEY OF TIOGA COUNTY.

was admitted to the bar in 1877 and has practiced in Elkland to the present time.
Colonel Wood and himself are the resident attorneys.

NEWSPAPEES.

The Elkland Journal was established by Edward M. Bixby, April 4, 1876, and
was edited and published by him until February 19, 1878, when he was succeeded by
Messrs. Eyon & Ward, who were succeeded by Wood & Buckbee. In May, 1878, Fred
L. Graves assumed control. On January 1, 1882, he was succeeded by J. J. Van Home
& Brother, who continued as editors and publishers until July 10, 1891, when the
property was purchased by Will C. Griffiths. Mr. Griffiths greatly improved the
paper both in typographical appearance and as a medium for local and general news.
Lack of paying support, however, compelled him to suspend publication in the fall
of 1896.

CHUECHES.

The First Congregational Church of Elkland was the name of a church organized
in 1832 at Elklamd by Eev. Seth John Porter. The gospel had been preached in the
vaUey before 1800 by itinerant ministers and by lay preachers of local repute, belong-
ing to the Methodist and Baptist denominations. In 1830 Seth John Porter came
into the valley to practice medicine. It soon became known that he was also a
minister of the gospel and a graduate of Auburn Theological Seminary. He began
to preach in the old school house where James Brocksley now resides, and in 1832
organized a Congregational church, composed of the following members: Elihu
and Henrietta Hill, William and Anna Barker, Hubbard and Eunice Clark, Anna
Bacon, Clara Tubbs, Jane Christian, Almina Christian, Lydia Clark, Margaret Blend,
Jane Blend, Polly Johnson, Nancy Eathbone, Hannah Hammond and Sylvina Bacon.



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