Emanuel Swedenborg.

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imal quantity compared with the output of a thoroughly-equipped steam saw-mill
of the present day.

In 1804 Eddy Howland built a flutter-wheel saw-mill on the Cowanesque river
above Knoxville. In 1818 he sold it to Caleb Smith. About 1826 it became the
property of Moses Inscho, who operated it until 1847. He was a well-known and ex-
tensive lumberman. A saw-mill was built about 1810 on the Cowanesque river,
just below the woolen mills near Academy Comers, by Emmer Bowen and Ebenezer
Seelye. It was operated for nearly thirty years. In 1815 Jonathan and Alexander
Matteson and Joshua Colvin built a saw-mill on the south bank of the Cowanesque
river opposite Knoxville. The first saw-mill on Troup's creek was built in 1830 by
Luke Scott. Ten years later it was undermined and destroyed by high water. A saw-
mill was built in 1830 on Yarnall brook, about two miles above its mouth, by
Eeuben Cloos. In 1831 James Yarnall built one near the mouth of the same brook.
In 1833 Luman Stevens built a mill farther up the brook near the township line.
This mill was operated until 1866. In 1868 Levi Stevens erected on its site a new
mill, 33 by 68 feet, driven by a center-vent water wheel. A circular saw was used.
In 1873 steam was substituted for water power. This mill burned in 1879 and was-
rebuilt. In 1848 Joseph Yarnall built a large mill near the mouth of Yarnall
brook. Water was taken from the Cowanesque river, and three saws driven by the
power obtained. In 1853 this mill was sold to J. W. and H. E. Potter, and oper-
ated by them until 1861, when a flood destroyed the dam and otherwise injured the
property. In 1848, also, Joseph Dake built a mill on the south side of the Cow-
anesque. It was run by a center-vent water wheel which operated two upright saws.
This mill was owned by various persons until 1880 when it ceased operations. In
1881 Walker & Lathrop, of Corning, New York, erected a mill at the mouth of
Inscho run. It was run by steam power. There is no saw-mill now in operation in
the township.



416 HISTOHY OP TIOGA COUNTY.

A log grist-mill was built by Bethlehem Thompson in 1811, about a mile above
Knoxville. It was propelled by an over-shot water wheel, the water being con-
ducted from Inscho run in wooden troughs hewed out of pine trees. This mill was
purchased by Abram Smith and operated about ten years. In 1815 Josnua Colvin
brought a copper still and other apparatus from Herkimer county, Ifew York, and
started a distillery in a log building, near a large spring north of Academy Comers.
He made whiskey for home consumption, exchanging six quarts of whiskey for one
bushel of rye or com. In 1818 John Knox purchased Colvin's outfit and built a
log distillery by the Strawbridge spring, east of Academy Comers. This he con-
ducted for about five years.

About 1814 Eddy Howland bought a stock of goods and began merchandising
in a small way. Most of his sales were for barter, grain, maple, sugar, pelts and
lumber being accepted in exchange for goods. In 1877 the "Boss Store" was es-
tablished by Chaxlotte A. Inscho at the west end of Troup's creek bridge. With the
exception of the stores at Academy Comers, noticed elsewhere in this chapter,
these two stores have been the only ones established in the township.

Prom 1819 to about 1824 or 1835 John Knox carried on a hotel in a hewed-log
building, a short distance east of Academy Comers. Prom 1830 to 1840 Julius
and Elanson Seelye ope;rated a Hme kiln on the hill north of the woolen factory at
Academy Corners. In 1851 Loren Carpenter built a sash and blind factory on the
Cowanesque road between Academy Comers and Knoxville. This he operated until
1863. From 1863 to 1870 he was also engaged in the manufacture of brick, burning
one or two kilns a year.

In 1830 two tanneries were built, one by Peter Eushmore, on the west side of
Troup's creek, above Knoxville, and the other half a mile east of Knoxville, by
Martin Bowen. Eushmore operated his tannery about ten years, tanning upper
leather and skins to supply home demands. Bowen tanned upper leather on shares
for one-half of the finished product. He continued in business till about 1835.

The first cider mill in the township was built in 1817 by Eddy Howland, who
operated it for about ten years, manufacturing cider for himself and neighbors. In
1828 Ebenezer Seelye built a cider mill which he operated about twelve years.

The Moses Lee Cheese Factory, the first in the township, was built by Moses Lee
in 1862, iQ what was then a part of Chatham township, a short distance north of
East Chatham postoffice. He operated it until 1877.

The E. A. Bean Cheese Factory was established in 1875, by E. A. Bean, who still
owns and operates it. It is located on the west side of Troup's creek, just outside of
Knoxville borough. The output of cheese averages 100,000 pounds annually. Mr.
Bean also owns and operates a cheese factory at Austinburg, Brookfleld township,
and one near the Cady school house in Parmington township.

The Taft Broom Factory was established in 1872, by Asa Delos Taft, just east
of Academy Comers. He manufactures between 30,000 and 30,000 brooms a year.
In 1889 Mr. Taft erected a fruit evaporating plant, which he also operates, handUng
a large quantity of fruit each season.

/. S. Ingham & Sons Woolen Mill is one of the oldest manufacturing enterprises
in the county. The beginning of its history dates to 1837, when William Hurlbut
and Eleazer S. Seely purchased from Julius Seelye, a water privilege and began the



DEEBFIELD TOWNSHIP. 417



erection of a woolen factory one mile east of Academy Corners. A building 26 by
70 and three stories high was erected. In 1839 the enterprise passed into the hands
of a stock company composed of Eleazer S. Seely, Elanson Seelye, John Brownell,
C. C. Welch, Abel Hoyt, Joseph "Weaver, A. J. Monroe, Benjamin S. Bowen and
Emmer Bowen. Machinery was purchased and business begun in the spring of 1841,
with C. C. "Welch, foreman. In July, 1843, the shares of the other owners were
purchased by Benjamin S. and Emmer Bowen. They continued to operate it until
February 7, 1847, when the building, machinery and 13,000 pounds of wool were
destroyed by fire. A new building 36 by 80 feet was erected, outfitted with the
latest improved machinery, hauled overland from Eochester, New York, and
operations resumed June 1, 1848. In 1853 a shingle mill was added and did a large
business. In 1863 the entire property was purchased by Joseph Ingham, a native of
Leeds, England. In 1864 his son, G. W. Ingham, became a partner, the business
being conducted until 1876 under the firm name of J. Ingham & Son. Prom 1865
to 1876 the firm consisted of Joseph, Joseph S. and Henry Ingham, each owning
one-third interest. In 1876 Henry sold his interest to Joseph S. The father died
in 1879, and the business was conducted by J. S. Ingham until 1887, when the
business of manufacturing cider and fruit jelUes was added, and the combined en-
terprises have since been carried on under the firm name of J. S. Ingham & Sons.

SCHOOLS.

The first school in the Cowanesque valley was taught in the winter of 1803-3,
by Betsey Bodwell— afterward the wife of John Hovey— in a log building, eighteen
feet square, near the burying ground on the Loren Carpenter place. The building
— a typical pioneer school house — was covered with a cobbed roof and floored with
puncheons. The benches were split basswood logs with legs. There was a fireplace
at one end, the smoke from which escaped through a hole in the roof. Among those
who attended this school were Eeuben Cook, Jr., Asahel and David Eixford, Elan-
son, Harvey, Julius, Anna, Mehitabel, Betsey and Lucina Seelye, Abel and Matilda
Cloos, and Archibald, John, William and Betsey Knox. Among the early teachers
of this school were Caroline Scott, 1809; Mr. Maxwell, 1814; John Knox and
Amasa Knox, 1816. The text books during the first term were limited to Webster's
spelling book and Webster's reader, known as "The Third Part." Another early
school house was built near the woolen mill factory. This was known as the Quaker
school house. In 1831 a school building known as "Liberty School House" was
erected at Academy Comers. Gaylord Griswold Colvin taught the first term here.
The common school law of 1834 was promptly accepted by the people of the town-
ship, since which time new districts have been created and new school houses erected
to meet the demands of an increasing population.

Union Academy is the name of an institution of learning which flourished for
a number of years at Academy Comers. Its history is as follows. About 1845 an
effort was made to establish in the township an institution of learning higher than
the ordinary district school. The idea originated with Allen Frazer, Jr., M. D., who
enlisted the aid and co-operation of Caleb Short, John Knox and other citizens.
Money was raised by subscription and the erection of a building begun at Academy
Corners. Before it was completed, S. B. and William Price bought it, finished it,

21



418 HISTOEY OF TIOGA COUNTY.

and opened it for educational purposes, under the name of Union Academy, Decem-
ber 7, 1847. The first principal, Hannibal Goodwin, was assisted by the Price
brothers. In 1848 Prof. Young Y. Smith was placed in charge. In 1849 the Price
brothers assumed the principalship, with Mrs. S. B. Price as preceptress, a position
she held for fifteen years. William Price left the school in 1850 and Samuel B.
Price became principal. During 1859 and 1860 the building was leased aud the
school conducted by Prof. Anderson Kobert Wightman, assisted by Mrs. Jane A.
(Stanton) Wightman, Miss F. A. J. Conover, and Miss Mary Abigail Stauton.
Classes were also taught during a part of this time by Orrin Mortimer Stebbins and
Charles Tubbs. Prof. S. B. Price resumed control of the school in 1861. In 1867
Elias Horton, Jr., bought the property, and with the assistance of his wife con-
ducted it until March 1, 1871, when two of the four buildings, which had been
erected from time to time, were consumed by fire. They were not rebuilt and the
academy passed out of existence. During the twenty-three years of its history there
was an average annual attendance of about one hundred students, embracing both
sexes. The site of the academy is now owned by William D. Knox, who resides in
one of the buildings.

EAELY PHYSICIANS AND JUSTICES.

Eddy Howlaud, the pioneer, was the first practitioner. The next was Dr. Simeon
Power, who came into the county in 1805. He combined coopering with his prac-
tice, and boarded with James Costley, on the south side of the river opposite Knox-
ville. In 1808 he removed to Tioga, remaining there until about 1821 when he
located in Lawreneeville, where he passed the remainder of his life. Jonathan
Bonney, a one-legged man, practiced through this section during the early part of
the century. Allen Frazer, Jr., a thoroughly educated physician came into the
township in 1835. He died in 1873. During his lifetime he was prominent, not
only as a physician but as a citizen, and held a number of offices of trust and honor.
The justices of the peace of this township appointed and elected since its organi-
zation are as follows: Eddy Howland, 1810; re-elected, 1838, 1840, 1845; Titus Ives,
1815; Arnold Hunter, 1819; Archibald Knox, 1819; re-elected, 1845, 1850; Henry B.
Trowbridge, 1823; Godfrey Bowman, 1823; Jonathan Bonney, 1824; John Good-
speed, 1828; re-elected, 1840; Luke Scott, Jr., 1827; Shelden Tuttle, 1838; Isaac
Metcalf, 1828; Allen Frazer, 1830; Colton Knox, 1832; Archibald Campbell, 1833;
Edward C. Young, 1834; John Wakley, Jr., 1835; Byram Hunt, 1838; John Knox,
1850; re-elected, 1855; Eleazer S. Seely, 1852; re-elected, 1858 and 1863; Jeremiah
Stoddard, 1860; John Howland, 1866; Caleb Short, 1872; re-elected, 1877, 1882;
William A. Falkner, 1876; re-elected, 1881, 1886, 1891; Daniel H. Lee, 1887; re-
elected, 1892, 1893; H. F. Daniels, Jr., 1896.

CHUHCHES AND CEMETEEIES.

The Free Will Baptist Church of Deerfield was organized in March, 1839, by
Eev. Samuel Wise, with twelve members, among whom were Orpha Costley, Orva
Howland, Laura D. Whittaker, Hannah C. Whittaker, John C. Whittaker, Electa
Matteson, Anson Eowley and wife, and Enoch Coffin and wife. This society never
had a house of worship of its own. It worshiped at difEerent times in the Liberty



DEBBFIBLD TOWNSHIP. 419



school house, Union Academy chapel and the present school house at Academy Cor-
ners. The following named pastors have served this church: From 1830 to 1840 —
Eevs. John Steds, Walter Brown, Valorus- Beebe, James Bignall and Hiram Bacon;
1840 to 1850— Eevs. William Mack, Calvin Dodge and Daniel W. Hunt; 1850 to
1860— Eevs. Asel Aldrich and Selden Butler; 1870 to 1880— Eevs. W. M. Peck
and W. M. Sargent. For a number of years the society has had no regular pastor,
the members attending the church at Knoxville. A Sunday-school is still main-
tained.

The First Baptist Church of Deerfield was organized in 1844, and was known for
many years as the Chatham and Farmington Baptist church. The first meetings
were held in the Wass school house in Chatham township. Among the original
members were Walter Van Dusen and wife, Chadwick Clark and wife, Hannah
Seelye, Mrs. Humphrey, Mrs. Treat, Mrs. Sally Curran, Mrs. Strong, Edward Fish
and wife, and William Simpson and wife. Walter Van Dusen and Philip Vincent
were the first deacons. Meetings were held in school houses in Chatham and Farm-
ington township. In 1880 the name of the church was changed to the First
Baptist Church of Deerfield, and in 1886 the society in Knoxville united with this
church and took its name. On February 38, 1888, a new church building costing
$3,000 was dedicated. The church now numbers fifty members, with thirty pupils
in the Sunday-school, of which Fred. Matteson is the superintendent. Among the
early pastors of this church were Elder Hunt, Samuel Bullock, Elder Farley, and
others. Since 1865 the pastors have been as follows: C. Beebe, 1866-70; C. K.
Bunnell, 1873-74; J. M. Taylor, 1875-76; H. E. Ford, 1877; P. Eeynolds, 1878-80;
Abner Morrill, 1883; E. K. Hammond, 1884-85; G. P. Watrous, 1888-89; S. A.
Field, 1890-91; H. J. Colestick, 1893; J. W. Lyon, 1894, and C. T. Frame, the
present pastor, who took charge in February, 1896.

Hast Deerfield Free Baptist Church, incorporated November 36, 1873, known
as the "Butler Church," was organized in September, 1853, by Eev. Selden Butler.
Am.ong the original members were Eev. Selden Butler, S. P. Babeoek and wife,
Oliver and William Babcock, Mrs. Sylvia Wheaton, Jared Upham, Stephen Odell
and wife, Henry Seamans and wife and Luther Bradley and wife. For several years
the congregation worshiped in school houses, barns and dwellings. Finally through
the efforts of Eev. Selden Butler, who gave the site on which it stands, embracing
a half acre of ground, and in other ways afforded substantial aid, a neat church
building 36 by 50 feet, costing $1,500, was erected and dedicated June 1, 1874. It
is located in the southeastern part of the township, near the Farmington township
line. Eev. Selden Butler served as pastor from 1853 to 1857 and at various times
afterward when the society had no regular pastor. His successors have been Eevs.
William Mack, 1857; W. M. Sargent, 1870-73; Ira Leach, 1875; W. M. Peck, 1877-80;
Eev. Donecker, 1881; Selden Butler, 1882; 0. J. Moon, 1883-85; Selden Butler,
supply; W. S. Smith, 1891-95, and E. F. Lyons, the present pastor, who took charge
in April, 1895. The church now numbers about forty-five members.

Cemeteries. — One of the oldest burial places in the county, excepting, of course,
the Indian burying grounds, is the oldest cemetery on the Loren Carpenter farm,
about a half mile east of Academy Corners. The first interment was made here in
1800, of a member, so it is said, of a surveying party. For lack of a coffin his com-



420 HISTORY OF TIOGA COUNTY.

panions placed the body between two split planks, one above, the other below, and
marked his grave "C. C. J., 1800." Here in an unmarked grave lie the remains of
William Knox, the pioneer of the township. Here, also, are buried other members
of the Knox family, as well as members of the Cloos, Bulkley, Short, Wright, Falk-
ner, Howland, Ingham and other early families.

An acre of ground, situated on the south side of the Cowanesque, opposite
Knoxville, was given for a public burying ground, about fifty years ago, by Daniel
Cummings. Interments were made here up to within a few years. Many of the
early settlers were buried here. The cemetery has never been incorporated.

Highland Cemetery Association, incorporated August 33, 1886, is the successor
of the Union Cemetery Company, organized September 14, 1869, for the purpose
of purchasing land of Elisha Bowen and Eev. Selden Butler for cemetery purposes.
This cemetery, which contains one acre of land, is situated near the "Butler Church."
The present board of managers are: A. Kizer, treasurer; A. A. Butler, secretary;
A. Gr. Gates, M. S. Butler and Israel Seamans.

VILLAGES.

Academy Corners is the name of a village situated on the Cowanesque river, at
the mouth of Yamall brook, a mile and a half east of Knoxville. The first settler
on the site of the village was James Strawbridge. The first store was built here
about 1840 by William J. Knox. The first hotel about 1819 by John Knox. The
Cowanesque Hotel was built in 1854 by William A. Falkner. It had a number of
landlords during the nearly forty years of its existence. There are three stores in
the village now, the oldest as well as the leading merchant being Martin V. Purple.
A postolfice was established at Academy Corners, May 29, 1876, with Martin V.
Purple as postmaster. He held the office until October 15, 1888, when C. E. How-
land was appointed. He was succeeded July 1, 1891, by Mrs. E. H. Campbell, and
the latter in May, 1896, by Hattie Cornell.

The village is the meeting place of James Howland Post, Ko. 508, G. A. E., and
of Valley Grange, No. 876, P. of H. The former was organized January 15, 1886,
with twelve members. It meets in the hall over M. V. Purple's store. Besides pur-
chasing a fine silk flag at a cost of $32, this post has paid out over $500 for the
relief of distressed soldiers and their families. Valley Grange was organized March
25, 1889, and is one of the strongest granges in the county, having a membership of
150. It owns a two-story, slate roof hall, purchased in 1889, and is in a flourishing
condition.



CHAPTER XXXL

KNOXVILLE BOEOUGH.

Organization— Origin of Name— Area and Elevation— Billings Park— Popula-
tion— Early Settlers— Manufacturing Enterprises— Mbrcantilei Enter-
■ prises— Inns and Hotels— Schools— Borough Organization and Officials-
Postmasters— Physicians AND Lawyers— Newspapers— Churches— Ceme-
teries— Societies.



THE borough, of Knorville was organized in accordance with the proTisions
of an act of the legislature, approved April 19, 1850, and was named for
Archibald and William Knox, sons of the pioneer "William Knox, who established
themselves in business here between 1815 and 1835 — ^the former as a merchant and
the latter as a hotel keeper. The borough area comprises 365 acres and lies in the
angle formed by the junction of Troup's creek and the Cowanesque river, being east
of the former and north of the latter stream. The elevation, railroad grade, is
1,345 feet above tide water. The site of the borough is level and possesses natural
advantages as a manufacturing and trading point. The Troup's creek valley renders
accessible the rich fanning township of Brookfield, while good roads leading up
ravines and valleys south of the river reach Chatham township, affording to those
living in the northern part of that township and the eastern part of "Westfield the
means of reaching this desirable market and tradiug point.

Aside from its numerous handsome residences, situated in the midst of spacious
and well-kept grounds, the borough boasts an added attraction in Billings Park.
This park, which embraces about an acre of ground on East Main street, was leased
to the borough September 10, 1893, by Charles P. Billings for ninety-nine years,
to be used only for park purposes and to be kept open to the public. It has since
been fenced, laid out with gravel walks and planted with shade trees. A band
pavilion has been built, and many other things done towards making the park a
popular resort. It is one of the nicest little parks in the county and a credit to
Knoxville.

The borough has grown steadily since its incorporation. The population in 1860
was 313; 1870, 400; 1880, 459; 1890, 679.

early settlers.

The land within the Knoxville borough limits forms a part of Survey No. 531,
the warrant for which was obtained May 17, 1785, by Thomas Proctor, and the
location made June 35, 1786. Proctor served with distinction during the Eevo-
lutionary War, taking part in the capture of the Hessians at Trenton, and in the
battles of Princeton, Germantown and Brandywine. He commanded the artillery
in Sullivan's Expedition in 1779, and took a prominent part in the battle of New-



422 HISTOET OF TIOGA COUNTY.



town, near Elmira, New York. He resigned his commission as colonel April 9, 1781,
and died in Philadelphia March 6, '1806. The general knowledge he obtained of
this section of the State, while on the Sullivan Expedition, doubtless, guided him in
locating his warrant. He retained but a brief possession, however, selling his war-
rantee rights, November 33, 1786, to James Strawbridge, "for the consideration
of five shillings specie, as well as for other good causes and valuable considerations."
The land thus became a part of the Strawbridge tract, to which Strawbridge gave
the name of "Delight."

The first white person to settle on the borough site was Simon Eixf ord, a Eevo-
lutionary soldier, who was afflicted with deafness, the result of proximity to artillery
fire during battle. He enlisted when fifteen years of age and served seven years.
Mr. Eixford settled in 1799, on Troup's creek, coming from Winchester, Massa-
chusetts. "With the assistance of his sons Asahel and David he made a clearing, on
which he resided until 1830, when the family removed to Mixtown, in Clymer town-
ship, and became pioneers there. Luke Scott, who built the first saw-mill on Troup's
creek, in 1830, came, so his living descendants say, in 1804, and settled on the site
of the borough. He afterwards removed to Clymer township. The next settlers
were Jonathan, Solomon and Alexander Matteson, who came in 1811 from Herkimer
county, New York, bringing with them their aged parents. Jonathan purchased
about 100 acres of land, now the central part of the borough, and Solomon and
Alexander settled east of him. In 1811 Daniel Cummings came from Pittsfield,
Otsego county. New York, and bought a small lot now occupied by the Gilbert drug
store. In 1813 George 0. Bristol, then seven years of age, came to Knoxville with
his widowed mother, who subsequently married Simon Eixford. In 1813 Cornelius
Goodspeed settled within the borough. Peter Eushmore, the pioneer tanner, and
Aaron Alba, the first postmaster, came in 1818. Silas Billings, the lumberman;
Hiram Freeborn, an early distiller, and later a prominent business man, came in
1833, and Elias Horton, a carpenter, in 1833. These were the principal settlers
before 1835, when the place began to take on the appearance of a village. There
were doubtless a few here, as elsewhere, who made only a temporary stay, and who
were soon drawn farther west by the opening up of new lands.

MANUFACTUEING ENTEEPEISBS.

In 1815 Jonathan Matteson and Daniel Cummings built a log distillery in
Knoxville. The water used was brought from a spring on the north hill, the whiskey
being distilled from corn and rye. Stephen Colvin, a son-in-law of Jonathan Matte-
son, was the distiller. In 1830 Jonathan Matteson became the sole owner, and
carried on the enterprise until 1833. In 1833 Silas Billings and Hiram Freeborn
came to Knoxville and in 1833 erected a distillery, and carried on the business of
distilling whiskey, under the name of Freeborn & Company. This partnership
continued until about 1839, when Mr. Freeborn engaged in the business for himself,
continuing for over twenty years. Mr. Billings resumed distilling in 1830, con-
tinuing until 1836.

A grist mill was erected by Jonathan Matteson in 1817 on the north bank of
the Cowanesque river. It was a one-run water-power mill, and was patronized by



KNOXVILLE BOEOTIGH. 423



the settlers of Deerfield, Brookfield and Westfield townships. James Costley appears



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